Texts And Legacies
Now it is time to introduce some texts included in many books of history and hadith. Such books contain many texts proving that the house of al-Zahra’ (sa) was, indeed, attacked, her privacy was invaded and she was beaten and hurt.
Apparently, this attack was repeated just as their attacks against the house of the Prophetic Mission were repeated, resulting in her miscarriage and her earning the honor of martyrdom. I find the following points to be worthy of being emphasized:
1. This case cannot be fully detailed but that we should restrict ourselves to what no fair-minded person can doubt. Otherwise, the written books are counted by the thousands, and we cannot quote them all here.
2. Even those who undertook the task of cleaning the legacy from impurities which they saw therein did not consider this event as one of those “impurities.” For example, the detail-oriented ‘allama Muhsin al-Amin, for example, who undertook the polishing of the text of Majalis al-’Aza’, relying on authentic references, as he puts it, including the book by Sulaym ibn Qays…, has mentioned these events, verified their authenticity and composed poetic verses about them. Listen to him saying the following:
“When I wrote Al-Majalis al-Saniyya, I purged them of all impurities, Praise be to Allah, distinguishing the peel from the pith, what is wrong from what is right.”1
He also said, “When I wrote Lawa’ij al-Ashjan, I incorporated in it the recitation of the epic of martyrdom (of Imam al-Husayn (as)), and the text recited by those who conducted such majalis was incorporated in Al-Majalis al-Saniyya. The ahadith, therefore, were sound, and the impurities were taken out.”2
But what al-Zahra’ (sa) had to put up with is available mostly in books meeting the same criteria which he preconditioned for his own books for the collection of such majalis and for “polishing” them. This means that he endorses such criteria and considers them non-negotiable.
3. We have included in the part dedicated to the texts many chapters which have to be put together; so, take notice of the following:
A. One Chapter contains about forty narratives among which many are authentic and reliable, all detailing what trials and tribulations al-Zahra’ (sa) had to endure following the demise of her father S.
B. Another Chapter contains poetry verses. Many of them are included there.
C. We also cited many texts in a third Chapter discussing al-Muhsin.
D. In addition to the above, there is a Chapter dealing with the sectarian debates regarding this matter during centuries.
E. Another Chapter, titled “The Event in the Words of Narrators and Historians,” contains scores of texts emphasizing the harm suffered by al-Zahra’ (sa) following the demise of her father S.
If you put all of these Chapters together, you will get a large number of texts which cannot all be false or fabricated, and this is the meaning of tawatur, that is, consecutive reporting. Were we to convince ourselves of their falsehood, we will never be able to be convinced of any theological or historical fact. Or, say, we would find ourselves incapable of being convinced of many of them.
4. It may be noticed that there is some similarity between some texts. This suggests that there is no need to repeat the same text. Yet, we repeated it in order to attract the attention to the existence of a variation or a particularity in the narrative, or in the narrator. This has taken place in just a few places the number of which does not exceed the fingers on one hand; so, take note.
5. We mentioned a very small number of texts cited by late authors because we found them containing some particularities which we could not research and verify by comparing them with what early authors had recorded; so, take note of this, too.
6. Finally, if someone relies sometimes, for issuing his verdicts, on one single narrative, be it commended, verified or regarded as weak, one where there is no need to lie, requiring all people in all lands to act on it, is it reasonable that he rejects or doubts the fixing of the text of such a huge number of texts where the sources are continuously emphasizing its context, confirming one’s conviction that it did take place?!
No matter what, we can add the following Chapters to what we have already presented, apologizing to the kind reader about being satisfied with this much. Anyone can find more of what is useful. Try it, and you will find the proof.
Let us now proceed to our undertaking. From Allah do we derive help, and on Him do we rely.
OPPRESSING AL-ZAHRA’ (sa)
IN CENTURIES OF ARABIC POETRY
Poetry is a Reliable Historical Chronicle
We are of the view that poets have thoroughly covered the oppression through which al-Zahra’ (sa) underwent, the persecution, the beating and the miscarriage since the first generations and till our time. They let their poetry target those who participated in all of that or did not stop it. Some of them were contemporary to the Imams (as), or their time was close to that of the Imams’.
This is regarded as a reliable and strong historical record. Its strength underscores the fact that its contexts were true as it was transmitted by traditionists and historians. Here we would like to cite a bouquet of such poetry in successive centuries and till our time:
1. Sayyid al-Himyari3 (d. 173 A.H./789 A.D.)
Sayyid al-Himyari, may Allah have mercy on him, was contemporary to Imams al-Sadiq and al-Kazim (as) and he says the following:
Beaten, she was, and of her rights deprived,
And was made to taste after his demise of wounds.
God sever the hands that her did they hit,
And of that who agreed thereto and followed suit.
God may never forgive him nor
Spare him of the horror of leaving the grave.4
2. Al-Barqi (d. 245 A.H./859 A.D.)
Al-Barqi, namely ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Ammar, has said,
They gathered the firewood at the house,
And those who ignited it kept taunting,
While none were at the house except
The Purified Lady, the Truthful one,
And the Prophet’s two grandsons.5
3. Al-Nu’man, the Judge (d. 363 A.H./974 A.D.)
Judge al-Nu’man, an Isma’ili, composed a poem about what happened following the demise of the Messenger of Allah S in one inclusive poem wherein he says,
Both swore fealty to him and said:
The best, you are, of everyone in state!
Among them were people of those at Badr slain,
And at others, people of confined grudge, plain.
They swore fealty, the heads of their folks,
So people swore, too, on that day
Except a few who recognized the way
Of their Prophet, so they kept away.
To Ali, their Imam, they went;
Said he: Your effort is already spent!
They said: No, We shall do it for sure!
So he said: Set out now and your heads shave
So people will know you then come in a wave
To me so we may fight, God will make a way
For us to judge, and we will see what He does say.
They failed when they saw him determined,
So those who went to him counted only seven,
While fealty was sworn by all the rest
Who thought swearing it was the best.
I did call them by their very names.
He said: I shall not fight you for sure
For few you are and cannot meet the rest
So they sat to see what he would do
With them and what order to issue.
‘’Umar came to them with a group
Seeing the man they installed was not obeyed
Till they reached the door of Fatima
The Batul lady who boycotted them.
She intercepted between him and them
Hoping they would not reach her man
But he broke the door, the first such insan,
And they forced their way through her veil
As she did cry, ask for help and wail.
They hit her, so she did miscarry
Al-Zubayr heard the call and went in a hurry
But stumbled, his sword was taken
And was surely by them broken
So they caught al-Zubayr and he
In their hands a captive came to be.
The wasi came out with the rest of the men
Seeing their defenses were totally in vain.
Them did they surely overpower
Bringing them to ‘Ateeq in an hour..
He goes on to say:
What a sigh in my heart
Like fire I feel in my mind.
Their killing al-Zahra’ Fatima
Ignited in my insides the fire
For it is known among the people
She died after having miscarried
She ordered to be at night buried
And her grave’s marks obliterated
Now nobody knows where she is buried.
So that only her cousin would be there
And his family, and in distress she did disappear.
Her Lord greets her, with her nations she was displeased.
They swore fealty to him against their wish, so pay heed,
As taqiyya. Alas! God for His servants did allow
Not to be forced to make for the ruler an untrue vow.
Till he says,
It is narrated for sure
That he said when he came:
Swear it! Said he: I shall not!
He said: Then I shall have you killed!
May Allah testify that he was weak
When he swore fealty to the usurper
Fearing being killed, and others swore too
For fear of those who were there, they knew.
If they made the Trusted One so weak
Before him Aaron was treated the same
By the nation of Moses when they willed
To otherwise have him killed
Treading the same steps indeed
The steps the wasis had to tread
Just as the sent Messenger said.
4. Mihyar al-Daylani (d. 428 A.H./1037 A.D.)
The brilliant poet, Mihyar al-Daylami, may Allah have mercy on his soul, has said the following lines in a poem he wrote:
How come it was not severed
The hand that stretched to harm you?
That of the son of one inferior to you?
They were elated when they insulted you,
Being wrongful to your own father.
5. Ali ibn al-Muqarrab (d. 629 A.H./1232 A.D.)
Prince Ali ibn Muqarrab, of al-Ahsa’ (Saudi Arabia), one of the wise and well known men of letters, has said:
I wonder which one of them shall I mourn
And for whom shall my tears pour down?
To the wasi when, at his mosque, he was crowned
By the sword before bowing down?
Or to the Batul, Fatima, who was deprived
Of her inheritance, rightfully hers according to all
And according to one who to her said:
You sought wrong, so desist
Your father loudly declared before many:
“We, prophets, leave for our sons nothing to inherit.
“What we leave is for each and all.”
So be pleased with what your father said.
She said: “Give me what my father left me
The best of all people, the one with intercession.”
But they regarded their testimony as void
And the text of the Book did not convince them.
She remained oppressed, persecuted, when her claim
Was rejected, when her ribs were crushed.
Or should I mourn the one who had to drink
From their Ju’da the cup of disguised poison?6
6. Al-Khali’i (d. 750 A.H./1349 A.D.)
Shaikh Ali ibn ‘Abd al-’Aziz al-Khali’i al-Hilli said the following among other verses in a poem:
O Lord of the one who was disputed about
What her father left her of inheritance and who
Was sought by those of grudge and hatred
And who made one drink the cup of grief
To a father because of her son
Like the son of Marjana, the accursed one
Who made me of it drink
And who before even called a liar
Someone by the Lord from sins purified
And is there another son of a Prophet
For whom fire was lit
As those who did circle and spurn
My home did they indeed burn?7
7. ‘Ala' ad-Din al-Hilli (killed in 786 A.H./1384 A.D.)
The virtuous scholar and accomplished man of letters, ‘Ala' ad-Din son of Shaikh Ali ibn al-Husayn al-Hilli al-Shafhani, a contemporary of the First Martyr, who, may Allah have mercy on him, explained some of his poets, said,
They unanimously agreed on it, with their whims,
Ignorance and hope, to burn the house of al-Zahra’
Fatima! What an awful momentous thing to do!
A house wherein five whose sixth is Gabriel
Without a just cause was set ablaze,
And the Murtada from his home was forcibly taken...8
8. Mughamis al-Hilli (d. in the late 900s A.H./15th Century A.D.)
Shaikh Mughammis al-Hilli said the following in one of his poems:
The Purified One, Fatima, her inheritance was seized
By the worst of people as her tears were shed
After having miscarried because of a blow,
So she passed away, what was hers confiscated.9
9. Muflih al-Saymari (d. 900 A.H./1495 A.D.)
The famous ‘allama, the great faqih and respected man of letters, Shaikh Muflih al-Saymari, said the following in one of his poems:
Shackled in the straps of his own sword they took Ali
And ‘Ammar before his rib crushed and was assaulted,
And they raided the home of the daughter of the Chosen One
And of their own Imam as one kept calling:
In her house burn a fire!
Of inheritance of the Prophet was she deprived
And, moreover, she was whipped and slapped.10
10. Al-Hurr al-’Amili (d. 1104 A.H./1693 A.D.)
The public speaker and ‘allama, faqih Shaikh al-Hurr al-’Amili, author of the modern encyclopedia known as Wasa'il al-Shi’a, wrote a poem wherein he says,
Her children are five: Hassan and Husayn
And Zainab, older than Umm Kultham
And Muhsin was miscarried when
‘’Umar forcibly opened their door
As it became known to all.
So she died after the Prophet
Willingly went to her Lord satisfied
With what He for her had been decreed.
Such brings pain to the heart
And every other calamity is surely less in pain
What grief, humiliation, persecution and oppression
And savagery became clear to everyone.
Then he explains how she died saying,
Its cause, it was said, natural death but
It was also said that it was caused of the pain
Inflicted from a blow dealt to her by that man
When she instantly miscarried her fetus
For whom she kept weeping and wailing.11
11. Al-Salih al-Fattani al-’Amili
Shaikh Muhammed Mahdi al-Fattani al-Nabati al-’Amili, a scholar, poet, imam of fiqh, hadith and tafsir, has said,
O Master! O Messenger of Allah! Stand and see
What happened to your very family:
More that what you did tell:
They took away caliphate from Ali,
And what you said many did deny.
They led him to so-and-so to swear fealty,
Against his wish, oppressors taking him forcefully.
For that, he was with the sword his Shabir became
A martyr, and by poison his Shubbar died.
As if he was not the like of the Prophet
Nor was he, by his Lord, purified.
And Fatima is there, her sanctity did they violate,
By one who caused her rib at the door to break.
Your Husayn, without a cause, slain,
His body cut to parts, with blood stained
Dusted, lying on the ground is your Husayn.12
12. Sayyid Hayder al-Hilli (d. 1304 A.H./1887 A.D.)
The great poet and man of letters and one of the most prominent poets of Iraq of his time, namely Sayyid Hayder al-Hilli, has said the following in one of his poems:
No, by your pardon, the folks did no pardon implement,
Nor, by your clemency, were the folks at all clement:
What your mother carried they did cause to miscarry,
Your grandfather’s son with arrow to death did they carry.13
13. Sayyid Baqir al-Hindi (d. 1329 A.H./1911 A.D.)
The great scholar and prominent poet, Sayyid Baqir son of Sayyid Muhammed al-Hindi, has said,
You don’t know with fire they burned the door,
Thus they hoped to put out, with fire, the noor.
You don’t know what the nail had to do
With Fatima’s chest, if you only knew
In what condition her broken rib was
What miscarriage, why red were her eyes,
Why her ear-rings on the ground did scatter,
Unveiled was she when her house they did enter,
As Ali looked on, the man of manliness
The honorable, the fearless.
The Lion of Allah did they harass,
Like a camel did they lead him in duress.
The Batul behind them stumbled
On the tail of her robe which they pulled
With moaning that in the hearts did it ignite
The fir in anxiety melted the stones of height.
She called on them: Let my cousin Ali alone or I
To the Hearing One, the Seeing, shall I cry.
They paid her no heed,
By them she was scared indeed,
So they took Ali as a captive away,
Tied, like a captive; they had their day...
He goes on till he says the following:
Ali sees and hears, and the sword is sharp
And Ali’s might is not to be taken lightly
But his Brother’s will restricted what he could
Which was more than one really would,
So patience, O one entrusted with the affair
One whose judgment is wise and fair
One with a calamity that is on and on
One that melts one whose heart is stone.
How many calamities my narration of them to prolong
Wherein purity was stripped in time not so long?
How, eyes being quite red, can thee control,
O Son of Taha, a sweet slumber at all?
So weep and sigh, since her foes
Did not let her weep and wail her woes.
As if I can see him saying, as he does weep,
With little solace but with tears high and deep:
May I after her never take for my relief
A home of happiness after her “house of grief.”
So when, O son of Fatima, will you bring to life in a way
Tyrants and oppressors even before the Judgment Day?14
14. ‘Allama al-Qazwini (d. 1335 A.H./1917 A.D.)
The virtuous ‘allama, Sayyid Muhammed son of Sayyid Mahdi al-Qazwini al-Hilli al-Najafi, has said,
Salim said something, said I: O Salman!
Did they really enter without permission?!
Said he: Yes, by the Glory of the Great One
While al-Zahra’ had no veil at all.
But she behind the door sought refuge,
Observing the rules of veil that are huge.
When they saw her, they did squeeze
Her, almost killing her, may my life
Be her ransom. Said she; O Fidda!
Support me, for surely have they
Killed my fetus this very day.
She miscarried, the Daughter of
Guidance, O sorrow, O pain!
Miscarried her son,
The one called Muhsin.15
15. Hafiz Ibrahim (d. 1351 A.H./1932)
(Egyptian) Hafiz Ibrahim, Poet of the Nile, whose poem is quoted above on p. 161, has said,
A statement to Ali said by ‘’Umar,
How great the one who heard,
How respectful the one who said!
“To burn your home shall I
“Leave none in it if you
“Do not swear fealty,” though
“The Daughter of the Chosen one is inside.”
Only Abu Hafs could thus say
To ‘Adnan’s knight and protector.16
Commenting on the above-cited verses, Grand Ayatollah ‘allama al-Muzaffar, may Allah have mercy on his soul, has said, “This poet mistakenly thought that the said statement was indicative of the courage of ‘’Umar who demonstrated no courage at all during (all) famous battles, nor did he ever record any feats of valor during the many wars waged by the Prophet S! This was only due to a trust entrusted to him [Ali (as)] by the Prophet S who admonished him to be patient. Had he (Ali (as)) confronted ‘’Umar, the latter would surely have fled away.”17
16. Al-Isfahani, the Critic (d. 1361 A.H./1942 A.D.)
The great philosopher and religious authority and mentor/critic, al-Isfahani, said the following in a poetic urjuza in his diwan known as Al-Anwar al-Qudsiyya:
Her calamity, the opening to all calamities,
Was what she went through at the door,
For the talk about that door is surely grievous
Due to what the hands of betrayal committed.
Did the foes really assault
The House of Guidance,
The landing place of Revelation,
The center of all bliss?
Was the fire they did ignite
At her house’s door
And the Sign of Nur
Overwhelms it with light?
Her door is the door of the Prophet
Of mercy, the Prophet of salvation
Of this and every nation.
Nay! Her door is the door of
The most High, the most Exalted.
As though Allah’s Countenance was manifested.
With that fire they gained nothing but shame
After which there will be that of the Fire of Hell.
How ignorant some people are!
The fire burns not the Nur of Allah!
The most Exalted, the most Sublime!
But the breaking of the rib has none to repair
Except the sword of one of might and power.
What wrenched those sacred ribs was a calamity
None like it in all eternity.
From the spring of blood that gushed out of her chest
Can one tell what she suffered, through what she went.
They transgressed all limits when they
On the cheek slapped her, may
The hand of oppression God paralyze.
And still remains the redness of her eyes
Of the eyes of knowledge can only be remedied
By white swords when the banner is spread.
And the whips have a sound of dreariness
Heard by Time, lacking any happiness.
Remains, like a bracelet, the mark
On the wrist of al-Zahra’ that was so dark
The very strongest of any argument.
From the blackness of her arm the firmament
Was blackened, O Arm of Allah! O Imam al-Murtada!
How the sword’s scabbard was on her side planted
Bringing to memory all what to her happened.
I know not the story of the nail,
So ask the Custodian of all secrets.
In the womb of glory things that
Cause the inside to bleed.
Can they really hide
What is known and wide?
What about the door, the wall, the blood?
True witnesses which none can hide.
The criminal committed against her son
His crime the like of which is none.
So mountains were crushed
On hearing her wailing, though hushed.
Is this how the Prophet’s Daughter should be treated
With such cruelty should she be meted?
Running after power, sins do they heap!
Should one a grieved, saddened woman keep,
For fear of slander, forbidding her to weep?
By Allah! She ought to shed tears of blood
As long as the earth remains and the world
For having lost the dear one, her great father
For her oppression and for insulting her protector.
Should the inheritance of the Truthful One
Become free for all but her legacy none?
From the very best of creation?
How could one call her statement a lie
For it will be one’s answer to the implication
Of the meaning of the verse of Purification...?
Should the faith be learned from a bedouin
Leaving aside the one referred to in the Book?
Thus they confiscated what she did own
Committing the extreme calamity like none.
Woe on them! They asked for a proof
Contrary to the clearly defined Sunnah!
And their rejection of those who did testify
Is the greatest testimony to what we clarify.
Filling the gaps was not coincidental
Nay! They closed hers and the Murtada’s door.
They turned away from the truth and sins score,
The did close its door, as though their intention
Was feeling secure against its retribution.
Should part of the Greatly Purified one
Be buried at night, her grave unknown to man?
She was not buried at night and secretly
Except because she was with the oppressors angry.
Nobody heard that she could ever thus be
In esteem unrecognized, her grave unknown to you and me.
Woe unto them from the Wrath of the Great One
For having oppressed the flower of the Chosen One.18
17. Kashifal-Ghita’ (d. 1373)19
The renown scholar, authority and mentor Muhammed Husayn Kashifal-Ghita’, may Allah have mercy on him, said the following in one of his poems:
At the Taff did a wounded hero fall as did one
Behind the door fall named al-Muhsin,
And in every tent
A fire was set
From the very flame
That did burn in shame
The door of the house where did reside
The daughter of the Prophet sent to guide.20
There are other renowned poets whom we cannot cite here hoping this much should suffice to make our point clear, and we seek help from none but Allah.
2. Beating Women
What he, may Allah have mercy on him, considered as a justification for discrediting an Arab man beating a woman as not eligible for justification at all for the following reasons:
FIRST: The statement of the Commander of the Faithful (as) about shaming a man who beats a woman does not mean it was impossible for them to do it in the presence of a stronger motive which would prompt them to do the most heinous crime and discard the greatest sanctities. This is so especially when such a motive is lust for power and authority, when the government, once well established, could wipe out such shame by the awe it enforces and by the wealth and power it would enjoy. Necks would bow down to it either out of fear or greed. Then the challenger finds himself overwhelmed by the post of succession to the Prophetic Mission, by its awe and sanctity, by respect for the creed, for conviction among the general public.
On the other hand, it was a shame to kill newborn females or kill a son or a brother for worldly gains. Al-Khayzaran killed her son out of lust for authority, as they claim, and al-Ma’mun killed his brother (al-Amin), and they are well known for their statement that “authority is sterile; it has no womb.”21
Had there been adherence to abstention from doing what is ugly, they would not have said to the Prophet S, and he heard what they said, “The Prophet is hallucinating.” This happened although the religious obligation is stronger than that of customs and traditions. Pronouncing a statement like this about the Prophet brings them eternal shame, and it is much greater than hitting a woman or invading her home or letting her listen to very rude and insolent words.
To sum up, if one fears shame, he has to fear it in all his affairs and circumstances, not fearing it here rather than there. For one to fear shame here and not there, as in daring to say something like the above to the Messenger of Allah S, is not clear, nor is it acceptable. Rather, when we see him having “courage” to accept shame in certain situations makes us hesitate to brand as lies what is attributed to him in another situation. So, how is it when this is proven with decisive proofs and clear evidences? Can this person who casts doubts afford to deny their threats against al-Zahra’ (sa) to set her house to fire while she and her children were all inside it? Is this not a shame for those who make such threats? Is it possible that slapping her on the cheek is the only shame while nothing is?!
SECOND: This individual, who seeks support from what Kashif al-Ghita’ says, is the same one who places big question marks on the authenticity of texts recorded in Nahjul Balagha and in other books if they point out to any weakness in woman’s personality. This text, the one which he cites as testimony for such a weakness, says, “... They are weak in body, in spirit, and in mind.” Yet he himself has doubted the particularity of this same text more than once! So, how can he cite a proof here for something which he somewhere else denies altogether?!
THIRD: During the battle of Kerbala’, the daughters of the Messenger of Allah S were beaten with whips when dark grudge blinded their minds and visions, distracting them from considering its shameful consequences in this life and their being exposed to the Wrath of the Almighty in the life to come.
There are many historical proofs which testify that in the presence of an impetus stronger than keeping shame away, they do not for a moment hesitate to accept such a shame. We would like to mention some of these proofs as follows:
1. A father used to bury his female newborn in the ground for fear she would eat his food; Allah Almighty has said, “And when the female infant buried alive is asked for what sin she was killed” (Qur’an, 81:8-9).
2. The same person states that Ibn Ziyad, may Allah curse him, was about to kill Lady Zainab when she reminded him of things which outraged him. ‘Amr ibn Hareeth interfered, stopping him by saying to him, “She is only a woman; can she be held accountable for what she said? She cannot be blamed when she thus prattles.”22
3. This same person, who seeks from the statement by Kashif al-Ghita’ support for his own claim, states that Zainab (sa) was whipped, and so were the daughters who were born to the one who received the wahi23, peace with them all; so, refer to his books and speeches.
4. Sumayya, mother of ‘Ammar ibn Yasir, was killed while being tortured in Mecca by the “Pharaoh of Quraish,” namely Abu Jahl, may Allah curse him, becoming the first lady martyr in Islamic history.24
5. ‘’Umar (ibn al-Khattab) used to torture a bondmaid from Banu Mu’ammal. He used to keep beating her till he felt tired of it. It is then that he would say to her, “I apologize to you for stopping beating you; I only stopped because I felt bored.”25 Umm Sharik, may Allah have mercy on her, was tortured, too; so, why did someone’s fear of shame stop him from committing such shameful acts?
6. Books of history and tradition tell us that when ‘Othman ibn Math’un died, women wept, so ‘’Umar (ibn al-Khattab) kept whipping them. The Messenger of Allah S took the whip away from ‘’Umar’s hands as he (as) said to him, “Wait, O ‘’Umar! Let them weep..., etc.”26
7. ‘’Umar (ibn al-Khattab) beat the women who mourned the death of Abu Bakr, so much so that the Mu’tazilite scholar said, “The first to be beaten by ‘’Umar was Umm Farwah daughter of Abu Quhafah [sister of Othman ibn ‘Affan]. Abu Bakr died, so women mourned him, and among them was his sister, Umm Farwah. ‘’Umar prohibited them repeatedly, yet they kept doing it, so he took Umm Farwah from among them and kept hitting her with his baton. The other women dispersed as they fled away.”27 Others have documented this incident, so let those who would like to research it do just that.28
8. When Khalid ibn al-Walid died, women assembled at the house of Maymuna to mourn him. [Then caliph] ‘’Umar came and beat them with his baton. The veil of one of them fell on the ground, so they said, “O commander of the faithful! Her veil!” He said, “Leave her, for she has no sanctity.”29
9. The Prophet S permitted anyone to kill Hubar ibn al-Aswad because of what he had committed against Zainab [Prophet’s step-daughter] as is well known.
FOURTH: Why does the conscience of these folks not recognize that ‘’Umar was the one who hit al-Zahra’ (sa), justifying it by attaching shame to him, while their conscience accepts to attach the same to Qunfath instead?! Just as ‘’Umar was an Arab who was apprehensive of a stigma, so was Qunfath al-’Adawi [of the Banu ‘Udayy tribe]! Just as ‘’Umar belonged to the tribe of Banu ‘Udayy, so was Qunfath. Why apply a principle to one and not to the other?!
But al-Tasatturi30, the critic, has sated that Qunfath belonged to Taim tribe, that he was not ‘Adawi, and that the meaning of the text is that he was loyal to Bana ‘Udayy because he was their slave... Whether he belonged to Banu ‘Udayy or to Bana Taim, if Arabs regarded beating a woman as a foul act, any Arab should denounce such an act and reject it, whether this person committed it or that. If a slave committed such an act to an Arab woman, an Arab man would confront him, according to their concepts, with a greater sensitivity and denunciation.
FIFTH: Ali (as) is quoted as having said that they did not confiscate Qunfath’s property, as they would have done to any of their slaves had such a slave committed an act like that because they appreciated how he hit al-Zahra’31…
Their appreciation of his having hit a woman, namely al-Zahra’ (sa), the Head of the Women of Mankind, is an additional shame attached to them. It indicts them and shatters the veil of their hidden intentions. It proves that they were not concerned about such shame nor about enraging Allah and His Messenger S on account of al-Zahra’ (sa) being angered if they found a stronger impetus, particularly the achievement of power that would enable them to virtually rule the entire Islamic world and become the successors of the Prophet S, a post which has its sanctity and significance as well as people’s respect.
This also invalidates the claim of one who says that they used to hold Fatima (sa) in very high esteem, that they respected her and sought to please her, etc.
As regarding their attempt to appease her, we will prove that it was nothing but a political ploy, a failed and an unacceptable one.
- 1. A`yan al-Shi`a, Vol. 10, p. 173.
- 2. Ibid., Vol. 1, p. 343.
- 3. His full name is Isma`il ibn Muhammed ibn Yazid ibn Rabi`ah ibn Mufrigh al-Himyari, “Abu Hashim” and also “Abu `ãmir”. He was born during the Umayyad’s time, and he blasted them in his poetry. I must add that the author, may the Almighty reward him, seems to have spent little effort providing us with brief biographies of the individuals to whom he refers throughout his two-volume book, perhaps thinking that we already know them. – Tr.
- 4. Al-Sirat al-Mustaqim, Vol. 3, p. 13.
- 5. Ibid.
- 6. Adab al-Taff, Vol. 4, p. 32 from Ithbat al-Hudat.
- 7. Al-Turayhi, Al-Muntakhab, p. 161.
- 8. Al-Amini, Al-Ghdir, Vol. 6, p. 391.
- 9. Al-Turayhi, Al-Muntakhab, p. 293.
- 10. Ibid., p. 137.
- 11. Urjaja fi Tawarikh al-Nabi wal ‘A’imma, pp. 13-14 (a manuscript a the library of the Center of Islamic Studies). Refer to the biographies of renown women on pp. 316-17, Vol. 2.
- 12. Adab al-Taff, Vol. 5, pp. 329-30 from p. 323, Vol. 2, of Al-Majma` al-Ra’iq (manuscript at the Library of Imam al-Sadiq (as), Kazimiyya, Iraq).
- 13. Ibid., Vol. 8, p. 26. Sayyid Hayder al-Hilli, Diwan.
- 14. Riyad al-Madh wal Ratha’, pp. 197-98.
- 15. Ibid., p. 6.
- 16. Hafiz Ibrahim, Diwan, Vol. 1, p. 75 (published by Dar al-Kutub al-Misriyya, Egypt).
- 17. Dala’il al-Sidq, Vol. 3, p. 54.
- 18. Al-Anwar al-Qudsiyya, pp. 42-44.
- 19. The late Muhammed-Husayn ãl Kashif al-Ghita was born in al-Najaf al-Ashraf in 1294 A.H./1876 A.D. and died in 1373 A.H./1954 A.D. – Tr.
- 20. Al-Muqarram, Maqtal al-Husayn (as), p. 3
- 21. Ibn al-Athir, Al-Kamil fil Tarikh, Vol. 6, pp. 99-100. Al-Tabari, Tarikh, Vol. 8, p. 205.
- 22. Jannat al-Ma’wa, p. 82. `Abd al-Razzaq al-Muqarram, Maqtal al-Husayn, p. 424 (English translation by Yasin T. al-Jibouri).
- 23. Al-Insan wal Hayat, p. 271.
- 24. Refer to Al-Isti`ab (as referred to in a footnote in Al-Isaba), Vol. 4, pp. 330-31, 333 and Al-Isaba, Vol. 4, pp. 334-35. Ibn Kathir, Al-Sira al-Nabawiyya, Vol. 1, p. 495. Usd al-Ghaba, Vol. 5, p. 481. Al-Ya`qubi, Vol. 2, p. 28.
- 25. Ibn Hisham, Al-Sira al-Nabawiyya, Vol. 1, p. 341. Al-Sira al-Halabiyya, Vol. 1, p. 300. Ibn Kathir, Al-Sira al-Nabawiyya, Vol. 1, p. 493. Al-Mahbar, p. 184.
- 26. Ahmed ibn Hanbal, Musnad, Vol. 1, pp. 237, 335. Al-Hakim, Mustadrak, Vol. 3, p. 190, labeling it as “authentic.” In his Talkhis, al-Dhahbi says in a footnote that its isnad is accurate. Al-Tayalisi, Musnad, p. 351. Mujma` al-Zawa’id, Vol. 3, p. 17.
- 27. Ibn Abul-Hadid, Sharh Nahjul-Balagha, Vol. 1, p. 181.
- 28. Al-Amini, Al-Ghadir, Vol. 6, p. 161, quoting Kanz al-`Ummal, Vol. 8, p. 119 and Al-Isaba, Vol. 3, p. 606.
- 29. Al-Amini, Al-Ghadir, Vol. 6, p. 162, quoting Vol 8, p. 118, of Kanz al-`Ummal.
- 30. Refer to Qamus al-Rijal, Vol. 7, pp. 393-94.
- 31. Jannat al-Ma’wa, p. 84. Al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar, Vol. 30, pp. 302-03. Sulaym ibn Qays, Vol. 2, pp. 674-75. Al-`Awalim, Vol. 11, p. 413.