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Salaamun Alaikum
 
SHAFAQNA – Imam Sajjad (AS) had severe stomach ache in Karbala to an extent that he could not carry weapons or fight [1,2,3]. The illness started in Karbala and not from the time Imam Hussain (AS) started his journey towards Iraq. Of course his illness was a divine plan so that one child would remain from Imam Hussain (AS) to undertake the Imamate and the leadership of Muslims.

[1] Basaerul Darajat, Saffar Qomi, Pages 148 and 163.

[2] Alershad, Sheikh Mofeed, Page 114.

[3] E’alammul Wara, Tabarsi, Page 246.

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Allah (SWT) the Glorious, has saved Imam al-Sajjad (AS) in Kerbala to
keep the Imamate which is compulsory not only for Islam and Muslims
but also for the whole universe. Sadaat are not only the grand
children of Imam Husain (AS) but also the grand children of Imam Hasan
(AS) who are also called Hasani Sadaat. In fact all the Grand Children of Bani
Hashim, the grand-father of the Holy Prophet (SAWA) are called
Saadaat.

Wassalaam.

Well, there are also a lot of descendants of Imam al-Hasan (A) especially in places like Morocco. It is recorded to have been said that if Imam al-Husayn (A) was killed, there would be no grandson of the Prophet (S) alive on the earth anymore, in the sense of the son of the daughter of the Prophet (S). This is true, as Imam Hasan (A) had already been martyred by that time.

However the line of the Imamate went through Imam al-Sajjad (A) so the line of the imamate would have been cut off in that way. 

Anyway, it is a good question and demonstrates excellent critical thinking skills!

The age of marriage according to Islamic teachings is as soon as the male and female need to be married. It is called now a days early marriage but it is in fact "the marriage on time".

The marriages of the Infallible Imams and their children were on time which is soon after puberty and was never delayed. In fact , it is Makrouh (disliked) to delay marriage.

Wassalam.