Ask A Question About Islam And Muslims
Do Islamic texts mention the end of the universe? If not, do they alternatively mention that the universe is eternal?
No doubt this world will end. This is clearly mentioned in Quran (in many verses) and Hadeeth. No one can claim that this world is eternal.
Eternal Hell and Heaven
We are taught that some people of this world will face some punishment in the afterlife, and others will face eternal punishment. How can any eternal punishment be justified? Surely there is not enough sin in this world to justify eternal torment, right?
Allah is The Most Merciful, The Most Compassionate. We are been ordered to recite and repeat these names of Mercy at least forty times in our daily obligatory Prayers ( Sura Al-Hamd contains four times of remembering the Mercy of Allah in Arrahmaan Arraheem, and it it must to recite Al-Hamd at least two times in the first and second Rak'ats in each of the five obligatory daily Prayers)
Allah The Most Merciful never punishes His creatures whom He created to shower on them His Mercy. Allah's Mercy is much greater than our imaginations. All of us are overwhelmed by His Mercy in every moment. Enemies of Allah are those who damage the life of others and insist on their crimes ignoring and rejecting Allah's continuous invitations to them to repent and leave their criminal behaviour, will be entitled to be punished. Punishment for such enemies of humanity is mentioned in Quran and Hadeeth. Eternal torment is the result of their evil intention to continue committing the crimes against humanity as far as they can. We don't know the limits of the Mercy of Allah and how He will deal with them. What we know for sure is Allah is the source of Mercy and does not punish but only those who are the worst enemies of humanity who committed worst crimes and insisted and remained criminals till death and had the intention to go on in their evil acts.
Is the concept of soul identical to that of Nafs? If so, how can it be interpreted that every Nafs is to taste death? Aren't souls eternal?
In the Qur'an, when used alone, the word "nafs" is not really used as a synonym for soul (in the sense of the soul as a non-corporeal entity distinct from the body). Rather, it is usually used to refer to the complete self; for instance, in phrases like "bring yourselves" or "they deceive themselves".
(Of course, this distinction can be blurry based on how one perceives the nature of the soul and the relationship between the soul and the body.)
This is different from the use of the word "nafs" outside the Qur'an, in that "nafs" in other texts or discussions is often used to mean specifically the immaterial part of the human.
Therefore, when the Qur'an says "kullu nafsin dha'iqat al-mawt", it means that all people will taste death in a holistic sense, not specifically that all souls will.
However, since the soul and body experience things simultaneously, the soul will also taste the experience of death, just as it experiences other things occurring via the body.
If one understands death to mean "transfer from realm to realm", rather than "annihilation", then definitely the soul will experience transfer from realm to realm upon death.
Some say that we will have a different type of body as a vehicle for the soul in the barzakh and in the Hereafter. Therefore, if death is also understood to mean "transfer from one type of body to another", the soul will also taste death in that way.
So it is not incorrect to say that all souls will taste death; the usage of the word in the Qur'an is simply more expansive than that.
Note that compound phrases in the Qur'an such as nafs al-'ammarah (the bestial soul), nafs al-lawwamah (the blaming soul), and nafs al-mutma'innah (the content soul which God calls to Paradise) refer more to immaterial aspects of the human being.