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Bismillah

Thank you for your question. The peace treaty brought the battle to an end as Muawiya's tactics had caused confusion in the army of Imam al-Hasan (as) making the continuation of armed struggle unwise. The Imam was unable to continue fighting because of discord in his army and so agreed to the treaty.
 

The meaning of vicegerency is that he is charged with acting on God's behalf and has the merit to do that. This is due to his complete servitude and spiritual station. There is no dichotomy between the decision of God and the decision of the Imam.

May you always be successful 

Bismillah

The Sayyid title is applied to all of the descendants of Hashim (they are called Hashimis) so it includes all of Imam Ali's (as) children.

May you always be successful 

Umme Farwa was wife of Imam Muhammad Al-Baqir (AS) . Her real name was Fatima Bint Al-Qasim and wshe was known by Umme Farwa. She was the mother of Imam Jafar Al-Sadiq (AS).

What you heard is not true.

Wassalam.

This story is mentioned in the book Ithbat al-Hodat, compiled by al-Hurr al-'Amili (vol. 4, p. 28).

The gist of the story is a king in China killed his daughter and a member of his court, regretted it, and sought advice from his court on how to bring them back to life. One of the viziers said there is a man in Medina named al-Hasan ibn 'Ali who could do this. The king told him he had a month to bring al-Hasan there (even though it was about a 6 month journey from China to Medina). The vizier prayed intensely, and, while he was praying, he heard a voice saying "Rise". He rose and found Imam al-Hasan (A) there. Imam al-Hasan (A) passed his hand over the two people who had been killed and prayed that Allah revive them, and they came back to life. Then the king married his daughter to Imam al-Hasan (A).

I am not aware of a chain of narration for the story and so it is not possible to say from that angle whether it is authentic or not. Also, I am not aware of any historical evidence that Imam al-Hasan (A) went to China. So, it is possible that this story is not historically true.

However, a number of hadith indicate that the Imams had the ability to miraculously travel from place to place instantaneously and perform karamat through the permission of Allah, and so that main idea in and of itself is reasonable and supported by other texts, even if this particular story might not be true.