One of the other Wajib acts and yearly programs of Islam, for the self-building of the Muslim is fasting. In this act of worship, a person leaves various actions, which will be explained shortly, from the Adhan of Fajr until Maghrib, only in obedience to the command of Allah (SWT).
Issue 354: Fasting is one of the acts of worship, and must be performed for the pleasure of Allah (SWT) (Complying with the order of Allah (SWT)), and this is the Niyyat of fasting.
Issue 355: A person can specify the Niyyat each preceding night for the month of Ramadhan for the following days fast, but it is better that the Niyyat be made on the first night of the month, for the entire months fasts.
Issue 356: It is not necessary that the Niyyat be recited with the tongue (spoken), rather, even if one does not perform those actions that make the fast void from the Adhan of Fajr until Mahgrib because (one wishes) to follow the commandments of Allah (SWT), then this too will be sufficient.
Issue 357: The person fasting must avoid certain acts from the Adhan of Fajr until Mahgrib, and if any of these acts are performed, then the fast will become void. The collection of these actions are referred to as the “Things which make the Fast void”, include the following:
• Eating and drinking
• Having a thick dust (or smoke) reach the throat
• Placing the complete head under water
Other than the things listed above, there are also other actions that make the Fast void, and one who would like to learn these additional things can refer to the Taudhiul Masail, rule number 1581 for more information.
Issue 358: If the person who is fasting intentionally eats or drinks something, then his fast will become void.
Issue 359: If someone intentionally swallows some food that was stuck between the teeth, then the fast will become void.
Issue 360: Swallowing the saliva that is in the mouth does not make the fast void, no matter how much is swallowed.
Issue 361: If the person who is fasting accidentally eats or drinks something (because he does not remember that he is fasting), then the fast will not become void.
Issue 362: A person is not allowed to break his fast if he feels weak, but if his weakness is to such an extent that normally one can not tolerate it, then there is no problem in breaking the fast.
Issue 363: Having an injection or getting serum (for example an intravenous) does not make the fast void.
Issue 364: If thick dust reaches to the throat of a person who is fasting, then the fast will become void, whether the dust is a dry dust like flour or something that is not dry like dirt.
Issue 365: If a person who is fasting submerges his entire head under water, then according to Ihtiyat Wajib, the fast will become void.
Issue 366: If a person who is fasting is forced into the water (not by his own will), and his complete head goes under water; or if he forgets that he is fasting and submerges his head under water, then his fast will not become void. However, as soon as he remembers (that he is fasting), he must immediately remove his head out from the water.
Issue 367: Any time a person who is fasting intentionally vomits, even if it as a result of some sickness, then the fast will become void.
Issue 368: If a person who is fasting does not remember that he is fasting, or if he is forced to vomit, then the fast will not become void.
Issue 369: If someone does not fast during the month of Ramadan, or his fast becomes void, then he must make up the Qada’ of these fasts after the month of Ramadan.
Issue 370: Someone who makes his fast become void without a valid excuse, by committing one of the things that breaks the fast, must perform the Qada’ of the fast, and must also fulfill one of the following acts which are referred to as the Kaffarah (or penalties) (of the fast):
• Must free one slave.
• Must fast for two months of which 31 days must be consecutive.
• Must feed sixty poor people, or give one mudd1 of food to each of them.
If a Kaffarah becomes Wajib on somebody, then one of the above three mentioned acts must be performed; and because in today’s day and age, the freeing of a slave is not applicable in terms of Fiqh, the second or third penalty must be performed. However if one does not have the ability to perform any of these, then one must give some amount of food to a poor person, and if one can not even perform this, then one must do as much as possible and also give Sadaqah. If one is not even able to do this, then one must ask for forgiveness from Allah (SWT).
Issue 371: It is not necessary that the Qada’ of the fast be performed immediately, but according to Ihtiyat Wajib, it must not be delayed until the next Ramadan.
Issue 372: One must not be negligent about giving the Kaffarah, but it is not necessary that the Kaffarah be given immediately, and even if a few years pass before it is fulfilled, nothing has to be added to the Kaffarah.
Issue 373: If someone does not fast due to an excuse such as travelling, and after the month of Ramadan the excuse goes away, and until the next Ramadan intentionally does not make up the Qada’ fast, then in addition to making up the Qada’ fast, one must also give one Mudd of food to a poor person for each fast that was missed. Even if due to an excuse, the Qada’ fast was not made up, then according to Ihtiyat Wajib, in addition to performing the Qada’ fast, one must also give one Mudd of food to a poor person.
Issue 374: If someone is not able to fast due to sickness and this sickness continues until the next Ramadan, then the person is not responsible for making up the Qada’ of the fast, however one must give one Mudd of food to a poor person for every fast that was missed.
Issue 375: The traveller who must reduce his Salat from four Rak’at to two Rak’at during a journey, is not allowed to fast while he is travelling, but he must perform the Qada’ of the fast. As for the traveller whose Salat is prayed in full, he must fast while he is travelling - for example the person whose profession is travelling.
Issue 376: A person who is fasting and travels after ²uhr must continue with his fast, and it will be valid.
Issue 377: If a person who is fasting travels before ²uhr, and reaches the Hadd Tarakkhus - meaning he reaches the point where he can not hear the Adhan of his city and he can not see the people of his city - then his fast will become invalid. If before he reaches this point, he does something to make his fast void, then along with performing the Qada’ of the fast, a Kaffarah also becomes Wajib upon him.
Issue 378: There is no problem with travelling during the holy month of Ramadan, but if it is done to avoid fasting, then it is Makruh.
Issue 379: If a traveller reaches his home (Watn) or a place where he intends to stay for ten days before ²uhr, then in the event that he has not committed an act that makes the fast void, he must fast on that day. If he has committed an act that makes the fast void, then he must not fast on that day.
Issue 380: If a traveller reaches his Watn or a place where he intends to stay for ten days after ²uhr, then he must not fast on that day.
Issue 381: Once the month of Ramadan has ended - meaning on the day of ‘Eidul Fitr - one must give a certain amount of one’s own wealth to the poor, with the Niyyat of Zakatul Fitrah.
Issue 382: For oneself and those who are one’s dependants; such as one’s spouse and children, one must give one Sa’ per person, which is approximately three kilograms (as Zakat).
Issue 383: The items that can be given as Zakatul Fitrah are things such as wheat, barely, dates, raisins, rice, corn and other things such as these; and if one gives the value of these things in cash, it too will be sufficient.
- 1. One mudd of food is approximately ten sr (750 grams) of wheat or barley or things like this.