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Which close companion of Imam Jafar al-Sadiq (as) instantly leapt into a blazing fire pit when he was commanded to do so by him?
The name is present in this text:
Sahl Ibn al-Hasan al-Khurasani who was one of the followers of Ahlul- Bayt in Khurasan (a province in Iran) came to Medina to meet Imam Ja’far al-Sadiq (as). Sahl al-Khurasani said: "O son of the Messenger of Allah! You are of the Imams of Ahlul-Bayt. What prevents you from getting your right (i.e., the rule) while you find more than one hundred thousand Shi’a who are ready to fight for you?”
The Imam (as) asked him to sit down, and then ordered to turn on the oven that was in the house. After the oven became very hot and turned red, the Imam (as) said: "O Khurasani step into the oven and sit in it.”The Khurasani said: "My master, O son of the Messenger of Allah! Do not punish me by fire and make it easy for me.”
At this time, Harun al-Makki (ra) entered the room, and after the greetings exchanged, the Imam (as) told him to put down his shoes and to sit down inside the oven. He did so and the Imam (as) started talking to Sahl about Khurasan as if nothing has happened.
After some time, the Imam (as) said: "O Khurasani stand up and look inside the oven.”Sahl looked into the oven and saw Harun sitting cross-legged inside the fire. Then Imam al-Sadiq (as) asked Harun to come out of oven and he came out healthy with no burn or injury.
At this time, the Imam (as) asked Sahl: "How many individuals do you know in Khurasan like this man?”
Sahl replied: "By Allah, not even one.”The Imam (as) confirmed his saying and said, "We do not rise at this time when we do not even have five helpers (like him). We know better about the proper time.”
(Bihar, v47, p123, Hadith #172; also in Manaqib by Ibn Shahr Ashub)
[I copy and pasted that from A Shi'ite Encyclopedia because I am a little lazy]
The chain of transmitters from Imam Ja'far as-Sadiq (AS) are mentioned
Where can I learn more about the questions on the human body that were answered by Imam Jafar Sadiq (AS)?
Tawheed al-Mufadhdhal is very good book in this regard. You can find it in the internet.
Was Ismail son of Imam al-Sadiq (as) designated as an Imam by his father but passed away in his lifetime? And if so, why was there a change in decree regarding this matter that resulted in Imam Musa Kazim (as) becoming the next Imam instead?
There is no single authentic narration from Imam Jafar Al-Sadiq (AS) has ever said that his son Ismail will be the Imam after him. On the contrary, there are authentic narrations from Imam Jafar Al-Sadiq (AS) stating that Ismail is not the Imam. When Ismail passed away during the life of his father, Imam Jafar Al-Sadiq (AS) opened his coffin many times and called people to witness his death and warned them from thinking that Ismail will succeed him as an Imam.
No change in decree regarding this mater at all. Imam Musa Ibn Jafar (AS) was the Imam right from the beginning when the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) informed about the names of the twelve Imams.
The dangerous political situation of Abbasids against Ahlul Bayt (AS), did not allow the names of some Imams to be declared in public as the tyrant rulers were after their lives. Imam Jafar Al-Sadiq (AS) made his last well for five persons to save Imam Musa Al-Kadhim (AS) from the evil of the Abbasid ruler Abu Jafar al-Mansour. Imam made his last well for : 1. His son Abdullah, 2. His wife Hameeda, 3. Al-Mansour himself, 4. The ruler of Madina on behalf of Al-Mansour and 5. Imam Musa Ibn Jafar (AS).
BY this way, Imam Jafar Al-Sadiq (AS) could save Imam Musa Al-Kadhim from the evil acts of Al-Mansour.
The claim of Imamate of Ismail was made by people supported by Abbasid rulers to weaken the unity of the Shia. As he was dead when Imam Jafar Al-Sadiq (AS was martyred, the Abbasid agents claimed his son Mohammad Ibn Ismail as an Imam.
If you read about this mater, you will clearly see that here is comparison between the knowledge and behavior of Imam Musa Al-Kadhim (AS) and Mohammad Ibn Ismail at all.
The Imamate of Imam Musa Ibn Jafar Al-Kadhim (AS) is supported by most authentic evidence, exactly like the evidence of Imamate of Imam Jafar Al-Sadiq (AS) and previous Imams (AS).