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10 Questions

Dates of birth are taken from narrations. Even there are different dates of the birth in Sunni books. Some Sunni scholars like  ibn abdul Barr and al-Waaqidi . Al-Seira Al-Nabawiyyah by ibn Katheer said the Prophet was born on second of Rabaul Awwal ( not on the 12th)Ibn Abdul Barr in his book Al-Estee'aab. This has been mentioned in al-aseerah al-Nabawiyyah by ibn Katheer, v.1, p.199.

Some Sunni scholars said the Prophet was born on the eighth of Rabi,ul Awwal like Ibn Hazm and al-Zohri and al-Khawarizmi.

Other Sunni scholars said it was on the tenth of Rabi'ul Awwal like Ibn Dihyah and ibn Asaakir and al-Shi'bi.

Sime Sunni scholars narrated that the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) was born in month of Ramadan or month of Safar. So,bayou see many different Sunni narrations in this matter.

We,v the followers of Ahlul Bayt (AS) have taken the most authentic narrations from Ahlul Bayt (AS) which is 17 Rabi'ul Awwal.

Wassalam.

Taraweeh is a Bid'ah بِدعَة and every Bid'ah is deviation and every deviation is in the hellfire as the famous Hadeeth narrated in Sunni books like Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal and other books. Taraweeh created by Omar ibn al-Khattar as a new way of worship which was never allowed by the Prophet of Islam. Even Omar ibn Al-Khattab called it a Bid'ah as in Saheeh Al-Bukhari, Hadeeth number 2010.

Celebrating the birth anniversary of the Prophet (SAWA) and Ahlul Bayt (AS) is expressing noble feelings in a happy occasion. Even the Prophet was celebrating his birthday on Monday by fasting as it is narrated from him. Allah told the Prophet (SAWA) to celebrate the birth of his daughter Fatima. (Sura Al-Kawthar).

Wassalam.

A short answer is, bid'ah is most strongly rejected when it comes to formal acts of worship. Performing mustahabb prayers differently from how the Prophet (S) taught it is a difference in formal acts of worship and is therefore inappropriate. 

Although celebrating the Prophet's birthday can be considered devotional, it is not a shariah-prescribed act of worship like performing types of salat; it is more of a customary thing. 

I am sure others will give a long answer! :)

Yes it is not only allowed but also highly recommended to celebrate the birth of the most humble servants of Allah who guided people to the Right path and enlightened life of millions of people. The Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) is the greatest human being who guided billions of people to the way of real noble life in this world and hereafter. He was ordered by Allah (SWT) to celebrate the birth of his daughter (So, pray to Your Lord and Sacrifice) Sura 108, verse 2.

Those Wahabis who claim that it is not permissible to celebrate the birth anniversary of the Prophet celebrated the anniversary of their Wahabi state.

Muslims love the Prophet more than any one else and feel happy when they remember him, that it why Muslims celebrated and still celebrate this happy anniversary. Many scholars wrote books in support of this good practice.

Even the Prophet (SAWA) used to celebrate his birthday which was on Monday by fasting on Monday.

Wassalam,