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The Hawza every where is a gathering of scholars who teach the students the Islamic knowledge. Najaf Ashraf is in Iraq where main language is Arabic and most of the teachings and classes are in Arabic language. In the Holy city of Qum, most of the primary classes are in Persian language.

Wassalam.

The main four Marja's in Najaf Ashraf are:

1. Aytullah Seestani who is followed by the majority of the Shia Muslims all over the world.

2. Ayatullah Sayyed Mohammad Saeed al-Hakeem.

3. Ayatullah Shaikh Eshaq al-Fayadh.

4. Ayatullah Shaikh Basheer al-Najafi.

The Marja' who is been followed by the majority of the Shia is called ( Al-Marja al-A'la) ( The highest Marja).

We have a system of our religious leadership based on highest degree of knowledge and piousness, which is quite different from Vatican.

Wassalam.

We should not conflate the reward of the Ziyaras or Hajj. Performing one does not mean we should not perform the other. Hajj has its specific times and the Ziyara of Imam Hussayn has a specific time. If you can afford to perform both, that would be great. Keep in mind, those who perform Hajj will also have the opportunity to visit RasulAllah, FatimaZahra, and the Imams in Baqee'. 

It is not allowed to break the fast before the start of the night as we read in Quran (ثم أتموا الصيام إلى الليل ) (And complete fasting till night). This is the Quranic order which can never be challenged. This is for all people who have day and night in 24 hours.

If you live in a place where there is no day and night in 24 hours, then you need to either leave the place to  another place where there is day and night in every 24 hours or to follow the timings of Salah of the nearest place to you. There is question at all to follow the timings of places which very far away from your place like Makkah, Madina, Najaf, Karbala etc.