A'lam: The Mujtahid considered most knowledgeable. 'Adil: The just individual.

'Aqil: The sane person.

Ahkam: Legal rulings, laws. Plural of Hukm.

Ahl ul-Bait: The near relatives of the Holy Prophet (S) mentioned in Qur'an (33:33) as the Ahlul-Bait (AS). They, are Imam 'Ali, Fatimah az-Zahra', Imam al-Hassan and Imam al-Husayn peace be upon them all.

Ahlul-Kitab: "People of the scripture" a Qur'anic term used for Christians and Jews.

Ayatullah al-Uzma: A Grand or senior Ayatullah. 'Ainul Najasat An actual source of impurity, like blood. Adhan: The Islamic call to prayer.

'Ainul Najasat An actual source of impurity, like blood.

Adhan: The Islamic call to prayer.


Baligh: A person reaching the age of legal maturity, a minimum of 10 years for girls and a maximum of 16 years for boys.


Du'a: Supplication, prayer.


'Eid: Day of celebration, holiday.

'Eidul-Adha: The holiday commemorating the Prophet Ibrahim's intended sacrifice of his son, Ismaa'il on the 10th of Zil-Hijjah.

'Eidul-Fitr: The holiday commemorating the end of the month long fasting of the month of Ramadan on the 1st of Shawwal.

'Eidul-Ghadir; The holiday commemorating the appointment of Imam 'Ali (AS) as the successor of the Holy Prophet on the 18th of Zil-Hijjah.


Fajr; Morning time before sunrise.

Faqir: A poor person, meaning one who does not have his yearly expenses on hand nor the means to earn it properly.

Farsakh/Farasikh: A unit of measure equal to approximately 5.4 Kilometers or 3.4 miles.

Fiqh: Islamic law and jurisprudence.

Fitrah: An obligatory charity in the amount of one Saa' of food (3 Kilograms/6.6 Pounds) given to the needy on 'Eidul-Fitr.

Furu': A branch, as in a branch of religion, Furoo'ud-Deen, meaning die practical aspects of faith.


Ghasbi: Usurped, taken or used without ownership or proper permission of the owner.

Ghusl: A bath according to Islamic law.


Hajj: Pilgrimage to the Holy Ka`bah in Makkah to perform specific rites and ceremonies.

Halal: Lawful, permissible.

Haram: Those actions which must be avoided, and performing them incur punishment from Allah.

Hijab: Islamic covering for women. Hijri: Related to the Islamic calendar.

Hijri: Related to the Islamic calendar.


Ihtiyat Mustahab: A Mujtahid, in addition to expressing his opinion in tie form of a fatwa, also attaches an Ihtiyat Mustahab to the ruling. The Muqallid can act either according to the fatwa or the Ihtiyat Mustahab, and is not allowed to perform Ruju' to another Mujtahid.

Ihtiyat Wajib: A Mujtahid does not give a fatwa in a particular ruling, rather, he gives an "Ihtiyat Wajib" which means the Muqallid can either act according to this Ihtiyat or perform Ruju' to another living Mujtahid.

Intiqal: The transfer of an impurity, namely blood, from one person or animal to mother person by means of an insect.

Iqamah: Part of the call to prayer recited to announce the actual beginning of the prayer.

Istibra': The process of removing urine and semen from the urinary tract. Also, to quarantine m impurity eating animal until its system becomes clean again.


Jari: Flowing, as in Maa 'ul-Jaari or flowing water.

Jabirah: A bandage, cast, splint and similar things which cover a wound or breakage.


Ka'bah: The House of Allah, the Holy Sanctuary built by the Prophet Ibrahim in Makkah. The place which Muslims pray towards daily and where the pilgrimage (Hajj) is performed.

Kafir: A non-Muslim.

Kaffarah: An atonement, usually for the lapse of one's duties or inability to perform a certain obligation.

Khums: An obligatory tax on excess wealth.

Kurr: A measurement of volume equal to approximated 102 US Gallons.


Maghrib: The time of sunset.

Mahram: A related person. One who it is riot permissible to marry due to blood relation or family affinity.

Maitah: An animal which has died on its own without proper slaughtering. Makkah: The birth place of the Prophet of Islam(S) and location of the Ka`bah, die direction toward which Muslims pray.

Makruh: Those actions which are better not performed, and if avoided, earn a reward, but if performed, do not accompany a punishment.

Masjid: A Mosque.

Mubah: Those actions whose performance or turning away from are equal; meaning neither gets a reward, nor punishment

Mudd: A measurement equivalent to approximately 1.7 Lbs or 3.50 Kilograms.

Mudhaf: Mixed water.

Mujtahid: An Islamic jurist capable of independent derivation of legal rulings from the Islamic sources of law.

Mukallaf: One deemed as responsible and accountable under Islamic law. Mustahab: These are actions which are recommended to be performed and earn the person a reward, but turning away from such actions does not incur punishment from Allah.

Mutahhir/Mutahhirat: Something capable of purifying m impure substance, like water.

Mutanajjis: Something which is contaminated by an impurity although not possessing the source of the impurity itself.

Mutlaq Water: Pure Water

Muwalah: Continuity, meaning that actions must be performed with continuity and continuation.


Nafilah/Nawafil: A voluntary prayer.

Najasat/Najasat: An impure substance according to Islamic law, like blood and urine.

Najis: Something containing a Najasah or an impurity. Nadhr: A vow.

Niyyah: Intention in matters of worship.


Qadha': The performance of a duty which has lapsed unperformed, like a prayer which was not performed in its proper time.

Qaleel Water: A small quantity of water that is less than a Kurr or 102 US Gallons.

Qiblah: The direction of the Holy Ka`bah, the direction to which Muslims pray.

Qiyam: The standing position in prayer.

Qunut: The supplication made in prayer in the 2nd Rak'ah.

Qurbah: The intention to perform a duty only for the sake of Allah, to gain nearness to Him and fulfill one's duty.


Rak'at: One cycle in prayer.

Ramadan: One of the holy months on the Islamic calendar in which Muslims fast during the day time hours.

Rukn: A pillar of prayer.

Rukoo: The bowing position in prayer.


Sayyid/Sadat: A descendant of the Bani Haashim (the Prophet's family branch of the Quraish tribe). Also, the descendants of the Infallibles.

Sahm: A share, as in the two shares of Khums, Sahm al-Imam and Sahm As-Sadat (the share of the Imam and the share of the descendants of the Prophet).

Sajdah Sahw: Two prostration that are performed to rectify some inadvertent mistakes committed during the prayer, like forgetting one prostration.

Salatul-Ayat: The Sign Prayer, an obligatory prayer performed upon the occurrence of eclipses, earthquakes and other extraordinary natural occurrences.

Salatul-'Asr: Mid-afternoon prayer.

Salatul-'Eid: Prayers of the two high celebrations of 'Eid (Ref: 'Eid). Salatul-fajr: The morning prayer, also called salatus-Subh.

Salatul-Ihtiyat: The prayer of precaution, performed when one has doubt in the number of Rak'at performed.

Salatul-'Isha': The evening prayer said after sunset when the sky darkens. Salatul-Jama'at: Congregational prayer.

Salatul-Jumu'ah: Friday Prayer.

Salatul-Lail: The late night prayer, usually performed after sleeping and before the morning prayer.

Salatul-Maghrib: The sunset prayer,

Salatul-Mayyit: The prayer for the deceased. Also called Salatul-Amwat. Salatul-Musafir: The prayer of the traveler, meaning a prayer shortened from four Rakíat to two Rakíat due to traveling.

Salatush-Shafa: Two Rak’at prayer which is part of the eleven Rakíat of the late night prayer (Salatul-Lail)

Salatuz-Zuhr: The noon time prayer.

Salawat: To send salutations and prayers upon the Prophet Muhammad (S) and his family. Recited as: (اللهم صل على محمد وآل محمد) Also, the plural of Salat.

Sayyid/Sayyidah: Male/female descendant of one of the twelve A 'immah. Shahid: A Martyr.

Sahar: An early morning meal before beginning the fast at Fajr time. Sujood: Prostration.

Surah: A chapter of the Holy Qur'an.


Ta'qibat: The actions (du'a, etc..) which follow the prayer. Tahir: Pure according to the Islamic law.

Taqlid: Following a Mujtahid in matters pertaining to the practical laws of Islam.

Tartib: Sequence, proper order. Tasbih: Glorification, praise.

Tasbihat Al-Arba'a: The Zikr recited in the third and fourth Rakíah of prayer

in place of Surah Al-Hamd.

Tashahhud: The recitation of the Shahaadatain in the prayer.

Tayammum: Dry purification used as a substitute of Wudhoo' and Ghusl for specific reasons.

Turbah: Soil, dirt.


'Ulama': Scholars, plural of Alim.

'Ummah: The Muslims worldwide, the Muslim nation.


Wajib: Those actions which must be performed, and turning away from them, incur Allah's punishment - for example Salat, and Sawm.

Waqf: An Islamic Trust. Wasiyah: A will.

Witr: The one Rakíah prayer that is part of the late night prayer (Salatul Lail).

Wudhu-: A ritual of purification necessary before prayer and other acts of worship which require purification. Involves washing the face, arms from the elbows to the fingers, wiping the head and feet.


Zakat: An obligatory and, sometimes recommended, charity given on animals, agriculture and gold and silver.

Zakatul-Fitrah: An obligatory charity given to the poor after the month of fasting (Ramadan).

Zuhr: Noon rime or the noon-time prayer (Salatuz-Zuhr).