A Glossary of Terms
1. A'lam: A Mujtahid considered being the most knowledgeable.
2. ‘Adil: A just individual.
3. ‘Aqil: A sane person.
4. Ahkam: Legal rulings or laws. (Plural of Hukm).
5. Ahlul-Kitab: “People of the scripture” a Qur’anic term used for Christians and Jews.
6. ‘Ainul Najasat: An actual source of impurity, like blood (impure in itself).
7. Adhan: Islamic call to prayer.
8. Baligh: A person that has reached the age of legal maturity, a minimum of 9 years for girls and a maximum of 15 years for boys.
9. Du’a: Supplication or prayer.
10. ‘Eid: Day of celebration, holiday.
11. ‘Eidul-Adha: The holiday commemmorating Prophet Ibrahim’s intended sacrifice of his son, Ismaa`il - the 10th of Zil-Hijjah.
12. ‘Eidul-Fitr: A holiday commemmorating the end of the month of Ramadhan (month of fasting) - the 1st of Shawwal.
13. Fajr: Morning time, before sunrise.
14. Farsakh/Farasikh: A unit of measure, equal to approximately 5.4 Kilometres or 3.4 miles.
15. Fitrah: An obligatory charity in the amount of one Saa` of food (3 Kilograms/6.6 Pounds) given to the needy on ‘Eidul-Fitr.
16. Ghasbi: Usurped, taken or used without ownership or proper permission of the owner.
17. Ghusl: A bath according to the Islamic law.
18. Hajj: Pilgrimage to the Holy Ka’abah in Makkah, to perform specific rites and ceremonies.
19. Halal: Lawful, permissible.
20. Haram: Holy Shrine - of the Prophet or the Imams.
21. Haram: Those actions which must be avoided, and the performance of them incur punishment from Allah.
22. Hijab: Islamic covering for women.
23. Ihtiyat Mustahab: Ihtiyat Mustahab always accompanies a Fatwa, meaning, in that ruling, and the Muqallid can act either according to the Fatwa or the Ihtiyat, whichever one he prefers to act upon.
24. Ihtiyat Wajib: Ihtiyat Wajib does not accompany a Fatwa, and the Muqallid must act according to that Ihtiyat, but he is also allowed to refer this rule to another Mujtahid (perform Ruju).
25. Intiqal: The transfer of an impurity, namely blood, from one person or animal to another person by means of an insect.
26. Iqamah: Part of the call to prayer, recited to announce the actual beginning of the Salat.
27. Istibra`: The process of removing urine and semen from the urinary tract. Also means to quarantine an impurity-eating animal, until its system becomes clean again.
28. Jari: Flowing, as in Maa`ul-Jaari meaning flowing water.
29. Jabirah: A bandage, cast, splint and similar things which cover a wound or breakage.
30. Ka’bah: The House of Allah, the Holy Sanctuary built by Prophet Ibrahim in Makkah. The direction to which the Muslims pray towards daily and where the pilgrimage (Hajj) is performed.
31. Kafir: A non-Muslim.
32. Kaffarah: An atonement, usually for the lapse of one’s duties or inability to perform a certain obligation.
33. Khums: An obligatory tax on excess wealth and items.
34. Kurr: A measurement of volume equal to approximated 102 US Gallons.
35. Maghrib: The time when the redness in the eastern sky passes overhead.
36. Mahram: A person one is related to . One who it is not permissible to marry due to blood relation or family affinity.
37. Makkah: The birth place of the Prophet of Islam (Peace be upon him and his progeny) and location of the Ka’abah.
38. Makruh: Those actions, which are better if not performed, and if avoided, earn a reward; but if performed, do not accompany a punishment.
39. Masjid: A Mosque.
40. Mubah: Those actions whose performance or turning away from are equal; meaning they neither accompany a reward nor a punishment.
41. Mudhaf: Mixed water.
42. Mujtahid: An Islamic jurist, capable of independent derivation of legal rulings from the Islamic sources of law.
43. Mukallaf: One deemed as responsible and accountable under Islamic law.
44. Mustahab: The actions which are recommended to be performed and thus earn the person a reward; but turning away from such actions does not incur punishment from Allah.
45. Mutahhir/Mutahhirat: Something capable of purifying an impure substance, for example water.
46. Mutanajjis: Something which in itself is Tahir, but due to having come in contact with something Najis, it too has become Najis.
47. Mutlaq Water: Pure Water.
48. Muwalah: Continuity, meaning that the actions must be performed with continuity and continuation.
49. Nafilah/Nawafil: A voluntary, optional prayer.
50. Najasat/Najasat: An impure substance, according to Islamic law, like blood and urine. (Something impure in itself).
51. Najis: Something containing a Najasah or an impurity.
52. Nadr: A vow.
53. Niyyah: Intention - in matters of worship.
54. Qadha`: The performance of a duty which has lapsed and was unperformed, like a prayer which was not performed in its proper time.
55. Qalil Water: A small quantity of water - less than a Kurr (which is 102 US Gallons).
56. Qiblah: The direction of the Holy Ka’abah, the direction to which Muslims pray.
57. Qiyam: The standing position in prayer.
58. Qunut: The supplication made in prayer, in the 2nd Raka’ah.
59. Qurbah: The intention to perform a duty only for the sake of Allah, to gain nearness to Him and fulfill one’s duty.
60. Rak’at: One cycle in prayer.
61. Ramadhan: The ninth holy month in the Islamic calendar, in which Muslims fast during the daytime.
62. Rukn: A pillar of prayer.
63. Ruku: The bowing position in prayer.
64. Sahm: A share, as in the two shares of Khums - Sahm al-Imam and Sahm As-Sadat (the share of the Imam and the share of the descendants of the Prophet).
65. Sajdah Sahw: Two prostrations that are performed to rectify some inadvertent mistakes that were committed during the prayer, like forgetting a Sajdah.
66. Salatul-Ayat: The Prayer of Signs - an obligatory prayer performed upon the occurrence of eclipses, earthquakes and other extraordinary natural occurrences.
67. Salatul-’Asr: Mid-afternoon prayer.
68. Salatul-‘Eid: Prayers on the days of the two celebrations of ‘Eid (Ref: ‘Eid).
69. Salatul-Fajr: The morning prayer, also called Salatus-Subh.
70. Salatul-Ihtiyat: The Prayer of Precaution - performed when one has doubt in the number of Raka’at performed.
71. Salatul-‘Isha`: The night prayer -recited after sunset when the sky darkens.
72. Salatul-Jama'at: Congregational prayer.
73. Salatul-Jumu'ah: Friday Prayer.
74. Salatul-Lail: The late night prayer, usually performed after midnight and before the morning prayer.
75. Salatul-Maghrib: The evening prayer.
76. Salatul-Mayyit: The prayer for the deceased. Also called Salatul-Amwat.
77. Salatul-Musafir: The prayer of the traveller, meaning a prayer shortened from four Raka’at to two Raka’at due to travelling.
78. Salatush-Shaf’a: Two Raka’at prayer which is part of the eleven Raka’at of Salatul-Lail.
79. Salatul Witr: The one Raka’ah prayer that is part of Salatul-Lail.
80. Salatuz-²uhr : The noon time prayer.
81. Salawat: To send salutations and prayers upon the Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him and his progeny) and his family. (Recited as: اَللَّهُمَّ صَلَّى عَلى مُحَمَّدٍ وَّ آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ.) Also, the plural of Salah.
82. Sayyid/Sayyidah: Male/female descendant of one of the twelve A`immah.
83. Shahid: A Martyr - one killed in the way of Allah.
84. Sujud: Prostration.
85. Surah:A chapter of the Holy Qur’an.
86. Ta'qibat: The actions (du’a, etc..) which follow the prayer.
87. Tahir: Pure - according to the Islamic law.
88. Taqlid: Following a Mujtahid - in matters pertaining to the practical laws of Islam.
89. Tartib: Sequence, proper order.
90. Tasbih: Glorification, Praise.
91. Tasbihat Al-Arba’: The Zikr recited in the third and fourth Raka’ah of prayer, in place of Surah Al-Hamd.
92. Tashahhud: The recitation of the Shahaadatain in the prayer.
93. Tayammum: Dry purification - used as a substitute for Wudhoo`and Ghusl in specific circumstances.
94. Turbah: The piece of clay or dirt usually formed into the shape of a tablet that Muslims prostrate on during Salat.
95. ‘Ulama`: Scholars, plural of Alim.
96. ‘Ummah: The Muslims worldwide, the Muslim nation.
97. Wajib: Those actions which must be performed, and turning away from them incur Allah’s punishment. For example Salat, and Sawm.
98. Waqf: An Islamic Trust.
99. Wasiyah: A will.
100. Wudhu: A ritual of purification necessary before prayer and other acts of worship which require purification. Involves washing the face, arms from the elbows to the fingers, and then wiping the head and feet.
101. Zakat: An obligatory (and sometimes recommended) charity given on animals, agriculture, gold and silver.
102. Zakatul-Fitrah: An obligatory charity given to the poor after the month of fasting (Ramadhan).