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Here is a link to an extensive document on the details of the fiqh of hijab:

https://onlineshiastudies.com/fiqhonhijab/

Bismillah

Thank you for your question. The reason for different rulings despite shared sources is because of intricate differences in the methodology of deriving and applying those rulings. These positions are taken by Jurists over years of careful study as their implication is that rulings will be different. To understand this further a person will have to study the principles of jurisprudence as well as have an awareness of the modern discussions in fiqh.

It is possible to follow the rulings of more than one Marja if they are all at the same level and if there is no possibility of identifying the most learned Jurist among them.

May you always be successful

Bismihi ta'ala

There is a clear difference between a civil divorce, of any country, and an Islamic divorce. 

It is important that, in addition to pursuing a legal divorce, the couple make sure they obtain an Islamic divorce, observant of all its rulings and in accordance to their sect. 

If they only get the legal divorce decree from the civil court, and not an Islamic divorce, it will mean that from a shar'i perspective they are still legitimately husband and wife.

And Allah knows best.

The reply depends on what you mean by adoption. If you mean looking after and bringing up a child, then it is great deed of reward. The Hadeeth says: Best of the homes is a home where an orphan lives with honor. Also it is narrated from the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA): I and orphan sponsor are in the Paradise together.

But if you mean to look after the child and deprive him from the name of his real father , mother and original family, then it is unlawful in Islam to deprive the child from the name of his father, mother and original family.

Allah says in Quran (Call them by their fathers' name)(ادعوهم لابائهم)Al-Ahzaab,5.

Also it is not allowed to deprive the child from his real mother (إن أمهاتهم إلا اللائي ولدنهم  )(Their mothers really are who gave birth to them) Al-Mujadalah ;2.

Claiming the adopted child as a real son or daughter is forbidden in Quran (وما جعل أدعياءكم أبناءكم ذلك قولكم بأفواهكم  ) (Allah did not make your sponsored/ adopted/ fostered children as your children, that is what you say in your mouths).

So, it is very good to adopt a needy child with keeping his father's, mother's and family name with him always.

Wassalam