Issue 139: In the following instances, instead of Wudhu and Ghusl, Tayammum must be performed:
There is no water available or there is no way to get any water.
The use of water has some danger; for example, if water is used one will become ill or an illness will become aggravated, or it will be very difficult to be cured (from the illness).
If one uses the water to perform Wudhu or Ghusl, then one’s self, spouse, children, a friend, someone who is dependent on him, or one whose life is Wajib to be saved, will die of thirst or will become sick or will remain so thirsty that they will not be able to handle it. This also includes animals that are under one’s care.
The body or clothes are Najis, and there is only enough water left to make them Tahir, and no other clothes are available.
The amount of time is extremely short such that if one performs Wudhu or Ghusl, then the complete Salat or a part of it will be read after its time.
Issue 140: There are five things Wajib in Tayammum:
• Hitting or placing the palms of the hands on something that Tayammum is permitted on.
• Wiping or stroking both hands over the complete forehead from where the hair starts to grow until the end of the eyebrows, and above the nose.
• Wiping or stroking the left palm over the back of the right hand.
• Wiping or stroking the right palm over the back of the left hand. (The fingers are also included in the palm)
Issue 141: In order to be certain that the complete backside of the hand has been wiped, one must wipe a bit higher than the wrist, but wiping between the fingers is not necessary.
Issue 142: In order to perform Tayammum, one must remove any rings from the fingers and anything else that may be on the forehead or hands that will be an obstacle in the Tayammum.
Issue 143: All the actions of Tayammum must be done with the intention of performing Tayammum, and for obeying the commandments of Allah (SWT). It must also be made specific whether the Tayammum is being performed in place of Wudhu or Ghusl.
Issue 144: Tayammum is permitted on the following: earth (dirt), sand and a lump of clay or a stone, as long as they are Tahir.
Issue 145: There is no difference between the person performing Tayammum in place of Wudhu, and the person performing Tayammum in place of Ghusl.
Issue 146: If a person performs Tayammum in place of Wudhu, then when one of the things that causes Wudhu to become void occurs, then his Tayammum will become void.
Issue 147: If a person performs Tayammum instead of Ghusl, and if one of the things that cause the Ghusl to become void occurs, then his Tayammum will become void. For example, if in place of Ghusl Janabat, one performs Tayammum, then if he again becomes Junub, his Tayammum will become void.
Issue 148: Tayammum is only correct in the event that a person is not able to perform Wudhu or Ghusl. Therefore, if one performs Tayammum with no reason, it will not be correct; and if he has a reason, and later that reason is removed then his Tayammum will become void. For example, one did not have water, then later he found some water.
Issue 149: If one performs Tayammum in place of Ghusl Janabat, then he must not perform Wudhu for Salat; but if it is in place of another Ghusl, then with that Tayammum, he cannot perform the Salat and he must perform Wudhu. If he is not able to perform Wudhu, then he must perform another Tayammum in the place of the Wudhu.