One of the other wajib acts and yearly programs of Islam, for the self building of man is fasting. In this act of worship, a person leaves various actions, (which will be explained shortly), from the adhan of fajr until mahgrib, only in obedience for the command of Allah.
Issue 349: Fasting is one of the acts of worship, and must be performed for the pleasure of Allah (thus also to comply with the order of Allah), and this is the niyyat of fasting.
Issue 350: A person is able to specify the niyyat every night for the month of Ramadan for the following fast, but it is better than the niyyat be made on the first night of the month, for all the fasts of the complete month.
Issue 351: It is not necessary that the niyyat be recited with the tongue, rather, even that amount is enough that one is performing the action for the wish of Allah, and that from the adhan of fajr until mahgrib, those actions that make the fast void will be avoided.
Issue 352: The person fasting must avoid certain acts from adhan of fajr until mahgrib, and if one of these acts is performed, the fast will become void. The collection of these actions is referred to as the "Things which make the Fast void", and they are the following:
1. Eating and drinking.
2. Having a thick dust (or smoke) reach the throat.
3. Placing the complete head under water.
5. Other than the things listed above, there are also other actions that make the Fast void, and one who would like to learn these additional things can refer to the Taudihul Masail, rule number 1608 for more information.
The Rules of those things that make the Fast void
• Eating and Drinking
Issue 353: If the person who is fasting, intentionally cats or drinks something, his fast will become void.
Issue 354: If someone intentionally swallows some food that is stuck between the teeth, the fast will become void.
Issue 355: Swallowing the saliva that is in the mouth does not make the fast void, no matter how much is swallowed.
Issue 356: If the person who is fasting accidentally cats or drinks something (he does not remember that he is fasting), the fast will not become void.
Issue 357: A person is able not to break his fast if he feels weak, but if his weakness is to such m extent that normally one cannot tolerate it, then there is no problem in breaking the fast.
• Having an Injection
Issue 358: Having an injection or getting serum, does not make the fast become void.
• Allowing thick dust (or smoke) to reach the throat
Issue 359: If thick dust reaches the throat of a person who is fasting, according to Ihtiyat Wajib, the fast will become void, whether the dust is a dry dust like flour or something that is not dry like mud.
• Placing the complete head under water
Issue 360: If a person who is fasting submerges his entire head under water, then according to Ihtiyat Wajib, the fast will become void; but it is not far from possibility that this action does not make the fast void.
Issue 361: If a person who is fasting is forced into the water (not by his own will), and his complete head goes under the water; or if he forgets that he is fasting and submerges his head under water, his fast will not become void. However, as soon as he remembers (that he is fasting), he must immediately take his head out of the water.
Issue 362: Any time a person who is fasting intentionally vomits, even if it is done due to some sickness, the fast will become void.
Issue 363: If a fasting person does not remember that he is fasting, or if he is forced to vomit, then the fast will not become void.
Issue 364: If someone does not fast during the month of Ramadan, or his fast becomes void, he must make up the qada' of these fasts after the month of Ramadan.
Issue 365: Someone who makes his fast become void without a valid excuse, by committing one of the things that breaks the fast, must perform the qada' of the fast, and also fulfill one of the following acts which are referred to as the kaffarah (of the fast):
• One must free a slave.
• One must fast for two months of which 31 days must be continuous.
• One must feed sixty poor people, or give one mudd1 of food to each of them
If a Kaffarah becomes wajib on somebody, one of the above three mentioned acts must be performed; and because in today's day and age, the freeing of a slave is not applicable in terms of Fiqh, the second or third penalty must be performed. However if one does not haw the ability to perform any of these, then one must give sadaqah in the amount that one is able to and if one is not even able to do this, then one must ask forgiveness from Allah (SWT).
Issue 366: It is not necessary that the qada of the fur be performed immediately, but according to Ihtiyat Mustahab, it should not be delayed until the next Ramadan.
Issue 367: One must not be negligent about giving the kaffarah, but it is not necessary that the performing of the kaffarah be done immediately, and if a few years pass before it is performed, nothing has to be added to the kaffarah.
Issue 368: If someone does not fast due to an excuse such as traveling, and after the month of Ramadan the excuse goes away, and until the next Ramadan, intentionally one does not make up the qada' fur, then in addition to making up the qada' fast, one must also give one mudd of food to a poor person for each fast that was missed.
Issue 369; If someone is not able to fast due to sickness and this sickness continues until the next Ramadan, then the qada' of the fast is removed from the responsibility of the person, however one must give one mudd of food to a poor person for every fast that was missed.
Issue 370: The traveler who must reduce his Salat from four rak'at to two rak'at during his journey, is not allowed to fast while he is traveling, but he must perform the qada of the fast. As for the traveler whose Salat is prayed in full, he must fast while he is traveling - for example the person whose profession is traveling.
Issue 371: If a person who is fasting travels after zuhr, then according to Ihtiyat Wajib, he must continue with his fast, and it will be valid.
Issue 372: If a person who is fasting travels before zuhr, once he reaches the hadd tarakkhus - meaning he reaches to the point where he cannot beat the adhan of his city and he cannot see the people of his city - then his fast will become invalid. However if before he reaches this spot, he does something to make his fast become void, then along with performing die qada' of the fast, a kaffarah also becomes wajib upon him.
Issue 373: There is no problem with traveling during the holy month of Ramadan, but if it is done to avoid fasting, then it is makruh.
Issue 374: If a traveler reaches his homeplace (watan) or a place where he intends to stay for ten days, before zuhr, then in the event that he has not committed an act that makes the fist become void, he must fast; and if he has committed an act that makes the fast void, then it is not wajib for him to fast (that day), but afterwards, the qada' of that fast must be made up.
Issue 375: If a traveler reaches his warn or a place where he intends to stay for ten days after zuhr, it is not permitted for him to fast on that day.
Issue 376: Once the month of Ramadan has come to an end - meaning on the day of 'Eidul Fitr - one must give an amount of one's own wealth to the poor, with the niyyat of zakatul fitrah.
Issue 377: For oneself and for those who are ones dependants; for example ones spouse and children, one must give one sa' per person, which is approximately three kilograms (as zakat).
Issue 378: The items that can be given as zakatul fitrah are things such as wheat, barely, dates, raisins, rice, corn and other things like this; and if one gives the value of these things in cash, it will be sufficient too.
- 1. One mudd of food is approximately ten sir (750 grams) of wheat or barley or things like this.