Table of Contents

Chapter 11: On Traditions From Al-Ridha’ About Unity

11-1 Muhammad ibn Musa ibn al-Mutawakkil - may God be pleased with him - narrated that Ali ibn Ibrahim ibn Hashem quoted on the authority of his father, on the authority of al-Saqr ibn Dolaf, on the authority of Yasir - the servant that he had heard Abul Hassan Ali ibn Musa Al-Ridha’ (a.s.) say,

3 - حَدَّثَنا أَبي، وَمُحَمَّدُ بْنُ الحَسَنِ بْنِ أَحْمَدِ بْنِ الوَلِيد -رَضِيَ اللَّهَ عَنهُما - قالا: حَدَّثَنا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى العَطَّارُ، عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنَ الحُسَيْنِ بْنِ سَعِيدٍ، عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ جُمهُورٍ، عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ حَمَّادٍ قالَ: كانَ أَحَدُ القُوَّامِ عُثْمانَ بْنِ عِيسَى الرُّواسِيَّ وَكانَ يَكُونُ بِمِصرِ و كانَ عِنْدَهُ مالٌ كَثِيرٌ وَسِتُّ جَواري، قالَ: فَبَعَثَ إِلَيْهِ أَبُو الحَسَنِ الرِّضا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ فِيهِنَّ وَفِي المالِ، قالَ: فَكَتَبَ إِلَيْهِ: أَنَّ أَباكَ لَمْ يَمُت قالَ: فَكَتَبَ إِلَيْهِ: إِنَّ أَبي قَدْ ماتَ وَقَدِ قسَمنا مِيراثَهُ وَقَدْ صَحَّتِ الأَخْبارِ بِمَوتِهِ، وَاحتَجَّ عَلَيْهِ فِيهِ، قالَ: فَكَتَبَ إِلَيْهِ، إن لَمْ يَكُنْ أَبُوكَ ماتَ فَلَيْسَ لَكَ مِن ذلِكَ شَي‏ءٌ، وَإِن كانَ قَدْ ماتَ عَلَى ما تَحكِي، فَلَمْ يَأْمُرنِي بِدَفعِ شَي‏ءٍ إِلَيكَ، وَقَدِ أعتَقتُ الجَوارِي وَتَزَوَّجتُهُنَّ.

قالَ مُصَنِّفُ هذا الْكِتابِ: لَمْ يَكُنْ جَعْفَرٍعَلَيْهِمَا السَّلاَمُ مِمَّنْ يَجْمَعُ المالَ وَلكِنَّهُ حَصَلَ فِي وَقْتِ الرَّشِيدِ، وَكَثُرَ وَلَمْ يَقدِر عَلَى تَفرِيقِ ما كانَ يَجتَمِعُ إِلاّ عَلَى القَلِيلِ مِمَّنْ يَثِقُ بِهِمْ فِي كِتمانِ السِّرِّ، فَاجتَمَعَت هذِهِ الأَمْوالُ لأَجلِ ذلِكَ، وَأَرادَ أَن لا يُحَقَّقَ عَلَى نَفْسِهِ قَوْلُ مَن كانَ يَسعى‏ بِهِ إِلى الرَّشِيدِ، وَيَقُولُ: إِنَّهُ تُحمَلُ عَلَيهِ الأَموالُ، وَيَعتَقِدُ لَهُ الإِمامَةَ، وَيَحمِلُ عَلَى الخُرُوجِ عَلَيْهِ، وَلَوْ لا ذلِكَ لَفَرَّقَ مَا اجتَمَعَ مِن هذِهِ الأَمْوالِ، عَلَى أَنَّها لَمْ تَكُنْ أَمْوالَ الفُقَراءِ، وَإِنَّما كانَتْ أَموالاً يَصِلُهُ بِها مَوالِيهِ لِيَكُونَ لَهُ إِكراماً مِنْهُمْ لَهُ وَبِرّاً مِنْهُمْ بِهِ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ.

11

بابُ ما جاءَ عَنِ الرِّضا عَلِىِّ بْنِ مُوسَى‏عَلَيْهِمَا السَّلاَمُ مِنَ الأَخْبارِ فِي التّوَحِيدِ

1 - حَدَّثَنا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ مُوسَى بْنِ المُتَوَكِّلِ رَضِىَ اللهُ عَنْهُ قالَ: حَدَّثَنا عَلِىُّ بْنُ إِبراهِيمِ بْنِ هـاشِمٍ، عَـنْ أَبيهِ، عَنِ الصَّقْرِ بْنِ دُلَفٍ، عَنْ ياسِرٍ الخادِمِ، قالَ: سَمِعْتُ أَبَا الحَسَنِ عَلِىِّ بْنِ

“Whoever draws a comparison between the Sublime God and His creatures is an atheist. Whoever ascribes to God what God has admonished against is also an atheist.”

11-2 Ali ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Imran ad-Daqqaq - may God be pleased with him - narrated that Muhammad ibn Harun al-Sufi quoted on the authority of Ubaydillah ibn Musa Al-Royani, on the authority of Abdul Azeem ibn Abdullah ibn Ali ibn Al-Hassan ibn Zayd ibn Al-Hassan ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (a.s.), on the authority of Ibrahim ibn Abi Mahmood, “Ali ibn Musa Al-Ridha’ (a.s.) said the following regarding the Words of the Sublime God, ‘Some faces, that Day, will beam (in brightness and beauty) looking towards their Lord.’1 This means that these faces will be shining awaiting the reward of their Lord.”

11-3 Ahmad ibn Ziyad ibn Ja’far al-Hamadani - may God be pleased with him - narrated that Ali ibn Ibrahim ibn Hashem quoted on the authority of his father, on the authority of Abdul Salam ibn Salih al-Harawi2, “I asked Ali ibn Musa Al-Ridha’ (a.s.), ‘O son of the Prophet of God! What is your opinion on the following traditions which the narrators of traditions narrate: ‘The believers visit their Lord from their homes in Paradise.’ Al-Ridha’ (a.s.) replied, ’O Aba Salt! Indeed the Blessed the Sublime God has honored His Prophet Muhammad over all His creatures - even the Prophets and the angels. He has established obeying him equal to obeying God, following him equal to following God, and visiting him equal to visiting God. The Honorable the Exalted God said, ‘He who obeys the Apostle, obeys God…’3 God also said, ‘Verily those who plight their fealty to thee do no less than plight their fealty to God: the Hand of God is over their hands…’4 Moreover, the Prophet (S) has said, ‘Whoever comes to visit me during my life or after my death has indeed visited the Sublime God. The rank of the Prophet (S) in Heaven is the highest rank of all. Therefore, whoever visits the Prophet (S) in the Prophet’s (a.s.) own rank and position in Heaven has indeed visited the Blessed the Sublime God.’’”

Aba Salt (Abdul Salam ibn Salih al-Harawi) added, “I asked, ‘O son of the Prophet of God (a.s.)! What is the meaning of the following tradition, ‘The reward of saying There is no god but God is looking at the Face of the Sublime God?’ The Imam (a.s.) replied, ‘Whoever considers the Sublime God as having a face similar to that of the creatures is an atheist.

مُوسَى الرِّضا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ مِن شِبْهَ اللَّهَ تَعالى‏ بِخَلقِهِ فَهُوَمُشرِكٌ وَمَن نَسَبَ إِلَيهِ ما نَهى‏ عَنْهُ فَهُوَكافِرٌ.

2 - حَدَّثَنا عَلِىُّ بْنُ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِمْرانَ الدَّقَّاق رَضِىَ اللهُ عَنْهُ قالَ: حَدَّثَنا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ هارُونَ الصُّوفِيُّ قالَ: حَدَّثَنا عُبِيْدُ اللَّهِ بْنِ مُوسَى الرُّويانِيُّ قالَ: حَدَّثَنا عَبْدُالعَظِيمِ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ الحَسَنِ بنِ زَيْدِ بْنِ الحَسَنِ بْنِ عَلِىِّ بْنِ أَبِي طالِبٍ‏عَلَيْهِمَا السَّلاَمُ، عَنْ إِبْراهيمَ بْنِ أَبي مَحْمُودٍ قالَ: قالَ عَلِىُّ بْنُ مُوسَى الرِّضا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ فِي قَوْلَ اللَّهِ تعالى‏: «وُجُوهٌ يَوْمَئِذٍ ناضِرَةٌ إِلى رَبِّها ناظِرَةٌ» قالَ: يَعْنِي مُشرِقَةٌ يَنتَظِرُ ثَوابَ رَبِّها.

3 - حَدَّثَنا أَحْمَدُ بْنُ زِيادِ بْنِ جَعْفَر الْهَمَذانيُ‏ رَضِىَ اللهُ عَنْهُ قالَ: حَدَّثَنا عَلِىُّ بْنُ إِبراهِيمَ بْنِ هاشِمٍ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَن إِبْراهيمَ بْنِ هاشِمٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ السَّلامِ بْنِ صالِحٍ الهَرَوِيِّ قالَ: قُلْتُ لِعَلِيِّ بْنِ مُوسَى الرِّضا عَلَيْهِمَا السَّلاَمُ: يا ابْنَ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ما تَقُول فِي الْحَدِيثِ الَّذِي يَروِيهِ أَهْلُ الْحَدِيثِ: أَنَّ المُؤْمِنِينَ يَزُورُونَ رَبِّهِمْ مِن مَنازِلِهِمْ فِي الجَنَّةِ؟ فَقالَ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ: يا أَبَا الصَّلْتِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ تَبارَكَ وَتَعالى‏ فَضَّلَ نَبِيِّهِ مُحَمَّداً صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ وَسَلَّمَ عَلَى جَمِيعَ خَلقِهِ مِنَ النَبِيِّينَ وَالمَلائِكَةِ، وَجَعَلَ طاعَتَهُ طاعَتَهُ، وَمَتابِعَتَهُ مُتابِعَتَهُ، وَزِيارَتَهُ فِي الدُّنْيا وَالآخِرَةِ زِيارَتَهُ فَقالَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ: «مَن ْيُطِعِ الرَّسُولَ فَقَدْ أَطاعَ اللَّهَ» قالَ: «إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يُبايِعُونَ كَإِنَّما يُبايِعُونَ اللَّهَ يَدُ اللَّهِ فَوْقَ أَيْدِيهِمْ» وَقالَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ «مَن زارَنِي فِي حَياتِي أَوْ بَعْدَ مَوْتِي فَقَدْ زارَ اللَّهَ تَعالى‏» وَدَرَجَةُ النَّبِي‏ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ فِي الجَنَّةِ أَرْفَعُ الدَّرَجاتِ.

فَمَنْ زارَهُ فِي دَرَجَتِهِ الجَنَّةِ مِن مَنْزِلِهِ فَقَدْ زارَ اللَّهُ تَبارَكَ وَتَعالى‏. قالَ: فَقُلْتُ لَهُ: يا ابْنِ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ فَما مَعْنَى الخَبَرِ الَّذِي رَوَوهُ: «أَنَّ ثَوابَ لا إِلهَ إِلاّ اللَّهُ النَّظَرُ إِلى وَجْهِ اللَّهِ تَعـالى‏» فَقـالَ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ: يـا أَبَا الصَّلْتِ مَن وَصَفَ اللَّهَ تَعالى‏ بِوَجهٍ كَالوُجُوهِ فَقَدْ كَفَرَ،

However, the Sublime God’s Face is His Prophets (a.s.), His Messengers (a.s.) and His Proofs (a.s.). They are the people by whom the people are directed towards the Honorable the Exalted God, His Religion and His Recognition. The Sublime God said, ‘All that is on earth will perish. But will abide (forever) the Face of thy Lord, full of Majesty, Bounty and Honor.’5 The Honorable the Exalted God also said, ‘…Everything (that exists) will perish except His own Face..’6. Therefore, looking at the Sublime God’s Prophets (a.s.), Messengers (a.s.) and Proofs (a.s.) in their respective ranks has a great reward for the believers on the Resurrection Day. The Prophet (S) has also said, ‘On the Resurrection Day whoever despises the members of my Holy Household and my ‘Itra7 will not see me. I will not see him either.’ The Prophet (S) has also said, ‘Among you there are some people who will never again see me after they depart from me.’ O Aba Salt! Indeed the Blessed the Sublime God cannot be described by position, cannot be perceived by the eyes or imaginations.’”

Aba Salt said, “I asked, ‘Please tell me whether Heaven and Hell have been created?’ Imam Al-Ridha’ (a.s.) answered, ‘Yes. When the Prophet of God (a.s.) was taken for the Ascension to the heavens he entered Paradise, and saw the Fire.’”

Aba Salt said, “I asked, ‘Some people believe that these two have been destined to be, but have not been created yet.’ The Imam (a.s.) replied, ‘Neither do they belong to us, nor do we belong to them. Whoever denies Heaven and Hell has indeed denied the Prophet (S) and us. He is not controlled by any part of our Mastery. He will abide in the Fire for eternity. The Sublime God has said, ‘This is the Hell which the sinners deny. In its midst and in the midst of boiling hot water will they wander around!’8 The Prophet (S) said, ‘When I was taken for Ascension to the heavens Gabriel took my hands and took me into Paradise. They he gave me some Heavenly Dates from which I ate. The date turned into sperms in my loin. Once I returned to the Earth I made love with Khadija and she got pregnant with (the Blessed Baby) Fatima (a.s.). Therefore, Fatima is a human houri.9 Whenever I wish to smell Paradise, I smell the scent of my daughter Fatima (a.s.).’’”

11-4 Muhammad ibn Musa ibn al-Mutawakkil - may God be pleased with him - narrated that Ali ibn Ibrahim ibn Hashem quoted on the authority of his father, on the authority of al-Rayyan ibn al-Salt, on the authority

وَلكِن وَجْهُ اللَّهِ تَعالى‏ أَنبِياؤُهُ وَرُسُلِهِ وَحُجَجُهُ صَلَواتُ اللَّهِ عَلَيهِم، هُمُ الَّذِينَ بِهِم يَتَوَجَّهُ إِلَى اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ وَإِلى دِينِهِ وَمَعْرِفَتِهِ و قالَ اللَّه تَعالى‏: «كُلُّ مَنْ عَلَيْها فانٍ وَيَبْقى وَجْهُ رَبِّكَ ذُو الْجَلالِ وَالْإِكْرامِ» وَقالَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ: «كُلُّ شَيْ‏ءٍ هالِكٌ إِلَّا وَجْهَهُ» فَالنَّظَرُ إِلى أَنبِياءَ اللَّه تَعالى‏ وَرُسُلِهِ وَحُجَجِهِ‏ عَلَيْهِمُ السَّلاَمُ فِي دَرَجاتِهِمْ ثَوابٌ عَظِيمٌ لِلمُؤمِنينَ يَوْمَ القِيامَةِ وَقَدْ قالَ النَّبِي‏ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ: «مَن أَبغَضَ أَهْلَ بَيْتِي وَعِتْرَتِي لَمْ يَرنِي وَلَمْ أَرَهُ يَوْمَ القِيامَةِ» وَقالَ: «إِنَّ فِيكُم مَنْ لا يَرانِي بَعْدَ أَن يُفارِقَنِي»، يا أَبَا الصَّلْتِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ تَبارَكَ وَتَعالى‏ لا يُوصَفُ بِمَكانٍ، وَلا يُدْرِكُ بِالأَبصارِ وَالأَوهامِ.

قالَ،: قُلْتُ لَهُ يا ابْنِ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ أَخبِرنِي عَنِ الجَنَّةِ وَالنَّارِ أهُما الْيَوْمَ مَخْلُوقتانِ؟ فَقالَ: نَعَم، وَإِنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ‏ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ قَدْ دَخَلَ الجَنَّةَ وَرَأى النَّارِ لَمّا عُرِجَ بِهِ إِلى السَّماءِ، قالَ: فَقُلْتُ لَهُ: إِنَّ قَوْماً يَقُولُونَ: إِنَّهُما الْيَوْمَ مُقَدَّرَتانِ غَيْرِ مَخْلُوقَتَيْنِ، فَقالَ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ لا هُم مِنَّا وَلا نَحْنُ مِنْهُمْ، مَن أَنْكَرَ خَلقَ الجَنَّةِ وَالنَّارِ فَقَدْ كَذَّبَ النَّبِي‏ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ وَكذبنا وَكَذَّبَنا وَلَيْسَ مِن وِلايَتِنا عَلَى شَي‏ءٍ وَيُخلَدُ فِي نارِ جَهَنَّمَ، قالَ اللَّه تَعالى‏: «هذِهِ جَهَنَّمُ الَّتِي يُكَذِّبُ بِهَا الُْمجْرِمُونَ يَطُوفُونَ بَيْنَها وَبَيْنَ حَمِيمٍ آنٍ» وَقالَ النَّبِي‏ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ: «لَمّا عُرِجَ بي إِلى السَّماءِ أَخَذَ بِيَدِي جِبْرَئِيلُ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ فَأَدخِلَني الجَنَّةَ، فَناوِلْني مِن رُطَبِها، فَأَكَلتُهُ فَتَحَوَّلَ ذلِكَ نُطْفَةً فِي صُلْبِي، فَلَمَّا هَبَطتُ إِلى الأَرْضِ واقَعتُ خَدِيجَةَ، فَحَمَلَت بِفاطِمَةَ عَلَيْهَا السَّلاَمُ فَفاطِمَةَ حَوراءٌ إِنسِيَّةٌ، فَكُلَّما اشتَقتُ إِلى رائِحَةِ الجَنَّةِ شَمَمتُ رائِحَةَ ابنَتِي فاطِمَةَ عَلَيْهَا السَّلاَمُ.

4 - حَدَّثَنا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ مُوسَى بْنِ المُتَوَكِّل رَضِىَ اللهُ عَنْهُ قالَ: حَدَّثَنا عَلِىِّ بْنِ إِبراهِيمِ بْنِ هاشِمٍ، عَنْ أَبيهِ، عَنِ الرَّيانِ بْنِ الصَّلْتِ، عَنْ عَلِىِّ بْنِ مُوسَى الرِّضا، عَنْ أَبيهِ عَنْ آبائِهِ عَنْ

of Ali ibn Musa Al-Ridha’ (a.s.), on the authority of his father (a.s.), on the authority of his forefathers (a.s.), on the authority of the Commander of the Faithful (a.s.) that God’s Prophet (S) said, “God - the Exalted the Magnificent - said, “Whoever interprets My Words according to his own viewpoint has no faith in Me. And whoever considers Me to be similar to My creatures does not recognize Me. And whoever makes comparisons in my religion does not believe in My religion.”

11-5 Muhammad ibn Al-Hassan ibn Ahmad ibn al-Waleed - may God be pleased with him - narrated that Muhammad ibn Al-Hassan al-Saffar quoted on the authority of Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Khalid, on the authority of some companions that one day when Abul Hassan Al-Ridha’ (a.s.) was passing by the grave of one of the members of his Holy Household, he (a.s.) placed his hand on the grave and said, “O my God! Your Might is apparent, but the people are ignorant of Thee. They try to use measures to recognize Thee. Such a form of describing Thee is in contradiction with the belief in Thy Lordship. O my Lord! I am not of those who seek Thee through striking similitude. Nothing is similar to Thee. My Lord! They do not understand Thee. If they wanted to recognize Thee, Thy apparent Blessings were the Best Proofs for them of Thee. O my God! It suffices for them to ponder over Thy creatures, and not to try to go deeply into Thy nature. However, they consider Thee and Thy creatures to be the same. That is why they did not really recognize Thee, and considered some of Thy Signs to be their Lords. Thus they described Thee as such. My Lord! Thee are Higher than what those who compare Thee (with others) describe Thee to be.”

11-6 (The author of the book narrated) my father - may God be pleased with him - narrated that Sa’d ibn Abdullah quoted on the authority of Muhammad ibn Al-Husayn Abil Khattab, on the authority of Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Abi Nasr, “Some people from across the river came to see Abil Hassan Al-Ridha’ (a.s.) and said, ‘We have come to ask you three questions. If you give us the answer to all three questions, then we will know that you are a scientist.’ The Imam (a.s.) said, ‘Go ahead and ask.’ They said, ‘Let us know where the Sublime God is? How is He? What does He rely on?’ The Imam (a.s.) replied, ‘The Sublime God has created the quality of how to be Himself. Therefore, He Himself has no quality of being, and this question does not apply to Him. He has created positions. Thus He is not in need of a place to be. He relies on His Might.’ They said, ‘We testify that you are a scientist.’”

أَمِيرِ الْمُؤْمِنينَ‏ عَلَيْهِمُ السَّلاَمُ قالَ: قالَ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ‏ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ: قالَ اللَّه جَلَّ جَلالُهُ: ما آمَنَ بي مَن فَسَّرَ بِرَأيِهِ كَلامِي، وَما عَرَفَنِي مِن شَبَّهَنِي بِخَلقِي، وَما عَلَى دِينِي مَنِ استَعمَلَ القِياسَ فِي دِينِي.

5 - حَدَّثَنا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ الحَسَن بْنِ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ الوَلِيد رَضِىَ اللهُ عَنْهُ قالَ: حَدَّثَنا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ الحَسَنِ الصَفَّارُ، قالَ: حَدَّثَنا أَحْمَدُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ خالِدٍ، عَنْ بَعْضِ أَصْحابُنا قالَ: مَرَّ أَبُو الحَسَنِ الرِّضا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ بِقَبرٍ مِن قُبُورِ أَهْل بَيْتِهِ فَوَضَعَ يَدِهِ عَلَيْهِ، ثُمَّ قالَ: «إِلهي بَدَت قُدْرَتُكَ وَلَمْ تَبدُ واهِيَةً فَجَهَلُوكَ وَقَدَّرُوكَ، وَالتَّقدِيرُ عَلَى غَيْرِ ما بِهِ وَصَفُوكَ، وَإِنّي بَري‏ءٌ يا إِلهي مِنَ الَّذِينَ بِالتَّشبِيهِ طَلَبُوكَ، لَيْسَ كَمِثلِكَ شَي‏ءٌ، إِلهي وَلَنْ يُدرِكُوكَ، وَظاهِرٌ ما بِهِمْ مِن نِعَمِكَ دَلِيلُهُم عَلَيْكَ لَوْ عَرَفُوكَ وَخَلْقِكَ يا إِلهي مَندُوحَةٌ أَن يَتَناوَلُوكَ بَل سَوُّوكَ بِخَلقِكَ، فَمَنْ ثُمَّ لَمْ يَعرِفُوكَ، وَاتَّخَذُوا بَعْضَ آياتِكَ رَبّاً فَبِذلِكَ وَصَفُوكَ فَتَعالَيتَ رَبِّي عَمَّا بِهِ المُشَبِّهُونَ نَعَتُوكَ».

6 - حَدَّثَنا أَبي‏ رَضِىَ اللهُ عَنْهُ قالَ: حَدَّثَنا سَعْدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ قالَ: حَدَّثَنا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ الحُسَيْنِ بنِ أَبي الخَطَّابِ، عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ أَبي نَصْرٍ قالَ: جاءَ قَوْمٌ مِن وَراءَ النَّهرِ إِلى أَبي الحَسَنِ الرِّضا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ، فَقالُوا لَهُ: جِئناكَ نَسأَلُكَ عَنْ ثَلاثَ مَسائِلَ، فَإِنَّ أَجَبتَنا فِيها عَلِمنا أَنَّكَ عالِمٌ، فَقالَ: سَلُوا، فَقالُوا أَخبِرنا عَنِ اللَّه تَعالى‏ أَيْنَ كانَ، وَكَيْفَ كانَ؟ وَعَلَى أيِّ شَي‏ءٍ كانَ اِعتِمادُهُ؟ فَقالَ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ: إِنَّ اللَّهَ تَعالى‏ كَيْفَ الكَيفَ فَهُوَبِلا كَيْفٍ، وَأَيَّنَ الأَينَ فَهُوَبِلا أَيْنٍ، وَكانَ اعتِمادُهُ عَلَى قُدْرَتِهِ، فَقالُوا: نَشْهَدُ أَنَّكَ عالِمٌ.

The author of this book (a.s.heikh Sadooq) said, “When the Imam (a.s.) said that God relies on His Might, he (a.s.) meant that God relies on Himself since Might is a part of God.”

11-7 Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Sinani - may God be pleased with him - narrated that Muhammad ibn Abi Abdullah al-Kufi quoted on the authority of Muhammad ibn Isma’il al-Barmaki, on the authority of Al-Husayn ibn Al-Hassan, on the authority of Muhammad ibn Isa, on the authority of Muhammad ibn Arafa, “I asked Al-Ridha’ (a.s.), ‘Did God create things using His Might or without it?’ The Imam (a.s.) replied, ‘You cannot say that God created things using His Might since when you say that God has created thing using His Might, you are considering His Might to be something other than Him. Saying that God has created things using the Might He has had over them10 is like saying that God’s Might is something other than Him, and He has used it as a tool with which He creates. This is polytheism. When you say that God has created things using some other Might, it is as if you consider that Might to be separate from Him and He gets His Power over things using it. However, God is neither weak and incapable, nor is He in need of others. He is Glorified, and Mighty in nature, and not via an external power.’”

11-8 Abdullah ibn Muhammad ibn Abdul Wahhab al-Qurashi narrated that Ahmad ibn Al-Fadhl ibn al-Mugheerat quoted on the authority of Abu Mansoor ibn Abdullah ibn Ibrahim al-Asbahani, on the authority of Ali ibn Abdullah, on the authority of Al-Husayn ibn Bashshar, on the authority of Abil Hassan Ali ibn Musa Al-Ridha’ (a.s.), “Does God know how things which do not exist would have been if they were created?” The Imam (a.s.) replied, “The Sublime God knows how things are before they are created. The Honorable the Exalted God said, ‘…For We were wont to put on Record all that ye did.’11 God also said the following about the People of Hell, ‘…But if they were returned, they would certainly relapse to the things they were forbidden, for they are indeed liars.’12 Thus God knows that if they are brought back to this world, they would go back and do what they had done before. Also when the angels said, ‘…Wilt Thou place therein one who will make mischief therein and shed blood? whilst we do celebrate Thy Praises and glorify Thy Holy (Name)?’13 God replied, ‘I know what ye know not.’14 Therefore, the Honorable the Exalted God always knows about things before creating them. Therefore, Blessed is our Lord. High indeed is He

قالَ مُصَنِّفُ هذا الْكِتابِ: يَعْنِي بِقَوْلِه وَكانَ اعتِمادُهُ عَلَى قُدْرَتِهِ أي عَلَى ذاتِهِ، لأَنَّ القُدرَةَ مِن صِفاتِ ذاتِ اللَّهِ تَعالى‏.

7 - حَدَّثَنا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ أحْمَدَ السَنانِيُّ رَضِىَ اللهُ عَنْهُ قالَ: حَدَّثَنا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ الكُوفِيُّ قالَ: حَدَّثَنا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ إِسْمَاعِيل البَرمَكيِ‏ُّ قالَ: حَدَّثَنا الحُسَيْنُ بْنُ الحَسَنَ قالَ: حَدَّثَنا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عِيسَى، عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَرَفَةَ قالَ: قُلْتُ لِلرِّضا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ:

خَلَقَ اللَّهُ الأَشْياءِ بِالقُدرَةِ أَم بِغَيْرِ القُدرَةِ؟ فَقالَ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ: لا يَجُوزُ أَنْ يَكُونَ خَلَقَ الأَشْياءَ بِالقُدرَةِ لأَنَّكَ إِذا قُلْتُ: خَلَقَ الأَشْياءَ بِالقُدرَةِ، فَكَأَنَّكَ قَدْ جُعِلْتَ القُدرَةَ شَيْئاً غَيْرَهُ وَجَعَلتَها آلَةً لَهُ بِها خَلَقَ الأَشْياءَ، وَهذا شِركٌ، وَإِذا قُلْتُ خَلَقَ الأَشْياءَ بِغَيْرِ قُدْرَةٍ فَإِنَّّما تَصِفُهُ أَنَّهُ جَعَلَها بِاقتِدارٍ عَلَيْها وَقُدْرَةٍ، وَلكِن لَيْسَ هُوَبِضَعيفٍ وَلا عاجِزٍ وَلا مُحْتاجٍ إِلى غَيْرِهِ، بَل هُوَسُبحانَهُ قادِرٌ لِذاتِهِ لا بِالقُدرَةِ.

8 - حَدَّثَنا عَبْدُ اللَّه بْنُ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَبْد الوَهَّابِ القُرَشِيِّ قالَ: حَدَّثَنا أَحْمَدُ بْنُ الفَضْلِ بْنِ المُغَيرَةِ قالَ: حَدَّثَنا أَبُو نَصْرٍ مَنْصُورُ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّه بْنِ إِبْراهيمِ الإصبَهانِيَّ قالَ: حَدَّثَنا عَلِىُّ بْنُ عَبدِ اللَّهِ قالَ: حَدَّثَنا الحُسَيْنُ بْنُ بَشَّارٍ، عَنْ أَبي الحَسَنِ عَلِىِّ بْنِ مُوسَى الرِّضاعَلَيْهِمَا السَّلاَمُ قالَ: سَأَلْتُهُ أَيَعلَمُ اللَّهَ الشَّي‏ءَ الَّذِي لَمْ يَكُنْ أَن لَوْ كانَ كَيْفَ كأَنْ يَكُونُ؟ قالَ: إِنَّ اللَّهَ تَعالى‏ هُوَالعالِمُ بِالأَشياءِ قَبْلَ كَوْنِ الأَشْياءِ، قالَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ: «إِنَّا كُنَّا نَسْتَنْسِخُ ما كُنْتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ».

وَقالَ لأَهْلِ النَّارِ: «وَلَوْ رُدُّوا لَعادُوا لِما نُهُوا عَنْهُ وَإِنَّهُمْ لَكاذِبُونَ» فَقَدْ عَلِمَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ أَنَّهُ لَوْ رَدَّوهُم لَعادُوا لِما نُهُوا عَنْهُ.

وَلِلمَلائِكَةِ لَمّا قالَتْ: «أَ تَجْعَلُ فِيها مَنْ يُفْسِدُ فِيها وَيَسْفِكُ الدِّماءَ وَنَحْنُ نُسَبِّحُ بِحَمْدِكَ وَنُقَدِّسُ لَكَ» قالَ: «إِنِّي أَعْلَمُ ما لا تَعْلَمُونَ» فَلَمْ يَزَلِ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ عِلمُهُ سابِقاً لِلأَشيـاءِ

Exalted. He is High and Great. He has created things, and knew about them before they were created, just as He willed. Thus is our Lord! He is the All-Knowing, All-Hearing and All-Seeing.

11-9 Abdul Wahid Muhammad ibn Ubdoos al-Attar al-Neisaboori - may God be pleased with him –narrated in the (Arabic) month of Sha’ban of the year 352 A.H. (962 A.D.) in Neishaboor on the authority of Ali ibn Muhammad ibn Qutayba al-Neishaboori, on the authority of Al-Fadhl ibn Shathan15 that he had heard Al-Ridha’ (a.s.) pray one day and say, “Glory be to God who has created things with His Might. He perfected whatever He created using His Wisdom. He placed whatever He created in its right place using His Knowledge. Glorified is Him who knows about the deceitful hidden looks and whatever is hidden in the hearts. There exists nothing like unto Him. He is the All-Hearing, the All-Seeing.”

11-10 Ali ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Imran ad-Daqqaq - may God be pleased with him - narrated that Muhammad ibn Abi Abdullah al-Kufi quoted on the authority of Muhammad ibn Isma’il al-Barmaki, on the authority of Al-Fadhl ibn Soleiman al-Kufi, on the authority of Al-Husayn ibn Khalid: I heard Al-Ridha’ (a.s.) say, “The Sublime God has always been All-Knowing, All-Powerful, Ever-Living, Ever-Lasting, All-Hearing and All-Seeing.” I asked him, “O son of the Prophet of God! There are some people who say that God has always been All-Knowing with Knowledge, All-Powerful with His Might, Ever-Living with His Life, Ever-Lasting with His Past, and All-Hearing with His Hearing, All-Seeing with His Sight.” The Imam (a.s.) said, “Whoever says this and believes in it has indeed associated other gods as partners with God. He is not under our Mastery at all.” He (a.s.) then added, “The Honorable the Exalted God has always been All-Knowing, All-Powerful, Ever-Living, Ever-Lasting, All-Hearing and All-Seeing by His own High Nature. High indeed is He Exalted above what the polytheists say and the similitude they draw.”

11-11 Al-Husayn ibn Ahmad ibn Idris - may God be pleased with him - narrated that his father quoted on the authority of Muhammad ibn Abdul Jabbar, on the authority of Safwan ibn Yahya,: I asked Abil Hassan Al-Ridha’ (a.s.), “Let me know about the difference between the will of the Sublime God, and the will of the creatures.” The Imam (a.s.) said, “The will of the creatures is in the form of an inner thought, deciding what is

قَدِيماً قَبْلَ إِنِّي يَخلُقَها، فَتَبارَكَ اللَّهُ رَبُّنا وَتَعالى‏ عُلُوّاً كَبِيراً، خَلَقَ الأَشْياءَ وَعِلمُهُ بِها سابِقٌ لَها كَما شاءَ، كَذلِكَ رَبُّنا لَمْ يَزَل عالِماً سَمِيعاً بَصِيراً.

9 - حَدَّثَنا عَبْدُ الواحِدِ بْنُ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَبْدُوسٍ العَطَّارُ النِيْسابُوريُ‏ رَضِىَ اللهُ عَنْهُ بِنِيْسابُورَ في شَعْبانَ سِنَةَ اِثْنَتَيْنِ وَخَمْسِينَ وَثَلاثِمائَةٍ قالَ: حَدَّثَنا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ قُتَيْبَةَ النِيْسابُوريُّ، عَنِ الفَضْلِ بْنِ شاذانَ، قالَ: سَمِعْتُ الرِّضا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ يَقُولُ فِي دُعائِهِ: «سُبْحانَ مَن خَلَقَ الْخَلْقَ بِقُدْرَتِهِ، وَأِتقَنَ ما خَلَقَ بِحِكْمَتِهِ، وَوَضَعَ كُلَّ شَي‏ءٍ مِنْهُ مَوْضِعَهُ بِعِلمِهِ، سُبْحانَ مَن يَعْلَمُ خائِنَةَ الأَعيُنِ وَما تَخفِي الصُّدُورُ، وَلَيْسَ كَمِثلِهِ شَي‏ءٌ، وَهُوَالسَّمِيعُ البَصِيرُ».

10 - حَدَّثَنا عَلِىُّ بْنُ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِمْرانَ الدَّقَّاقُ رَضِىَ اللهُ عَنْهُ قالَ: حَدَّثَنا مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ أَبي عَبدِ اللَّهِ الكُوفِيُّ، عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ إِسْمَاعِيلَ البَرمَكِيِّ قالَ: حَدَّثَنا الفَضْلُ بْنُ سُلَيْمانَ الكُوفِيُّ، عَنْ خالِدٍ قالَ: سَمِعْتُ الرِّضا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ يَقُولُ: لَمْ يَزَلِ اللَّهُ تَعالى‏ عالِماً قادِراً حَيّاً، قَدِيماً سَمِيعاً بَصِيراً.

فَقُلْتُ لَهُ: يا ابْنَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ إِنَّ قَوْماً يَقُولُونَ: لَمْ يَزَلِ اللَّهُ عالِماً بِعِلمٍ، وَقادراً بِقُدرَةٍ، وَحَيّاً بِحَياةٍ، وَقَدِيماً بِقَدَمٍ، وَسَمِيعاً بِسَمعٍ، وَبَصِيراً بِبَصَرٍ، فَقالَ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ: مَن قالَ ذلِكَ وَدانَ بِهِ فَقَدْ اتَّخَذَ مَعَ اللَّهِ آلِهَةً اُخْرى‏ لَيسَ مِن وِلايَتِنا عَلَى شَي‏ءٍ، ثُمَّ قالَ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ: لَمْ يَزَلِ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ عَلِيماً قادِراً حَيّاً قَدِيماً سَمِيعاً بَصِيراً لِذاتِهِ، تَعالى‏ عَمَّا يَقُولُونَ الْمُشْرِكُونَ وَالمُشَبَّهُونَ عُلُوّاً كَبِيراً.

11 - حَدَّثَنا الحُسَيْنُ بْنُ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ إِدْرِيسَ، عَنْ أَبيهِ، عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَبْد الجَبَّارِ، عَنْ صَفْوان بْنِ يَحْيَى قالَ: قُلْتُ لأَبِي الحَسَنَ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ: أَخْبِرنِي عَنِ الإِرادَةِ؛ مِنَ اللَّهِ تَعالى‏ وَمِنَ الْخَلْقِ؟ فَقالَ: الإِرادَةُ مِنَ المخلُوقِ الضَّمِيرُ وَما يَبدُو لَهُ بَعْدَ ذلِكَ مِنَ الِفعلِ، وَأَمَّا مِنَ

best to do, and an action that follows. However, the Will of the Honorable the Exalted God is the same as Creation. He does not need to decide and think. These traits do not apply to Him. They are the characteristics of the creatures. Once the Sublime God wills, it is what He does. Nothing else. That is as He says, ‘We but say the word, ‘Be’, and it is.’16 without any articulation, verbal expression, directed attention or thought. Just as God Himself does not have a quality of being, His Will has no quality of being.”

11-12 Ahmad ibn Ziyad ibn Ja’far al-Hamadani - may God be pleased with him - narrated that Ali ibn Ibrahim ibn Hashem quoted on the authority of his father, on the authority of Ali ibn Ma’bad, on the authority of Al-Husayn ibn Khalid that he told Al-Ridha’ (a.s.), “O son of the Prophet of God! The people narrate that the Messenger of God (a.s.) said, ‘God created Adam in His image.’ The Imam (a.s.) said, ‘May God kill them! They have omitted the beginning part of the tradition. The Messenger of God (a.s.) passed by two men who were verbally abusing each other. The Prophet (S) heard one of them say to his companion, ‘May God disfigure your face and of everyone who looks like you!’ The Prophet of God (a.s.) said, ‘O Abdullah! Do not say this to your brother since indeed the Honorable the Exalted God created Adam in His image.’”17

11-13 Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Aasim al-Kolayni - may God be pleased with him - narrated that Muhammad ibn Yaqoob al-Kolayni quoted on the authority of Ahmad ibn Idris, on the authority of Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Isa, on the authority of Ali ibn Sayf, on the authority of Muhammad ibn Obaydah, “I asked Al-Ridha’ (a.s.) about the Honorable the Exalted God’s words, ‘O Satan! What prevents thee from prostrating thyself to the one whom I have created with my hands?…18 The Imam (a.s.) said, ‘This means by my Might and Power.’”

The author of this book (a.s.heikh Sadooq) said, “I have heard from some of the Shiite Sheikhs that the Divine Leaders read ‘O Satan! What prevents thee from prostrating thyself to the one whom I have created…’19 and then paused on the word ‘created’ and started again with the words ‘with my hands.’ The verse continues with ‘…Art thou haughty? Or art thou one of the high (and mighty) ones?’20 This is similar to saying, ‘Do you fight me using my own sword? Do you hit me

اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ: فَإرادَتُهُ إِحداثُهُ غَيْرَ ذلِكَ، لأَنَّهُ لا يُرَوِّي وَلا يَهُمُّ وَلا يَتَفَكَّرُ، وَهذِهِ الصِّفاتُ مَنفَيَّةٌ عَنْهُ وَهِيَ مِن صِفاتِ الخَلقِ، فَإِرادَةُ اللَّهِ تَعالى‏ هِيَ الفِعلُ لا غَيْرُ ذلِكَ يَقُولُ لَهُ: «كُنْ فَيَكُونَ»، بِلا لَفظٍ وَلا نُطقٍ بِلِسانٍ وَلا هِمَّةٍ وَلا تَفَكُّرٍ، وَلا كَيْفَ كَذلِكَ، كَما أَنَّهُ بِلا كَيفٍ.

12 - حَدَّثَنا أَحْمَدُ بْنُ زِيادِ بْنِ جَعْفَرٍ الْهَمَذانيُّ رَضِىَ اللهُ عَنْهُ قالَ: حَدَّثَنا عَلِىُّ بْنُ إِبراهِيمِ بْنِ هاشِمٍ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَن عَلِىُّ بْنُ مَعبَدٍ، عَنِ الحُسَيْنِ بْنِ خالِدٍ قالَ: قُلْتُ لِلرِّضا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ: يا ابْنَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ إِنّ‏ن النَّاسَ يَروُونَ: أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ‏ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ قالَ: إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ خَلَقَ آدَمَ عَلَى صُورَتِهِ؟ فَقالَ: قاتَلَهُمُ اللَّهُ حَذَفُوا أَوَّلَ الحَدِيثِ: إنَّ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ‏ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ مَرَّ بِرَجُلَينِ يَتَسابانِ، فَسَمَعَ أَحَدَهُما لِصاحِبِهِ: قَبَّحَ اللَّهُ وَجهَكَ وَوَجْهَ مَن يُشبِهُكَ، فَقالَ‏ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ: لَهُ يا عَبْدِ اللَّه لا تَقُل هذا لأَخِيكَ، فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ خَلَقَ آدَمَ عَلَى صُورَتِهِ.

13 - حَدَّثَنا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عصامٍ الكُلَيْنِيُّ رَضِىَ اللهُ عَنْهُ قالَ: حَدَّثَنا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَعْقُوبَ الكُلَيْنِيُّ قالَ: حَدَّثَنا أَحْمَدُ بْنُ إِدْرِيسَ، عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى، عَنْ عَلِىِّ بْنِ سَيْفٍ، عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عُبِيْدَةَ قالَ: سَأَلْتُ الرِّضا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ عَنْ قَوْلَ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ لِإِبلِيسَ: «ما مَنَعَكَ أَنْ تَسْجُدَ لِما خَلَقْتُ بِيَدَيَّ» قالَ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ: يَعْنِي بِقُدرَتِي وَقُوَّتِي.

قالَ مُصَنِّفُ هذا الْكِتابِ: سَمِعْتُ بَعْضَ مَشايِخِ الشِّيعَةِ يَذكُرُ فِي هذِهِ الآيَةِ: إِنَّ الأَئِمَّةَ عَلَيْهِمُ السَّلاَمُ كانُوا يَقِفُونَ عَلَى قَوْلَهُ: «ما مَنَعَكَ أَنْ تَسْجُدَ لِما خَلَقْتُ» ثُمَّ يَبتَدِءوُنَ بِقَوْلِهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ: «بِيَدَيَّ أَسْتَكْبَرْتَ أَمْ كُنْتَ مِنَ الْعـالِينَ» قـال: وَهـذا مِثلُ قَوْلِ القـائِلِ: بِسَيْفِي

using my own spears?’ Therefore, the Honorable the Exalted God is saying, ‘You have been empowered to be arrogant and disobedient using my own blessings given to you and kindnesses rendered to you.’”

11-14 Al-Husayn ibn Ibrahim ibn Ahmad ibn Hisham al-Mokattib - may God be pleased with him - narrated that Abul Husayn Muhammad ibn Ja’far al-Kufi al-Asadi quoted on the authority of Muhammad ibn Isma’il al-Barmaki, on the authority of Al-Husayn ibn Al-Hassan, on the authority of Bakr ibn Salih, on the authority of Al-Hassan ibn Sa’eed, on the authority of Abil Hassan Al-Ridha’ (a.s.) who said the following regarding the interpretation of the verse, ‘The Day that the shin shall be laid bare, and they shall be summoned to bow in adoration,…’21 “This refers to the Day on which the veil from the Light will be drawn aside and the believers fall in prostration but the backs of the hypocrites become so rigid that they cannot fall in prostration.”

11-15 Abul Abbas Muhammad ibn Ibrahim ibn Ishaq al-Taleqani - may God forgive him - narrated that Abu Sa’eed Al-Husayn ibn Ali al-Adawi quoted on the authority of al-Haytham ibn Abdullah al-Rommani that Ali ibn Musa Al-Ridha’ (a.s.) quoted on the authority of his father Musa ibn Ja’far (a.s.), on the authority of his father Ja’far ibn Muhammad (a.s.), on the authority of his father Muhammad ibn Ali (a.s.), on the authority of Ali ibn Al-Husayn (a.s.), on the authority of his father Al-Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (a.s.), “The Commander of the Faithful (a.s.) delivered a sermon in the Kufa Mosque and said, ‘Praise belongs to God, who did not originate from anything, nor did He bring what exists into being from anything. His Beginninglessness is attested to by the temporality (huduth) of things. His Power is attested to by the weakness with which He has branded them (His creatures), and His Ever-Lastingness (dawam) is attested to by the annihilation (fana) which He has subjected them to. No place is empty of Him that He might be perceived by localization (ayniyyah), no object is like Him that He might be described by a quality (kayfiyya), nor is He absent from anywhere that He might be known by a place (haythiyya). His attributes differ from all the attributes that He has originated. He is inaccessible to perception because of the changing essence of the things He has created. No created thing having grandeur and tremendousness can dominate (tasarruf) Him.

تُقاتِلُني وَبِرُمحِي تُطاعَنُني كَأَنَّهُ يَقُولُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ: بِنِعمَتِي عَلَيْكَ وَإحسـانِي إِلَيكَ قَوَيتَ عَلَى

الإِستِكبارِ وَالعِصيانِ.

14 - حَدَّثَنا الحُسَيْنُ بْنُ إِبْراهيمَ بْنِ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ هِشامٍ المُكَتَّبُ رَضِىَ اللهُ عَنْهُ قالَ: حَدَّثَنا أَبُوالحُسَيْنِ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ جَعْفَرٍ الكُوفِيُّ الأَسَدِيُّ قالَ: حَدَّثَنا مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ إِسْمَاعِيلَ البَرمَكيُّ قالَ: حَدَّثَنا الحُسَينُ بنُ الحَسَنِ، عَنْ بَكرِ بْنِ صالِحٍ، عَنِ الحَسَنِ بْنِ سَعِيدٍ، عَنْ أَبي الحَسَنِ الرِّضا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ فِي قَوْلِهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ: «يَوْمَ يُكْشَفُ عَنْ ساقٍ وَيَدْعُونَ إِلَى السُّجُودِ» قالَ: حِجابٌ مِن نُورٍ يَكشَفُ فَيِقَعُ الْمُؤْمِنُوُنَ سُجَّداً، وَتُدْمَجُ أَصلابُ المُنافِقِينَ فَلا يَستَطِيعُونَ السُّجُودَ.

15 - حَدَّثَنا أَبُو العَبَّاسِ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ إِبْراهيمَ بْنِ إِسْحاقَ الطَّالِقانِيُّ رَضِىَ اللهُ عَنْهُ قالَ: حَدَّثَنا أَبُو سَعِيدٍ الحَسَنُ بْنُ عَلِىٍّ العَدوِيُّ قالَ: حَدَّثَنا الهِيْثَمُ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ الرُّمانِيُّ قالَ: حَدَّثَنا عَلِىُّ بْنُ مُوسَى الرِّضاعَلَيْهِمَا السَّلاَمُ، عَنْ أَبيهِ مُوسَى بْنِ جَعْفَرٍ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ جَعْفَرِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ، عَنْ أَبيهِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَلِىّ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَلِىِّ بْنِ الحُسَيْنِ، عَنْ أَبيهِ الحُسَيْنِ بْنِ عَلِىِّ بْنِ أَبِي طالِبٍ‏عَلَيْهِمَا السَّلاَمُ قالَ: خَطَبَ أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنينَ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ النَّاسَ فِي مَسْجِدِ الكُوفَةَ فَقالَ:

اَلْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ الَّذي لا مِن شَي‏ءٍ كانَ، وَلا مِن شَي‏ءٍ كَوَّنَ ما قَدْ كانَ، المُستَشهِدِ بِحُدُوثِ الأَشْياءِ عَلَى أَزَلِيَّتِهِ، وَبِما وَسَمَها بِهِ مِنَ العَجزِ عَلَى قُدرَتِهِ، وَبِما اضطَرَّها إِلَيْهِ مِنَ الفَناءِ عَلَى دَوامِهِ، لَمْ يَخلُ مِنْهُ مَكانٌ فَيُدرِكَ بِأَينِيَّتِهِ، وَلا لَهُ شِبهُ مِثالٍ فَيُوصَفَ بِكَيفِيَّتِهِ، وَلَمْ يَغِب عَنْ فَيَعلَمَ بِحِيثِيَّتِهِ.

مُبايِنٌ لِجَمِيعِ ما أَحَدثَ فِي الصِّفاتِ، وَمُمتَنِعٌ عَنِ الإِدراكِ بِما ابتَدَعَ مِن تَصرِيفِ الذَّواتِ، وَخارِجٌ بِالكِبرِياءِ وَالعَظَمَةِ مِن جَمِيعِ تَصَرُّفِ الحالاتِ، مُحَرَّمٌ عَلَى بَوارِعٍ ثاقِبـاتِ الفَطَنِ

It is forbidden to delimit (tahdid) Him to the penetrating acumen of the sages. It is also forbidden to describe (takyeef) Him to the piercing profundities of thought and represent (taswir) Him to the searching probes of insight. Because of His Tremendousness, places encompass Him not; and because of His Majesty measures gauge Him not; and because of His Grandeur standards cannot judge Him. Impossible it is for imaginations to fathom Him, understandings to comprehend Him or minds to imagine Him. Powers of reasoning with lofty aspiration despair of contriving to comprehend Him. Oceans of knowledge run dry without referring to Him in depth; and the subtleties of the disputers fall from loftiness to pettiness in describing His Power. He is One not in terms of number. He is Everlasting (da’im) without duration, and Standing (qa’im) without supports. He is not of a kind that (other) kinds should be equal to Him. He is not an object that objects should be similar to Him. He is not like things that attributes should apply to Him. Powers of reasoning go astray in the waves of the current of perceiving Him. Imaginations are unable to perceive His Beginninglessness. Understandings are held back from becoming conscious of the description of His Power, and minds are drowned in the depths of the heavens of His kingdom (malakut). He is Master over (giving) bounties. He is Inaccessible through Grandeur, and is Sovereign over all things. Time (dahr) does not age Him, nor does description encompass Him. Humbled before Him are the most stubborn in their utmost stubbornness, and submitted to Him are the strongest cords in their utmost realm of strength.

All kinds of creatures witness to His Lordship (rubobiyya). The incapacity of all kinds of creature witness to His Power. The createdness (futur) of all kinds of creatures witness to His eternity (qidmah). The extinction (zawal) of all kinds of creatures witness to His permanence (baqa’). So they possess no place of refuge from His grasp (idrak). There is no exit from His encompassing (ihatah) them. They have no way of hiding themselves from His enumeration (ihsa’). They have no way of avoiding His Power over them. It is sufficient that He has perfectly made them as a sign (ayah). He has put their natural constitution as a Proof. He has established the temporal origin (huduth) of their natures as (a reason for His) Eternity. He has also decreed the Laws of Creation governing over them as a lesson.

تَجدِيدُهُ، وَعَلَى غَوامِضِ ناقِباتِ الفِكَرِ تَكيِيفُهُ، وَعَلَى غَوائِصِ سابِحاتِ النَّظَرِ تَصوِيرُهُ، لا تَحوِيهِ الأَماكِنُ لِعَظَمَتِهِ، وَلا تَدرَعُهُ المَقادِيرُ لِجَلالِه، وَتَقطَعُهُ المَقاييسُ لِكِبريائِهِ مُمتَنِعٌ عَنْ الأَوهامِ أَن تَكتَنَهَهُ، وَعَنِ الأَفهامِ أَن تَستَغرَفَهُ، وَعَنِ الأَذهانِ أَن تُمَثِّلَهُ، وَقَدْ يَئِسَت مِنِ استِنباطِ الإِحاطَةِ بِهِ طَوامِحُ العُقُولِ، وَنَضَبَت عَنِ الإِشارَةِ إِلَيْهِ بِالإِكتِناهِ بِحارُ العُلُومِ، وَرَجَعَت بِالصِّغَرِ عَنِ السُّمُوُّ إِلى وَصفِ قُدرَتِهِ لَطائِفُ الخُصُومِ.

واحِدٌ لا مِن عَدَدٍ، وَدائِمٌ لا بِأَمَدٍ، وَقائِمٌ لا بِعَمَدٍ، لَيْسَ بِجِنسٍ فَتُعادِلَهُ الأَجناسُ وَلا بِشَبَحٍ فَتُضارِعُهُ الأَشباحُ، وَلا كَالأَشياءِ فَتَقَعَ عَلَيْهِ الصِّفاتُ، قَدْ ضَلَّتِ العُقُولُ فِي أَمواجِ تَيَّارِ إِدراكِهِ، وَتَحَيَّرَتِ الأَوهامُ عَنْ إِحاطَةِ ذِكرِ أَزَلِيَّته وَحَصِرَتِ الأَفهامُ عَنِ استِشعارِ وَصفِ قُدرَتِهِ وَغَرِقَتِ الأَذهانُ فِي لُجَجِ أفَلاكِ مَلَكُوتِهِ مُقتَدِرٌ بِالآلاءِ، وَمُمتَنِعٌ بِالكِبرِياءِ، وَمُتَمَلِّكٌ عَلَى الأَشْياءِ فَلا دَهْرٌ يُخلِقُهُ وَلا زَمانٌ يُبلِيهِ وَلا وَصفٌ يُحِيطُ بِهِ، وَقَدْ خَضَعَت لَهُ ثَوابِ‏ُ الصَّعابِ فِي مَحَلِّ تُخُومِ قَرارِها، وَأَذعَنَت لَهُ رَواصِنُ الأَسبابِ فِي مُنْتَهِىَ شَواهِقِ أَقطارِها، مُستَشهِدٌ بِكُلِّيَّةِ الأَجناسِ عَلَى رُبُوبِيَّتِهِ وَبِعَجزِها عَلَى قُدرَتِهِ، وَبِفُطُورِها عَلَى قِدمَتِهِ وَبِزَوالِها عَلَى بَقائِهِ فَلا لَها مَحِيصٌ عَنْ إِدراكِهِ إِيَّاها، وَلا خُروُجٌ مِن إحاطَتِهِ بِها وَلا احتِجابٌ عَنْ إِحصائِهِ لَها وَلا امتِناعٌ مِن قُدرَتِهِ عَلَيْها، كَفى‏ بِإِتقانِ الصُّنعِ لَها آيَةً وَبِمَـركَبِ الطَّبعِ عَلَيْها دِلالَةٌ، وَبِحُدُوثِ الفَطـرِ عَلَيْها قِدمَةً وَبِأَحكامِ الصَّنعَةِ لَها عِبرَةً، فَلا

No limit is attributed to Him, no similitude is struck for Him and nothing is hidden from Him. High indeed is He exalted above the striking of similitude and above created attributes!

And I testify that there is no god but He, having faith in His Lordship and opposing whoever denies Him. I testify that Muhammad is His Servant and Messenger, residing in the best lodging-place, having passed from the noblest of loins and immaculate wombs, extracted in lineage from the noblest of treasures and in origin from the noblest of plantations, and (derived) from the most inaccessible of summits and the most glorious roots, from the tree from which God fashioned His Prophets and chose His trusted ones: (a tree) of excellent wood, harmonious stature, lofty branches, flourishing limbs, ripened fruit, (and) noble interior, implanted in generosity and cultivated in a sacred precinct. There it put forth branches and fruit, became strong and unassailable, and then made him (the Prophet Muhammad) tall and eminent, until the Sublime God honored him with the Holy Spirit, the Illuminating Light, and the Manifest Book. Moreover, He subjected Al-Boraq22 to him and the angels greeted him.

By means of him (the Prophet) He terrified the devils, overthrew the idols and gods (which were being) worshipped besides Him. His Prophet's Tradition (a.s.unna) is integrity (rushd); his conduct (a.s.eera) is justice and his decision is the truth. He proclaimed that which was commanded by his Lord, and he delivered that with which he was charged until he made plain his mission through the profession of Unity and made manifest among the creatures that There is no god but God alone and that there are no partners for Him; until His Unity became certain and His Lordship became purified. God made manifest his argument through the profession of His Unity and raised his rank with submission (Islam). And the Honorable the Exalted God chose for His Prophet what was with Him of repose, rank and means - may God’s Blessings be upon him and his pure Household.’”

11-16 Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Sinani - may God be pleased with him - narrated that Muhammad ibn Abi Abdillah al-Kufi quoted on the authority of Sahl ibn Ziyad al-Adami, on the authority of Abdul Azeem ibn Abdullah Al-Hassani -may God be pleased with him- on the authority of Ibrahim ibn Abi Mahmood, “I asked Abul Hassan Al-Ridha’ (a.s.) about

إِلَيْهِ حَدٌّ مَنسُوبٌ وَلا لَهُ مَثَلٌ مَضرُوبٌ وَلا شَي‏ءٌ عَنْهُ مَحجُوبٌ تَعالى‏ عَنْ ضَربِ الأَمثالِ وَالصِّفاتِ الَمخْلُوقةِ عُلُوّاً كَبِيراً.

وَأَشْهَدُ أَن لا إِلهَ إِلاّ هُوَ، إِيماناً بِرُبُوبِيَّتِهِ وَخِلافاً عَلَى مَن أَنْكَرَهُ، وَأَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّداً عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ المُقّرُّ فِي خَيْرَ المُستَقَرِّ المُتَناسِخُ مِن أَكارِمِ الأَصلابِ وَمُطَهَّراتِ الأَرحامِ، الُمخرَجُ مِن أَكْرَمَ المَعادِنِ مُحْتَداً، وَأَفْضَلِ المَنابِتِ مَنبَتاً، مِن أَمنَع ذِروَةٍ وَأَعَزَّ أُرُومَةٍ، مِنَ الشَّجَرَةِ الَّتِي صاغَ اللَّهُ مِنْها أَنبِياءَهُ، وَانتَجَبَ مِنْها أُمَناءَهُ، الطَّيِّبَةِ العُودٍ، المُعتَدَلَةِ العَمُودٍ، الباسِقَةِ الفُرُوعِ، النَّاضِرَةِ الغُصُونِ، اليانِعَةِ الِّثمارِ، الكَرِيمَة الجناة في كرم غُرست وَفِي حَرَمِ أنبتت وَفِيهِ تشّعبت و أثمرت وَعِزَّت وَامتنعت فسمت بِهِ وَشمخت حَتّى‏ أَكْرَمَ اللَّه تَعالى‏ بِالروح الأَمِين و النُّور المُبِين وَالْكِتاب المستبين وَسَخَّرَ لَهُ البراق وَصافحتهُ المَلائِكَة وَأرَعَب بِه الأَبالِسَة وَهَدَمَ بِهِ الأصنامَ وَالآلهةَ المَعبُودةَ دُونَهُ سنَّتهُ الرُّشد وَسِيرَتُه العَدْل وحكمُه الحَقِّ صدع بِما أَمَرَهُ بِهِ رَبُّهُ وَبَلَغَ ما حَمَّله حَتّى‏ أفصحَ بِالتّوحيدِ دَعَوْتِه وَأَظْهَرَ فِي الْخَلْقِ: أَن لا إِلهَ إِلاّ اللَّهُ وَحْدَهُ لا شَرِيكَ لَهُ حَتّى‏ خَلَصَت لَهُ الوَحدانِيَّةُ وَصفت [له‏] الربوبيةُ فَأَظهرَ اللَّهُ بِالتّوحيدِ حُجَّتَهُ وَأعَلَى بِالإِسلامَ دَرَجَتَهُ وَاختارَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ لنبيهِ ما عنْدَهُ مِنَ الرُّوحُ وَالدرجةِ وَالوَسِيلَةِ صَلَّى اللَّه عَلَيْهِ وَعَلَى آلِهِ الطَّاهِرِين.

16 - حَدَّثَنا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ أحْمَد السَنانِي رَضِىَ اللهُ عَنْهُ قالَ: حَدَّثَنا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ أَبي عَبْدِاللَّه الكُوفِيُ عَنْ سهل بن زِياد الأدمي عَنْ عَبْدِ العَظِيمِ بْنِ عَبْدِاللَّه الحَسَنِيِّ رَضِىَ اللهُ عَنْهُ عَنْ إِبْراهيمِ بْنِ أَبي مَحْمُودِ قالَ سَأَلْت أَبَا الحَسَن الرِّضا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ عَنْ قَوْلَ اللَّه تَعالى‏: «وَتَرَكَهُمْ فِي ظُلُماتٍ لا يُبْصِرُونَ» فَقـالَ: إِنَّ اللَّهَ تَبارَكَ وَتَعـالى‏ لا يوصَـفُ بِالتّرك كَمَـا

the Sublime God’s words, ‘…and left them in utter darkness. So they could not see.’”23 The Imam (a.s.) said, “Indeed the Blessed the Sublime God cannot be described using such expressions as ‘left’ as His creatures can. But when God knows that they will not quit their atheism and lose, God will deprive them of His Assistance and Favor, and abandon them to do as they please.”

I asked the Imam (a.s.) about the Honorable the Exalted God’s words, ‘God hath set a seal on their hearts and on their hearing,…’24 The Imam (a.s.) said, “What is meant here by ‘seal’ is what is placed on their hearts as a chastisement for their blasphemy as the Honorable the Exalted God said, ‘Nay, Allah hath set the seal on their hearts for their blasphemy, and little is it they believe.’”25

I asked him (a.s.) whether the Honorable the Exalted God forces His servants to commit sins? The Imam (a.s.) said, “No. He gives them a choice, but gives them time to repent.”

I asked, “Does God oblige His servants to do what they cannot stand to do?” The Imam (a.s.) said, “How could He do that when He Himself has said, ‘…nor is thy Lord ever unjust (in the least) to His servants.’”26

The Imam (a.s.) then added, “My father Musa ibn Ja’far (a.s.) quoted on the authority of his father Ja’far ibn Muhammad (as-Sadiq) (a.s.) that you should not eat any of the offerings of or accept the testimony of, or pray behind, or give any alms taxes to whoever thinks that God forces His servants to commit sins or obliges them to do what they cannot stand to do.”

11-17 Tamim ibn Abdullah ibn Tamim al-Quraishi - may God be pleased with him - narrated that his father quoted on the authority of Ahmad ibn Ali Al-Ansari, on the authority of Yazid ibn Umayr ibn Mo’awiya ash-Shami that he went to see Ali ibn Musa Al-Ridha’ (a.s.) in Marv and told him, “O son of God’s Prophet (S)! It has been narrated on the authority of As-Sadiq Ja’far ibn Muhammad (a.s.) that ‘There is neither authorization, nor predestination. Rather there is something in between.’ Yazid asked, ‘What does that mean?’ The Imam (a.s.) said, ‘Whoever thinks that God does our deeds and then punishes us for doing them believes in predestination. Whoever thinks that the Honorable the Exalted God has authorized the provision of the daily sustenance for the creatures to His Proofs (a.s.) believes in authorization. Whoever believes in predestination

يوصفُ خلقُهُ وَلكِنَّهُ مَتى‏ عِلْمٌ أَنَّهُمْ لا يرجعونَ عَنْ الكُفْرِ وَالضَّلالِ مَنَعَهُم المُعاوِنَة وَاللّطفَ وَخلّى بَيْنَهُمْ وَبَيْنِ اختيارِهِم قالَ: وَسَأَلْتُهُ عَنْ قَوْلَ اللَّه عَزَّ وَجَلَّ «خَتَمَ اللَّهُ عَلى قُلُوبِهِمْ وَعَلى سَمْعِهِمْ» قالَ الختمُ هُوَالطبعُ عَلَى قُلُوبِ الكفّارِ عقوبةً عَلَى كفرِهِم كَما قالَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ «بَلْ طَبَعَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْها بِكُفْرِهِمْ فَلا يُؤْمِنُونَ إِلَّا قَلِيلاً».

قالَ وَسألتُهُ عَن اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ هَلْ يُجبِرُ عِبادَهُ عَلَى المعَاصي فَقالَ بَل يخيِّرُّهم وَيمْهِلُهُم حَتّى‏ يَتُوبُوا قُلْتُ فَهَلْ يُكَلِّفُ عِبادَهُ ما لا يُطيقُونَ فَقالَ: كَيْفَ يَفْعَلُ ذلِكَ وَهُوَيَقُولُ: «وَما رَبُّك َبِظَلَّامٍ لِلْعَبِيدِ» ثُمَّ قالَ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ: حَدَّثَني أَبي مُوسَى بْنِ جَعْفَرعَلَيْهِمَا السَّلاَمُ عَنْ أَبيهِ جَعْفَرِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدعَلَيْهِمَا السَّلاَمُ أَنَّهُ قالَ من زَعمَ أَنَّ اللَّهَ تَعالى‏ يُجبِرُ عِبادَهِ عَلَى المعاصي أَوْ يكلِّفُهُم ما لا يُطيقُونَ فَلا تأكُلُوا ذبيحته وَلا تَقبَلُوا شَهادَتَه وَلاتُصَلُّوا وَراءَه وَلا تُعطُوه مِنَ الزَّكاةِ شَيْئاً.

17 - حَدَّثَنا تَمِيمُ بْنِ عَبْدِاللَّه بْنِ تميمِ القُرَشِيُ رَضِىَ اللهُ عَنْهُ قالَ: حَدَّثَنا أَبي عَنْ أَحْمَدِ بْنِ عَلِى الأَنْصارِي عَنْ [يَ] زِيد بْنِ عُمَيْرٍ بْنِ مُعاوِيَةَ الشَّامِيِّ قالَ دَخَلت عَلَى عَلِىِّ بْنِ مُوسَى الرِّضا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ بِمرْو فَقُلْتُ له: يا ابْنِ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ رُوِىَ لَنا عَنْ الصَّادِق جَعْفَرِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدعَلَيْهِمَا السَّلاَمُ قالَ: إِنَّهُ لاجَبرَ وَلا تفويضَ بَل أَمْرٌ بَيْنِ أَمْرينِ فَما مَعْناهُ قالَ: مَن زَعَم أَنَّ اللَّهَ يَفْعَلُ أَفعالَنا ثُمَّ يعذِّبنا عَلَيْها فَقَدْ قالَ بِالجَبرِ وَمن زَعَمَ أَنَّ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ فَوَّض أَمْـر الْخَلْقِ والرِّزْق إِلى حُجَجِهِ‏ عَـلَيْهِ السَّلامُ فَقَدْ قـالَ بِالتَّفوِيـض وَالقائِلُ بالجَبرِ

is an atheist and whoever believes in authorization is a polytheist.’ Then I asked the Imam (a.s.), “O son of God’s Prophet! Then what is meant by ‘The affairs are something in between.’” The Imam (a.s.) said, “The way is open to do what God has ordered to be done, and to avoid what He has forbidden.” Then I asked him (a.s.), “Is it not that the Honorable the Exalted God’s Will and Volition is applicable regarding the servants’ deeds?” The Imam (a.s.) replied, “God’s Will and Volition regarding the servants’ acts of obedience applies to God’s Order and His Consent regarding such acts. God’s Will and Volition regarding the servants’ acts of disobedience applies to God’s Wrath and His Forbiddance of such acts of disobedience, plus His not assisting the servants regarding such acts.” I asked, “Does God judge about the servants’ deeds?” The Imam (a.s.) replied, “Yes. Whatever the servants do whether it be a good or a bad deed will be judged by God.” I asked the Imam (a.s.), “What does this mean?” The Imam (a.s.) said, “It means that God will make a ruling as to what reward or punishment they deserve to receive in this world and in the Hereafter for their deeds.”

11-18 Muhammad bin Muhammad ibn Esam - may God be pleased with him - narrated that Muhammad ibn Yaqoob al-Kolayni quoted on the authority of Ali ibn Muhammad known as Allan, on the authority of Abu Hamid Imran ibn Musa ibn Ibrahim, on the authority of Al-Husayn ibn Al-Qasim Ar-Raqqam, on the authority of Al-Qasim ibn Muslim, on the authority of his brother Abdul Aziz ibn Muslim, “I asked Al-Ridha’ about the Honorable the Exalted God’s words, ‘…They have forgotten God; so He hath forgotten them…’27 The Imam (a.s.) said, ‘The Sublime God neither forgets nor does He neglect. The creatures that are originated forget and neglect. Have you not heard the Honorable the Exalted God say, ‘…and thy Lord never doth forget.’28 Rather this verse means that when they forget Him and meeting Him on His Day, the Honorable the Exalted God will make them forget themselves. The Honorable the Exalted God said, ‘And be ye not like those who forgot Allah and He made them forget their own souls! Such are the rebellious transgressors!’29 Also the Sublime God said, ‘…That day shall We forget them as they forgot the meeting of this day of theirs…’30 That means that We will abandon them just as they abandoned getting prepared for the meeting of this day of theirs.’”

كافِرٌ وَالقائِلُ بِالتَّفوِيضِ مُشرِكٌ. فَقُلْتُ لَهُ: يا ابْنِ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ، فَما أَمْرٌ بَيْنِ أَمْرين: وُجُود السبيل إِلى إِتِيان ما أُمِرُوا به وَتَركِ ما نَهَوا عَنْهُ. فَقُلْتُ لَهُ: فَهَلْ لِلَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ مشيةٌ وَإِرَادَةٌ فِي ذلِكَ؟ فَقالَ: فَأَمَّا الطَّاعات فَإِرادَةُ اللَّه وَمشيَّتَهُ فِيها الأَمْر بِها وَالرِّضا لَها وَالمُعاوِنَةُ عَلَيْها وإرادَتَهُ وَمشيَّتُهُ فِي المَعاصِي النَّهْيُ عَنْها وَالسَّخَطُ لَها وَالخِذلانُ عَلَيْها. قُلْتُ: فَهَلْ لِلَّهِ فِيها القَضاءُ؟ قالَ: نعم، ما من فِعلٍ يَفعَلُهُ العِبادُ من خَيْرٍ أَوْ شرٍّ إِلاّ وَلِلَّهِ فِيهِ قضاءٌ. قلتُ: ما مَعْنى‏ هذا القَضاءُ. قالَ: الحُكْمُ عَلَيْهِم بِما يستحقّونَهُ عَلَى أفعالَهُمْ مِنَ الثّوابِ وَالعقابِ في الدُّنْيا وَالآخِرَةِ.

18 - حَدَّثَنا مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عصام‏ رَضِىَ اللهُ عَنْهُ قالَ: حَدَّثَنا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَعْقُوبَ الكُلَيْنِيُّ قالَ: حَدَّثَنا علىُّ بنُ مُحَمَّدٍ المَعْرُوفُ بِعَلاّنَ قالَ: حَدَّثَنا أَبُو حامِدِ عِمْران بْنِ مُوسَى بْنِ إِبْراهيمَ عَنْ حسين بن القاسِمِ الرقَّام عَنْ القاسِمِ بْنِ مُسْلِم عَنْ أَخِيهِ عَبْد العَزِيز بْنِ مُسْلِم قالَ: سَأَلْت الرِّضا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ عَنْ قَوْلَ اللَّه عَزَّ وَجَلَّ «نَسُوا اللَّهَ فَنَسِيَهُمْ» فَقالَ: إِنَّ اللَّهَ تَعالى‏ لا ينسى وَلا يسهو وَإِنَّما ينسى و يَسهوُ الَمخلُوق المحدَثُ ألا تَسمَعُهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ يَقُولُ: «وَما كانَ رَبُّكَ نَسِيّاً» وَإِنَّما يجازي من نَسيَهُ وَنَسِيَ لقاء يَوْمِهِ بِأَن يُنسِيَهُم أنفسهم كَما قالَ اللَّه عَزَّ وَجَلَّ: «وَلا تَكُونُوا كَالَّذِينَ نَسُوا اللَّهَ فَأَنْساهُمْ أَنْفُسَهُمْ أُولئِكَ هُمُ الْفاسِقُونَ» وَقالَ تَعالى‏ «فَالْيَوْمَ نَنْساهُمْ كَمانَسُوا لِقاءَ يَوْمِهِمْ هذا» أيُّ نَتْرُكُهم كَما تَرَكُوا الاستِعدَاد لِلقاءِ يَوْمَهُمْ هذا.

The author of this book (a.s.heikh Sadooq) said, “What is meant by ‘We will abandon them’ is that ‘We will not grant them the rewards they hope to receive on that day.’ This is because physically ‘leaving’ or ‘abandoning’ does not apply to the Sublime God and the Sublime God has said, ‘…and left them in utter darkness. So they could not see.’31 This means that God does not rush to punish them. Rather He gives them time to repent.

11-19 Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Mo’athi narrated that Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Sa’eed al-Kufi al-Hamadani quoted on the authority of Ali ibn Al-Hassan ibn Ali ibn Fadhdhal, on the authority of his father, “I asked Al-Ridha’ (a.s.) about the meaning of what the Honorable the Exalted God said, ‘Verily, from (the Light of) their Lord, that Day, will they be veiled.’32 The Imam (a.s.) said, ‘One cannot describe the Sublime God to be located in a position from which others are veiled. This verse means that they will be deprived of the reward from their Lord.’ I asked him (a.s.) about the meaning of what the Honorable the Exalted God said, ‘And thy Lord cometh, and His angels, rank upon rank.’33 The Imam (a.s.) said, ‘One cannot describe the Sublime God as coming and going. The Sublime God is Exalted above transfer or movement in this manner. However, what is meant by this verse is that the Decree of your Lord came, and the angels were organized rank upon rank.’ I asked the Imam (a.s.) about the meaning of what the Honorable the Exalted God said, ‘Will they wait until Allah comes to them in canopies of clouds, with angels (in His train) and the question is (thus) settled?…’34 The Imam (a.s.) said, ‘This means, ‘Will they wait until Allah sends the angels to them in canopies of clouds.’ This is how the verse has been revealed.’ I asked him (a.s.) about the meaning of what the Sublime God said, ‘…God will throw back their ridicule on them…’35 and ’Allah will throw back their mockery on them…’36 and ‘And (the unbelievers) plotted and planned, and Allah too planned…’37 and ’The Hypocrites - they think they are over-reaching Allah, but He will over- reach them…’38 The Imam (a.s.) said, ‘The Sublime God does not ridicule, mock, plan or plot. Rather, the Sublime God grants them the rewards of their ridiculing, mockery, planning and plotting. High indeed is God the Exalted above what the oppressors say.’”

قالَ مُصَنِّفُ هذا الكتاب: قَوْلَهُ «نتركهم» أيُّ لا نجعلُ لَهُم ثَواب من كانَ يَرجُو لِقَاءَ يَومه لأنّ التَّرْكِ لا يَجُوز عَلَى اللَّه تَعالى‏، فَأَمَّا قَوْلَ اللَّه تَعالى‏ «وَتَرَكَهُمْ فِي ظُلُماتٍ لا يُبْصِرُونَ» أيُّ لا يُعاجِلُهُم بِالعقوبةِ وَأمهَلَهُم ليَتُوبُوا.

19 - حَدَّثَنا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ أَحْمَدِ بْنِ إِبْراهيمَ المعاذي قالَ: حَدَّثَنا أَحْمَدُ بْنُ مُحَمَّد بنِ سَعِيدُ الكُوفِي الهَمْدانِيَّ قالَ: حَدَّثَنا عَلِىُّ بْنُ الحَسَنِ بْنِ عَلِىِّ بْنِ فضّال عَنْ أَبيهِ قالَ: سَأَلْتُ الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ عَنْ قَوْلِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ «كَلَّا إِنَّهُمْ عَنْ رَبِّهِمْ يَوْمَئِذٍ لََمحْجُوبُونَ». فَقَالَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى لَا يُوصَفُ بِمَكَانٍ يَحُلُّ فِيهِ فَيُحْجَبَ عَنْهُ فِيهِ عِبَادُهُ وَلَكِنَّهُ يَعْنِي أَنَّهُمْ عَنْ ثَوَابِ رَبِّهِمْ مَحْجُوبُونَ قَالَ وَسَأَلْتُهُ عَنْ قَوْلِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ: «وَجاءَ رَبُّكَ وَالْمَلَكُ صَفّاً صَفّاً» فَقَالَ: إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ لَا يُوصَفُ بِالَْمجِي‏ءِ وَالذَّهَابِ تَعَالَى عَنِ الِانْتِقَالِ إِنَّمَا يَعْنِي بِذَلِكَ «وَجَاءَ أَمْرُ رَبِّكَ وَالْمَلَكُ صَفّاً صَفّاً» قَالَ وَسَأَلْتُهُ عَنْ قَوْلِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ هَلْ يَنْظُرُونَ إِلَّا أَنْ يَأْتِيَهُمُ اللَّهُ فِي ظُلَلٍ مِنَ الْغَمامِ وَالْمَلائِكَةُ قَالَ يَقُولُ هَلْ يَنْظُرُونَ إِلَّا أَنْ يَأْتِيَهُمْ بِالْمَلَائِكَةِ فِي ظُلَلٍ مِنَ الْغَمَامِ وَهَكَذَا نَزَلَتْ قَالَ وَسَأَلْتُهُ عَنْ قَوْلِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ سَخِرَ اللَّهُ مِنْهُمْ وَعَنْ قَوْلِ اللَّهِ يَسْتَهْزِئُ بِهِمْ وَعَنْ قَوْلِهِ تَعَالَى وَمَكَرُوا وَمَكَرَ اللَّهُ وَعَنْ قَوْلِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ «يُخادِعُونَ اللَّهَ وَهُوَخادِعُهُمْ» فَقَالَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ «لَا يَسْخَرُ وَلَا يَسْتَهْزِئُ وَلَا يَمْكُرُ وَلَا يُخَادِعُ وَلَكِنَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ يُجَازِيهِمْ جَزَاءَ السُّخْرِيَّةِ وَجَزَاءَ الِاسْتِهْزَاءِ وَجَزَاءَ الْمَكْرِ وَالْخَدِيعَةِ تَعَالَى اللَّهُ عَمَّا يَقُولُ الظَّالِمُونَ عُلُوّاً كَبِيراً».

11-20 (The author of the book narrated) my father - may God be pleased with him - narrated that Sa’d ibn Abdullah quoted on the authority of Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Isa on the authority of Al-Hassan ibn Ali al-Khazzaz, on the authority of Abil Hassan Al-Ridha’ (a.s.), “On the Resurrection Day God’s Prophet (S) will grab onto the Sublime God, we will grab onto our Prophet and our followers will grab onto us.” Then the Imam (a.s.) added, “What is meant by ‘grab onto’ is grabbing onto light.” In another tradition it is stated “What is meant by ‘grab onto’ is grabbing onto the religion.”

11-21 Ali ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Imran ad-Daqqaq - may God be pleased with him - narrated that Muhammad ibn Harun al-Sufi quoted on the authority of Ubaydillah ibn Musa ibn Ayyoub Ar-Ro’yani, on the authority of Abdul Azeem ibn Abdullah Al-Hassani - may God be pleased with him - on the authority of Ibrahim ibn Abi Mahmood that he had asked Al-Ridha’ (a.s.), “O son of God’s Prophet! What is your opinion about the tradition which the people narrate about God’s Prophet (S) having said that the Blessed the Sublime God descends from the heavens to this world every Friday night?” The Imam (a.s.) replied, “May God damn those who rearrange the words of the traditions. By God, the Messenger of God (a.s.) has not said this. However, the Prophet (S) said, ‘In fact, the Sublime God will send down an angel from the heavens to this world on the last third part of every night, and from the beginning of every Thursday night. By God’s order, the angel will call out, ‘Are there any callers whose wants I shall fulfill? Are there any repenters whose repentance I shall accept? Are there any people asking for forgiveness to be granted? O the ones seeking the good! Come this way. O the ones seeking evil! Step back!’ This angel will keep on calling out until dawn. It will return to its own location in the heavens at dawn. I have heard this tradition from my father (a.s.), who narrated it on the authority of my grandfather (a.s.), on the authority of his forefathers (a.s.), on the authority of God’s Prophet (S).’”

11-22 Abu Abdullah Al-Husayn ibn Muhammad al-Ashnani Ar-Razi al-Adl in Balkh narrated that Ali ibn Mehrayat al-Qazvini quoted on the authority of Dawood ibn Soleiman al-Farra’, on the authority of Ali ibn Musa Al-Ridha’ (a.s.), on the authority of his father (a.s.), on the authority of his forefathers (a.s.), on the authority of Ali (a.s.) that God’s Prophet (S) said, “When Moses -son of Imran- supplicated to his Lord - the Honorable the

20 - حَدَّثَنا أَبي رَضِىَ اللهُ عَنْهُ قالَ: حَدَّثَنا سَعْدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّه قالَ: حَدَّثَنا أَحْمَدِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ الحَسَن بْنِ عَلِى الخَزَّار عَنْ أَبي الحَسَن الرِّضا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ قالَ: إِنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ‏ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ آخِذٌ بِحُجْزَةِ اللَّهِ وَنَحْنُ آخِذُونَ بِحُجْزَةِ نَبِيِّنَا وَشِيعَتُنَا آخِذُونَ بِحُجْزَتِنَا ثُمَّ قَالَ الْحُجْزَةُ النُّور وَقالَ فِي حَدِيث آخِرَ مَعْنى‏ الحجزة الدِّين.

21 - حَدَّثَنا عَلِىِّ بْنِ أَحْمَدِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِمْران الدَّقَّاق رَضِىَ اللهُ عَنْهُ قالَ: حَدَّثَنا مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ هارُون الصوفي قالَ: حَدَّثَنا عُبِيْد اللَّه بْنِ موسيبن أَيُّوب الرُّويانِيُّ عَنْ عَبْدِ العَظِيم بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّه الحَسَنِيِّ رَضِىَ اللهُ عَنْهُ عَنْ إِبْراهيمِ بْنِ أَبي مَحْمُودِ قالَ قُلْتُ لِلرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ يَا ابْنَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ مَا تَقُولُ فِي الْحَدِيثِ الَّذِي يَرْوِيهِ النَّاسُ عَنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ‏ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ أَنَّهُ قَالَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى يَنْزِلُ كُلَّ لَيْلَةٍ إِلَى السَّمَاءِ الدُّنْيَا فَقَالَ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ لَعَنَ اللَّهُ الُْمحَرِّفِينَ لِلْكَلِمِ عَنْ مَوَاضِعِهِ وَاللَّهِ مَا قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ‏ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ كَذَلِكَ إِنَّمَا قَالَ‏ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى يُنْزِلُ مَلَكاً إِلَى السَّمَاءِ الدُّنْيَا كُلَّ لَيْلَةٍ فِي الثُّلُثِ الأَخِيرِ وَلَيْلَةَ الْجُمُعَةِ فِي أَوَّلِ اللَّيْلِ فَيَأْمُرُهُ فَيُنَادِي هَلْ مِنْ سَائِلٍ فَأُعْطِيَهُ هَلْ مِنْ تَائِبٍ فَأَتُوبَ عَلَيْهِ هَلْ مِنْ مُسْتَغْفِرٍ فَأَغْفِرَ لَهُ يَا طَالِبَ الْخَيْرِ أَقْبِلْ يَا طَالِبَ الشَّرِّ أَقْصِرْ فَلَا يَزَالُ يُنَادِي بِهَذَا إِلَى أَنْ يَطْلُعَ الْفَجْرُ فَإِذَا طَلَعَ الْفَجْرُ عَادَ إِلَى مَحَلِّهِ مِنْ مَلَكُوتِ السَّمَاءِ حَدَّثَنِي بِذَلِكَ أَبِي عَنْ جَدِّي عَنْ آبَائِهِ عَنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ‏ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ‏

22 - حَدَّثَنا أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّه الحُسَيْنِ بْنِ مُحَمَّد الأشنانِي الرَّازِيُّ العَدْل ببلخ قالَ: حَدَّثَنا مهرويه القزويني عَنْ داوُدِ بْنِ سُلَيْمان الفراء عَنْ عَلِىِّ بْنِ مُوسَى الرِّضا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ عَنْ أَبيهِ عَنْ آبائِه عَنْ عَلِيِ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ قالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ‏ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ إِنَّ مُوسَى بْنَ عِمْرَانَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ لَمَّا نَاجَى رَبَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ قَالَ يَا رَبِّ أَبَعِيدٌ أَنْتَ مِنِّي فَأُنَــادِيَكَ أَمْ

Exalted - he said, “O Lord! Are you far away from me, so as to call you in a loud voice, or are you close to me and I can speak to you in a low voice?” The Honorable the Exalted God revealed to him, “I accompany whoever remembers Me.” Then Moses (a.s.) said, “O Lord! There are situations I am in which I consider Thee to be High Too Noble to be remembered.” God said, “Remember Me in all situations.”

11-23 Muhammad ibn Ali Majiluwayh - may God be pleased with him -narrated that Ali ibn Ibrahim ibn Hashem quoted on the authority of al-Mokhtar ibn Muhammad al-Mokhtar al-Hamadani, on the authority of al-Fath ibn Yazid al-Gorgani that he had heard Abul Hassan Al-Ridha’ (a.s.) say the following regarding the Honorable the Exalted God, “He is Subtle, All-Aware, All-Hearing, All-Seeing, the Only One, the Independent who begetteth not, nor is He begotten, High is He Exalted above having an equal with which to be compared. He has created the objects. He has formed the bodies. He has depicted the images. If it were the case as they say, then the Creator and the created could not be distinguished from each other. The Maker could not be distinguished from the made. However, He is the Maker. There is a difference between Him and what He made, formed and created since nothing is similar to God, and God is not similar to anything.”

Al-Fath ibn Yazid al-Gorgani added, “I said, ‘Yes. May I be your ransom! However, you said He is the Only, the Independent. You also said that there is nothing like Him. God is One and man is also one. Is it not the case then that they are alike in being one?’

Imam Al-Ridha’ (a.s.) replied, ‘O Fath! You are saying the impossible. May the Sublime God make you firm! That is a similitude in meanings. The names used for everything are the same. They denote the named. When we say man is one, we mean that he has one body, not two. However, man is not really one since he contains various organs and is of various colors. Man consists of a set of different parts. His meat is different from his blood. His blood is different from his meat. His nerves are different from his veins. His hair is different from his skin. His blackness is different from his whiteness. Other creatures are the same. Therefore, as far as the name goes, man is one. But in reality man is not one. However, God - the Exalted the Magnificent - is One. There is no other one but Him. There are no differences in Him or within Him. There are no

قَرِيبٌ فَأُنَاجِيَكَ فَأَوْحَى اللَّهُ جَلَّ جَلالُهُ إِلَيْهِ أَنَا جَلِيسُ مَنْ ذَكَرَنِي فَقَالَ مُوسَى عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ يَا رَبِّ إِنِّي أَكُونُ فِي حَالٍ أُجِلُّكَ أَنْ أَذْكُرَكَ فِيهَا فَقَالَ يَا مُوسَى اذْكُرْنِي عَلَى كُلِّ حَالٍ.

23 - حَدَّثَنا مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَلِى ماجِيلوَيْه رَضِىَ اللهُ عَنْهُ قالَ: حَدَّثَنا عَلِىِّ بْنِ إِبراهِيمِ بْنِ هاشِم، عَنِ الُمخْتار بن مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الُمخْتار الهَمْدانِيَّ، عَنِ الفَتحِ بْنِ يَزِيدِ الجُرجانِيّ، عَنْ أَبي الحَسَن‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ قالَ: سَمِعْتُهُ يَقُولُ فِي اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ: هُوَاللَّطِيفُ الْخَبِيرُ السَّمِيعُ الْبَصِيرُ الْوَاحِدُ الأَحَدُ الصَّمَدُ لَمْ يَلِدْ وَلَمْ يُولَدْ وَلَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ كُفُواً أَحَدٌ، مُنْشِىُ الأَشْيَاءِ وَمُجَسِّمُ الأَجْسَامِ وَمُصَوِّرُ الصُّوَرِ لَوْ كَانَ كَمَا يَقُولُونَ، لَمْ يُعْرَفِ الْخَالِقُ مِنَ الَْمخْلُوقِ وَلا الْمُنْشِىُ، مِنَ الْمُنْشَإِ فَرْقٌ بَيْنَ مَنْ جَسَّمَهُ وَصَوَّرَهُ وَأَنْشَأَهُ إِذْ كَانَ لا يُشْبِهُهُ شَيْ‏ءٌ وَلا يُشْبِهُ هُوَشَيْئاً.

قُلْتُ أَجَلْ، جَعَلَنِيَ اللَّهُ فِدَاكَ، لَكِنَّكَ قُلْتَ: الأَحَدُ الصَّمَدُ، وَقُلْتَ لا يُشْبِهُ شَيْئاً وَاللَّهُ وَاحِدٌ، وَالإِنْسَانُ وَاحِدٌ أَلَيْسَ قَدْ تَشَابَهَتِ الْوَحْدَانِيَّةُ؟ قَالَ: يَا فَتْحُ أَحَلْتَ ثَبَّتَكَ اللَّهُ إِنَّمَا التَّشْبِيهُ فِي الْمَعَانِي فَأَمَّا فِي الأَسْمَاءِ فَهِيَ وَاحِدَةٌ وَهِيَ دَلالَةٌ عَلَى الْمُسَمَّى، وَذَلِكَ أَنَّ الإِنْسَانَ وَإِنْ قِيلَ وَاحِدٌ فَإِنَّمَا يُخْبَرُ أَنَّهُ جُثَّةٌ وَاحِدَةٌ، وَلَيْسَ بِاثْنَيْنِ، فَالإِنْسَانُ نَفْسُهُ لَيْسَ بِوَاحِدٍ، لأَنَّ أَعْضَاءَهُ مُخْتَلِفَةٌ وَأَلْوَانَهُ مُخْتَلِفَةٌ كَثِيرَةٌ غَيْرُ وَاحِدَةٍ وَهُوَأَجْزَاءٌ مُجَزَّأٌ لَيْسَتْ بِسَوَاءٍ دَمُهُ غَيْرُ لَحْمِهِ وَلَحْمُهُ غَيْرُ دَمِهِ وَعَصَبُهُ غَيْرُ عُرُوقِهِ وَشَعْرُهُ غَيْرُ بَشَرِهِ وَسَوَادُهُ غَيْرُ بَيَاضِهِ وَكَذَلِكَ سَائِرُ الْخَلْقِ فَالإِنْسَانُ وَاحِدٌ فِي الاسْمِ لا وَاحِدٌ فِي الْمَعْنَى وَاللَّهُ جَلَّ جَلالُهُ وَاحِدٌ لا وَاحِدَ غَيْرُهُ لا اخْتِلافَ فِيهِ، وَلا تَفَاوُتَ وَلا زِيَـادَةَ وَ[لا] نُقْصَـانَ فَأَمَّـا الإِنْسَـانُ

excesses in Him, nor are there any deficiencies in Him. However, man is a created creature which consists of many different parts. Although he is united as one, he has differences within himself. He has excesses and deficiencies.’

I said, ‘May I be your ransom! You have relieved me. May God grant you relief. Please explain for me ‘the Subtle’ and ‘the All-Aware” just as you explained ‘the Only.’ I do know that God’s subtleness is different from the subtleness of His creatures. However, I would like you to describe that for me.’

The Imam (a.s.) said, ‘O Fath! The reason we call Him ‘the Subtle’ is that He is very subtle in creating. He is aware of delicate objects as well as indelicate ones. Don’t you see the effect of His Creation in delicate and rough plants, and in the Creation of creatures - small ones like mosquitoes and tiny mosquitoes, and even smaller ones which can hardly be seen by the eyes - so tiny that one cannot distinguish between the male, female, young or old? When we see their smallness yet their degree of being delicate, and consider their own ways of generation, the way they escape from death, the way they fulfill their needs from the depths of the sea, the bark of the tree, the surface of the valleys and the deserts, the way they speak and make others understand them, the way the younger ones understand their elders, the way the parents feed the children, the way they are colored in red and yellow, or white and green, and what our eyes can hardly see and our hands cannot touch, then we realize that the creator of these creatures is Subtle, and has carried out the Creation of the creatures as described before in a delicate manner and without using any tools. Any creator creates what he creates using something else, but the Mighty the Subtle God is the Creator who creates without using anything.’”

11-24 (The author of the book narrated) my father - may God be pleased with him - narrated that Ahmad ibn Idris quoted on the authority of Al-Husayn ibn Abdullah, on the authority of Muhammad ibn Ubaydillah, Musa ibn Umar, Al-Hassan ibn Ali ibn Abi Uthman, on the authority of Muhammad ibn Sinan, “I asked Abul Hassan Al-Ridha’ (a.s.): ‘Did God know Himself before He created the Creation?’ The Imam (a.s.) replied, ‘Yes.’ I said, ‘Did He see and hear Himself?’ The Imam (a.s.) said, ‘He had no need for that, for He neither required anything of Himself nor sought

الَْمخْلُوقُ الْمَصْنُوعُ الْمُؤَلَّفُ مِنْ أَجْزَاءٍ مُخْتَلِفَةٍ وَجَوَاهِرَ شَتَّى غَيْرَ أَنَّهُ بِالاجْتَِماعِ شَيْ‏ءٌ وَاحِدٌ.

قُلْتُ جُعِلْتُ فِدَاكَ فَرَّجْتَ عَنِّي فَرَّجَ اللَّهُ عَنْكَ، فَقَوْلُكَ: اللَّطِيفُ الْخَبِيرُ، فَسِّرْهُ لِي كَمَا فَسَّرْتَ الْوَاحِدَ، فَإِنِّي أَعْلَمُ أَنَّ لُطْفَهُ عَلَى خِلافِ لُطْفِ خَلْقِهِ لِلْفَصْلِ غَيْرَ أَنِّي أُحِبُّ أَنْ تَشْرَحَ ذَلِكَ لِي فَقَالَ يَا فَتْحُ إِنَّمَا قُلْنَا اللَّطِيفُ لِلْخَلْقِ اللَّطِيفِ وَلِعِلْمِهِ بِالشَّيْ‏ءِ اللَّطِيفِ وَغَيْرِ اللَّطِيفِ، وَفِي الْخَلْقِ اللَّطِيفِ مِنَ الْحَيَوَانِ الصِّغَارِ مِنَ الْبَعُوضِ وَالْجِرْجِسِ وَمَا هُوَأَصْغَرُ مِنْهُمَا مَا لا يَكَادُ تَسْتَبِينُهُ الْعُيُونُ، بَلْ لا يَكَادُ يُسْتَبَانُ لِصِغَرِهِ الذَّكَرُ مِنَ الأُنْثَى وَالْحَدَثُ الْمَوْلُودُ مِنَ الْقَدِيمِ، فَلَمَّا رَأَيْنَا صِغَرَ ذَلِكَ فِي لُطْفِهِ وَاهْتِدَاءَهُ لِلسِّفَادِ وَالْهَرَبَ [الْهَرَبِ] مِنَ الْمَوْتِ وَالْجَمْعَ [الْجَمْعِ] لِمَا يُصْلِحُهُ مِمَّا فِي لُجَجِ الْبِحَارِ وَمَا فِي لِحَاءِ الأَشْجَارِ وَالْمَفَاوِزِ وَالْقِفَارِ، وَفَهْمَ [فَهْمِ] بَعْضِهَا عَنْ بَعْضٍ مَنْطِقَهَا وَمَا يَفْهَمُ بِهِ أَوْلادُهَا عَنْهَا وَنَقْلَهَا [نَقْلِهَا] الْغِذَاءَ إِلَيْهَا ثُمَّ تَأْلِيفَ أَلْوَانِهَا حُمْرَةً مَعَ صُفْرَةٍ وَبَيَاضاً مَعَ خُضْرَةٍ، وَمَا لا تَكَادُ عُيُونُنَا تَسْتَبِينُهُ بِتََمامِ خَلْقِهَا وَلا تَرَاهُ عُيُونُنَا وَلا تَلْمِسُهُ أَيْدِينَا، عَلِمْنَا أَنَّ خَالِقَ هَذَا الْخَلْقِ لَطِيفٌ لَطُفَ فِي خَلْقِ مَا سَمَّيْنَاهُ بِلا عِلاجٍ وَلا أَدَاةٍ وَلا آلَةٍ وَأَنَّ كُلَّ صَانِعِ شَيْ‏ءٍ فَمِنْ شَيْ‏ءٍ صَنَعَ وَاللَّهُ الْخَالِقُ اللَّطِيفُ الْجَلِيلُ خَلَقَ وَصَنَعَ لا مِنْ شَيْ‏ءٍ.

24 - حَدَّثَنا أَبي رَضِىَ اللهُ عَنْهُ قالَ: حَدَّثَنا أَحْمَدِ بْنِ إِدْرِيس، عَنِ الحُسَيْن بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّه، عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عُبَيْد اللَّه وَمُوسَى بْنِ عُمَر وَالحَسَن بْنِ عَلِىِّ بْنِ أَبِي عُثْمان، عَنْ مُحَمّد بن سَنان قالَ: سَأَلْتُ أَبَا الْحَسَنِ الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ: هَلْ كَانَ اللَّهُ عَارِفاً بِنَفْسِهِ قَبْلَ أَنْ يَخْلُقَ الْخَلْقَ؟ قَالَ: نَعَمْ قُلْتُ يَرَاهَا وَيَسْمَعُهَا قَالَ مَا كَانَ مُحْتَاجاً إِلَى ذَلِكَ لانَّهُ لَمْ يَكُنْ يَسْأَلُهَا وَلا يَطْلُبُ مِنْهَا هُوَنَفْسُهُ وَنَفْسُهُ هُوَقُدْرَتُهُ نَافِذَةٌ فَلَيْسَ يَحْتَاجُ إِلَى أَنْ يُسَـمِّيَ نَفْسَهُ وَلَكِنَّهُ

anything from Himself. He was Himself and Himself was He. His Power was All-Pervasive. Therefore, He has no need to name Himself. However, He has chosen Names for Himself for others to call Him by, for if He were not called by His Name, He would not have been known. The first that He chose for Himself was, ‘…He is the Highest, the Supreme (in glory).’39 (i.e. God is Al ‘ali Al 'azim in Arabic) since He is Exalted above all things. His Meaning is Allah and His Name is Al 'Ali Al 'Azim since He is Exalted above everything.’”

11-25 According to the same documentation, it is narrated that Muhammad ibn Sinan asked him (a.s.) (i.e. Al-Ridha’ (a.s.)) what a name is. The Imam (a.s.) replied, “It is something to describe something else with.”

11-26 Muhammad ibn Bakran an-Naqqash - may God be pleased with him - narrated in Kufa in the year 354 A.H. (964 A.D.) that Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Sa’eed al-Hamadani - a chief of the Hashemite tribe, quoted on the authority of Ali ibn Al-Hassan ibn Ali ibn Fadhdhal, on the authority of Abil Hassan Ali ibn Musa Al-Ridha’ (a.s.), “The first thing which God created so that the people can learn how to write through its Creation were the letters of the alphabet. When someone is hit over the head so hard that he cannot talk well, the decree on compensation is that he be presented with the letters of the alphabet. He is given money as compensation based on the number of the letters of the alphabet which he cannot pronounce. My father (a.s.) narrated that his father (a.s.) quoted on the authority of his grandfather (a.s.) on the authority of the Commander of the Faithful (a.s.):

The letter ‘Alif in (‘alif ‘ba ‘ta ‘sa) stands for God’s Blessings. The letter ‘ba in (‘alif ‘ba ‘ta ‘sa) stands for God’s Joy. The letter ‘ta in (‘alif ‘ba ‘ta ‘sa) stands for the completion of the affairs for the Riser from the Household of Muhammad (a.s.). The letter ‘sa in (‘alif ‘ba ‘ta ‘sa) stands for the rewards for the good deeds of the believers. The letter ‘jim in (‘jim ‘ha ‘kha) stands for God’s Glory and Exaltation. The letter ‘ha (‘jim ‘ha ‘kha) stands for God’s Clemency with the sinners. The letter ‘kha (‘jim ‘ha ‘kha) stands for the sluggishness of the sinners in the presence of the Honorable the Exalted God.

The letter ‘dal in (‘dal ‘zal) stands for God’s Religion, and the letter ‘zal in (‘dal ‘zal) stands for the Lord of Majesty. The letter ‘ra in (‘ra ‘za) stands for the Clement, the Merciful, and the letter ‘za in (‘ra ‘za) stands for the Quakes of the Resurrection.

اخْتَارَ لِنَفْسِهِ أَسْمَاءَ لِغَيْرِهِ يَدْعُوهُ بِهَا لانَّهُ إِذَا لَمْ يُدْعَ بِاسْمِهِ لَمْ يُعْرَفْ فَأَوَّلُ مَا اخْتَارَ لِنَفْسِهِ الْعَلِيُّ الْعَظِيمُ لانَّهُ أَعْلَى الأَسْمَاءِ كُلِّهَا فَمَعْنَاهُ اللَّهُ وَاسْمُهُ الْعَلِيُّ الْعَظِيمُ هُوَأَوَّلُ أَسْمَائِهِ لانَّهُ عَلِيٌّ عَلا كُلَّ شَيْ‏ء.

25 - وَبِهذَا الإسناد عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ سَنان قالَ سَأَلْته - يَعْنِي الرِّضا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ - عَنِ الاسم ما هُوَ؟ فَقالَ: صِفَةٌ لِمَوصُوف.

26 - حَدَّثَنا مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ بَكْرِان النقاش رَضِىَ اللهُ عَنْهُ بِالْكُوفَةِ سِنَةَ أَرْبَعَ وَخَمْسِينَ وَثَلاثِمائَةٍ حَدَّثَنا أَحْمَدِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ سَعِيدُ الهَمْدانِيَّ، مَوْلى‏ بَنِي هاشِم قالَ: حَدَّثَنا عَلِىِّ بْنِ الحَسَنِ بْنِ عَلِىِّ بْنِ فَضّال، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنْ أَبي الحَسَن عَلِىِّ بْنِ مُوسَى الرِّضا عَلَيْهِمَا السَّلاَمُ قالَ: إِنَّ أَوَّلَ خَلْقِ اللَّهِ [مَا خَلَقَ اللَّهُ] عَزَّ وَجَلَّ لِيُعَرِّفَ بِهِ خَلْقَهُ الْكِتَابَةَ حُرُوفُ الْمُعْجَمِ، وَإِنَّ الرَّجُلَ إِذَا ضُرِبَ عَلَى رَأْسِهِ بِعَصاً، فَزَعَمَ أَنَّهُ لا يُفْصِحُ بِبَعْضِ الْكَلامِ، فَالْحُكْمُ فِيهِ أَنْ تُعْرَضَ عَلَيْهِ حُرُوفُ الْمُعْجَمِ، ثُمَّ يُعْطَى الدِّيَةَ بِقَدْرِ مَا لَمْ يُفْصِحْ مِنْهَا وَلَقَدْ حَدَّثَنِي أَبِي، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنْ جَدِّهِ، عَنْ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ فِي (أ ب ت ث) قَالَ: الأَلِفُ آلاءُ اللَّهِ، وَالْبَاءُ بَهْجَةُ اللَّهِ، وَالتَّاءُ تَمَامُ الأَمْرِ بِقَائِمِ آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ، وَالثَّاءُ ثَوَابُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ عَلَى أَعْمَالِهِمُ الصَّالِحَةِ.

(ج ح خ) فَالْجِيمُ جَمَالُ اللَّهِ وَجَلالُ اللَّهِ، وَالْحَاءُ حِلْمُ اللَّهِ عَنِ الْمُذْنِبِينَ، وَالْخَاءُ خُمُولُ ذِكْرِ أَهْلِ الْمَعَاصِي عِنْدَ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ.

(د ذ) فَالدَّالُ دِينُ اللَّهِ وَالذَّالُ مِنْ ذِي الْجَلالِ.

(ر ز) فَالرَّاءُ مِنَ الرَّءُوفِ الرَّحِيمِ وَالزَّايُ زَلازِلُ الْقِيَامَةِ.

The letter ‘sin in (‘sin ‘shin) stands for God’s Luminance and the letter ‘shin in (‘sin ‘shin) stands for God’s Will whatever He willed and Wish whatever He wished. There is no will except for what God willed. And the letter ‘sad in (‘sad ‘zad) stands for the True Promiser in carrying the people across the Bridge40, and imprisoning the oppressors at the observation post. The letter ‘zad in (‘sad ‘zad) stands for the loss of whoever opposes Muhammad (a.s.) and Muhammad’s Household (a.s.). The letter ‘thayn in (‘thayn ‘zayn) stands for Prosperity and a Good Ending for the believers. The letter ‘zayn in (‘thayn ‘zayn) stands for and the optimism of the believers about God, and the pessimism of the unbelievers about God. The letter ‘ayn in (‘ayn ‘qayn) stands for knowledge and the letter ‘qayn in (‘ayn ‘qayn) stands for sufficiency. The letter ‘fa in (‘fa ‘qa) stands for flame from the flames of the Fire, and the letter ‘qa in (‘fa ‘qa) stands for the Quran whose compilation and recital is God’s responsibility.

The letter ‘kaf in (‘kaf ‘lam) stands for sufficient, and the letter ‘lam in (‘kaf ‘lam) stands for the absurdity of the unbelievers in the lies which they ascribe to God. The letter ‘mim in (‘mim ‘noon) stands for God’s Dominion on the Day on which there is no other dominion. The Honorable the Exalted God says, ‘…Whose will be the dominion that Day?…’41

Then the spirits of the Prophets, the Messengers and the Proofs (the Imams) will say, ‘…That of Allah, the One the Irresistible!’42

Then God - the Exalted the Magnificent - says, ‘That Day will every soul be requited for what it earned; no injustice will there be that Day, for Allah is Swift in taking account.’43 And the letter ‘noon’ in (‘mim ‘noon) stands for the blessings which God grants the believers, and is the punishments which He imposes on the unbelievers. And the letter ‘vave’ in (‘vave ‘ha) stands for the one who disobeys God and the letter ‘ha’ in (‘vave ‘ha) stands for the insignificance of those who disobey in the presence of God. And the letter ‘la in (‘la ‘ya) stands for the letter ‘la in ‘la illaha illa Allah’ which is the expression of sincere devotion. Paradise will be incumbent for whoever sincerely says it. And the letter ‘ya’ in (‘la ‘ya) stands for God’s Hand which is expanded over all His creatures to feed them. Glorified and High is He opposed to what the polytheists profess.”

(س ش) فَالسِّينُ سَنَاءُ اللَّهِ، وَالشِّينُ شَاءَ اللَّهُ مَا شَاءَ وَأَرَادَ مَا أَرَادَ وَما تَشاؤُنَ إِلا أَنْ يَشاءَ اللَّهُ.

(ص ض) فَالصَّادُ مِنْ صَادِقِ الْوَعْدِ فِي حَمْلِ النَّاسِ عَلَى الصِّرَاطِ وَحَبْسِ الظَّالِمِينَ عِنْدَ الْمِرْصَادِ، وَالضَّادُ ضَلَّ مَنْ خَالَفَ مُحَمَّداً وَآلَ مُحَمَّدٍ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ.

(ط ظ) فَالطَّاءُ طُوبَى لِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَحُسْنُ مَ‏آبٍ وَالظَّاءُ ظَنُّ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ بِهِ خَيْراً وَظَنُّ الْكَافِرِينَ بِهِ سُوءاً.

(ع غ) فَالْعَيْنُ مِنَ الْعَالِمِ وَالْغَيْنُ مِنَ الْغَيِّ ف ق فَالْفَاءُ فَوْجٌ مِنْ أَفْوَاجِ النَّارِ وَالْقَافُ قُرْآنٌ، عَلَى اللَّهِ جَمْعُهُ وَقُرْآنُهُ.

(ك ل) فَالْكَافُ مِنَ الْكَافِي، وَاللامُ لَغْوُ الْكَافِرِينَ فِي افْتِرَائِهِمْ عَلَى اللَّهِ الْكَذِبَ.

(م ن) فَالْمِيمُ مُلْكُ اللَّهِ يَوْمَ لا مَالِكَ غَيْرُهُ وَيَقُولُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ: «لِمَنِ الْمُلْكُ الْيَوْمَ» ثُمَّ يُنْطِقُ أَرْوَاحَ أَنْبِيَائِهِ وَرُسُلِهِ وَحُجَجِهِ فَيَقُولُونَ: «لِلَّهِ الْواحِدِ الْقَهَّارِ»، فَيَقُولُ جَلَّ جَلالُهُ: «الْيَوْمَ تُجْزى‏ كُلُّ نَفْسٍ بِما كَسَبَتْ لا ظُلْمَ الْيَوْمَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ سَرِيعُ الْحِسابِ» وَالنُّونُ نَوَالُ اللَّهِ لِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَنَكَالُهُ بِالْكَافِرِينَ.

(و ه) فَالْوَاوُ وَيْلٌ لِمَنْ عَصَى اللَّهَ وَالْهَاءُ هَانَ عَلَى اللَّهِ مَنْ عَصَاهُ.

(لا ي) فَلامُ أَلِفٍ لا إِلَهَ إِلا اللَّهُ، وَهِيَ كَلِمَةُ الإِخْلاصِ، مَا مِنْ عَبْدٍ قَالَهَا مُخْلِصاً، إِلا وَجَبَتْ لَهُ الْجَنَّةُ، وَالْيَاءُ يَدُ اللَّهِ فَوْقَ خَلْقِهِ بَاسِطَةً بِالرِّزْقِ، سُبْحانَهُ وَتَعالى‏ عَمَّا يُشْرِكُونَ.

The Imam (a.s.) then added, “The Blessed the Sublime God revealed this Quran using the same letters which the Arabs use, and said, ‘Say, If the whole of mankind and Jinns were to gather together to produce the like of this Qur'an, they could not produce the like thereof, even if they backed up each other with help and support.’44

11-27 Abdul Wahid Muhammad ibn Ubdoos al-Neishaboori al-Attar - may God be pleased with him - narrated that Ali ibn Muhammad ibn Qutayba al-Neishaboori quoted on the authority of Hamdan ibn Soleiman al-Neishaboori, “I asked Al-Ridha’ about the Honorable the Exalted God’s words, ‘Those whom God (in His plan) willeth to guide, He openeth their breasts to Islam…’45 The Imam (a.s.) said, ‘Those whom God wishes to guide in their faith in this world towards Paradise and His House of Munificence in the Hereafter, He will open their breasts to submit to God, rely on Him, get calmed by the rewards that He has promised until they trust Him. But regarding ‘…those whom He willeth to leave straying…’46 to be deprived of His Paradise and His Home of His Munificence in the Hereafter due to their disbelief in it and their disobedience of God in this world. ‘…He maketh their breast close and constricted…’47 so that they fall in doubt in his state of disbelief. God will upset their belief in their heart as things get so hard for them ‘…as if they had to climb up to the skies: thus doth God (heap) the penalty on those who refuse to believe.’”48

11-28 Muhammad ibn Ali Majiluwayh - may God be pleased with him - narrated that his uncle Muhammad ibn Abil Qasim quoted on the authority of Abu Sameena Muhammad ibn Ali al-Kufi al-Sayrafi, on the authority of Muhammad ibn Abdullah al-Khorasani - the servant of Al-Ridha’ (a.s.), “One of the hypocrites (zanadiqa) entered into the presence of the Imam (a.s.) when there were some people with him. Abul Hassan Al-Ridha’ (a.s.) asked him, ‘Are we equal even if your point of view is the correct one? Has not all our prayers, fasting, giving alms taxes and our acknowledgment of our beliefs have not harmed us?’ The hypocrite remained silent. Then Abul Hassan Al-Ridha’ (a.s.) added, ‘If the correct view is our view - which is the case - then have you not perished and have we not gained salvation?’ The man said, ‘May God's Mercy be upon you! Can you let me know how He is and where He is?’ The Imam (a.s.) answered, ‘Woe be to you! Surely what you think is wrong. He has created the 'where' while He existed when there was no ‘where’; and He

ثُمَّ قَالَ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ: إِنَّ اللَّهَ تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى أَنْزَلَ هَذَا الْقُرْآنَ بِهَذِهِ الْحُرُوفِ الَّتِي يَتَدَاوَلُهَا جَمِيعُ الْعَرَبِ ثُمَّ قَالَ: «قُلْ لَئِنِ اجْتَمَعَتِ الإِنْسُ وَالْجِنُّ عَلى‏ أَنْ يَأْتُوا بِمِثْلِ هذَا الْقُرْآنِ لا يَأْتُونَ بِمِثْلِهِ وَلَوْ كانَ بَعْضُهُمْ لِبَعْضٍ ظَهِيراً».

27 - حَدَّثَنا عَبْد الواحِدِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَبْدُوسٍ العَطَّار رَضِىَ اللهُ عَنْهُ قالَ: حَدَّثَنا عَلِىِّ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ قُتَيْبَةَ النِيْسابُوري، عَنْ حَمْدانَ بْنِ سُلَيْمان بْنِ النِيْسابُوري قالَ: سَأَلْت الرِّضا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ عَنْ قَوْلِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ: «فَمَنْ يُرِدِ اللَّهُ أَنْ يَهْدِيَهُ يَشْرَحْ صَدْرَهُ لِلإِسْلامِ قَالَ مَنْ يُرِدِ اللَّهُ أَنْ يَهْدِيَهُ بِإِيمَانِهِ فِي الدُّنْيَا إِلَى جَنَّتِهِ وَدَارِ كَرَامَتِهِ فِي الآْخِرَةِ يَشْرَحْ صَدْرَهُ لِلتَّسْلِيمِ لِلَّهِ وَالثِّقَةِ بِهِ وَالسُّكُونِ إِلَى مَا وَعَدَهُ مِنْ ثَوَابِهِ حَتَّى يَطْمَئِنَّ إِلَيْهِ وَمَنْ يُرِدْ أَنْ يُضِلَّهُ عَنْ جَنَّتِهِ وَدَارِ كَرَامَتِهِ فِي الآْخِرَةِ لِكُفْرِهِ بِهِ وَعِصْيَانِهِ لَهُ فِي الدُّنْيَا يَجْعَلْ صَدْرَهُ ضَيِّقاً حَرَجاً حَتَّى يَشُكَّ فِي كُفْرِهِ وَيَضْطَرِبَ مِنِ اعْتِقَادِهِ قَلْبُهُ حَتَّى يَصِيرَ كَأَنَّما يَصَّعَّدُ فِي السَّماءِ كَذلِكَ يَجْعَلُ اللَّهُ الرِّجْسَ عَلَى الَّذِينَ لا يُؤْمِنُون».

28 - حَدَّثَنا مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَلِى ماجِيلوَيْه رَضِىَ اللهُ عَنْهُ قالَ: حَدَّثَني عَمِّي مُحَمَّد بن أَبي القاسِم قالَ: حَدَّثَني أَبُو سَمينَةِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَلِى الكُوفِي الصَّيْرَفيِّ، عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَبْدِاللَّه الخراسانِيِّ خادِمُ الرِّضا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ قالَ: دَخَلَ‏دَخَلَ رَجُلٌ مِنَ الزَّنَادِقَةِ عَلَى الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ وَعِنْدَهُ جَمَاعَةٌ، فَقَالَ لَهُ أَبُو الْحَسَنِ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ: أَرَأَيْتَ إِنْ كَانَ الْقَوْلُ قَوْلَكُمْ وَلَيْسَ هُوَكَمَا تَقُولُونَ أَلَسْنَا وَإِيَّاكُمْ شَرَعاً سَوَاءً، وَلا يَضُرُّنَا مَا صَلَّيْنَا وَصُمْنَا وَزَكَّيْنَا وَأَقْرَرْنَا؟ فَسَكَتَ فَقَالَ أَبُو الْحَسَنِ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ إِنْ يَكُنْ الْقَوْلُ قَوْلَنَا - وَهُوَقُولُنا - كَمَا نَقُولُ، أَلَسْتُمْ قَدْ هَلَكْتُمْ وَنَجَوْنَا؟

قَالَ: رَحِمَكَ اللَّهُ، فَأَوْجِدْنِي كَيْفَ هُوَ؟ وَأَيْنَ هُوَ؟ قَالَ: وَيْلَكَ! إِنَّ الَّذِي ذَهَبْتَ إِلَيْهِ غَلَـطٌ.

fashioned the 'how' while He existed when there was no 'how.' So He is not known through qualities of ‘how to be’ or ‘where to be’ or through any form of perception by our senses, nor can He be gauged by any means.’”

The man said, “So then surely He is nothing (la shay') if He cannot be perceived by any of the senses.”

Abul Hassan (a.s.) said, “Woe be to you! When your senses fail to perceive Him, you deny His Lordship? But when our senses fail to perceive Him, we know for certain that He is our Lord and that He is something different from other things.

The man said, “Then tell me, when was He?”

Abul Hassan (Imam Al-Ridha’ (a.s.)) said, “Tell me when He was not, and then I will tell you when He was.”

The man said, “Then what is the proof of Him?”

Abul Hassan (Imam Al-Ridha’ (a.s.)) said, “Surely when I contemplate about my body and see that it is impossible for me to increase or decrease its breadth and height, or to keep unpleasant things away from it, or draw benefits to it, then I know that this structure has a maker. And I acknowledge Him considering that which I have seen of the rotation of the celestial sphere by His Power; the production of the clouds; the movements of the winds; the procession of the Sun, the Moon and the stars; and others of His wondrous and perfectly created signs, has (already) made me know that all these have a Determiner (muqaddir) and an Originator (munshi’).”

The man said, “Then why has He veiled Himself (from men)?”

The Imam (a.s.) replied, “Surely the veil is upon creatures because of the abundance of their sins. As for Him, no secret is hidden from Him during the day or at night.”

The man said, “Then why does the sense of sight not perceive Him?”

The Imam (a.s.) answered, “Because of the difference between Him and His creatures who are perceived by the vision of the eyes, whether their own or others. Then He is Exalted above that to be perceived by the sight, encompassed by imagination, or delineated by the power of reasoning.”

هُوَ أَيَّنَ الأَيْنَ وَكَانَ وَلا أَيْنَ وَهُوَكَيَّفَ الْكَيْفَ، وَكَانَ وَلا كَيْفَ فَلا يُعْرَفُ بِكَيْفُوفِيَّةٍ وَلا بِأَيْنُونِيَّةٍ وَلا بِحَاسَّةٍ، وَلا يُقَاسُ بِشَيْ‏ءٍ.

قَالَ الرَّجُلُ: فَإِذَنْ إِنَّهُ لا شَيْ‏ءَ إِذَا لَمْ يُدْرَكْ بِحَاسَّةٍ مِنَ الْحَوَاسِّ، فَقَالَ أَبُو الْحَسَنِ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ: وَيْلَكَ لَمَّا عَجَزَتْ حَوَاسُّكَ عَنْ إِدْرَاكِهِ أَنْكَرْتَ رُبُوبِيَّتَهُ وَنَحْنُ إِذَا عَجَزَتْ حَوَاسُّنَا عَنْ إِدْرَاكِهِ أَيْقَنَّا أَنَّهُ رَبُّنَا، وَأَنَّهُ شَيْ‏ءٌ بِخِلافِ الأَشْيَاءِ. قَالَ الرَّجُلُ: فَأَخْبِرْنِي مَتَى كَانَ؟ قَالَ أَبُو الْحَسَنِ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ: أَخْبِرْنِي مَتَى لَمْ يَكُنْ فَأُخْبِرَكَ مَتَى كَانَ.

قَالَ الرَّجُلُ: فَمَا الدَّلِيلُ عَلَيْهِ؟ قَالَ أَبُو الْحَسَنِ: إِنِّي لَمَّا نَظَرْتُ إِلَى جَسَدِي فَلَمْ يُمْكِنِّي فِيهِ زِيَادَةٌ وَلا نُقْصَانٌ فِي الْعَرْضِ وَالطُّولِ وَدَفْعُ الْمَكَارِهِ عَنْهُ وَجَرُّ الْمَنْفَعَةِ إِلَيْهِ، عَلِمْتُ أَنَّ لِهَذَا الْبُنْيَانِ بَانِياً، فَأَقْرَرْتُ بِهِ مَعَ مَا أَرَى مِنْ دَوَرَانِ الْفَلَكِ بِقُدْرَتِهِ، وَإِنْشَاءِ السَّحَابِ وَتَصْرِيفِ الرِّيَاحِ، وَمَجْرَى الشَّمْسِ وَالْقَمَرِ وَالنُّجُومِ، وَغَيْرِ ذَلِكَ مِنَ الآْيَاتِ الْعَجِيبَاتِ الْمُتْقَنَاتِ عَلِمْتُ أَنَّ لِهَذَا مُقَدِّراً وَمُنْشِئاً.

قَالَ الرَّجُلُ: فَلِمَ احْتَجَبَ فَقَالَ أَبُو الْحَسَنِ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ: إِنَّ الْحِجَابَ عَلَى [عَن خ ب] الْخَلْقِ لِكَثْرَةِ ذُنُوبِهِمْ فَأَمَّا هُوَفَلا تَخْفَى عَلَيْهِ خَافِيَةٌ فِي آنَاءِ اللَّيْلِ وَالنَّهَارِ.

قَالَ: فَلِمَ لا تُدْرِكُهُ حَاسَّةُ الْبَصَرِ؟ قَالَ: لِلْفَرْقِ بَيْنَهُ وَبَيْنَ خَلْقِهِ الَّذِينَ تُدْرِكُهُمْ حَاسَّةُ الأَبْصَارِ مِنْهُمْ وَمِنْ غَيْرِهِمْ، ثُمَّ هُوَأَجَلُّ مِنْ أَنْ يُدْرِكَهُ بَصَرٌ، أَوْ يُحِيطَ بِهِ وَهْمٌ، أَوْ يَضْبِطَهُ عَقْلٌ.

The man said, “Then, define His limits for me.” The Imam (a.s.) answered, “He has no limits.” The man asked, “Why?” The Imam (a.s.) answered, “Because every limited thing ends at its limit. If limitation is possible, then extension is also possible. If extension is possible; then constriction is also possible. But He is unlimited. He is neither extended nor is He constrained. He cannot be divided, nor can He be perceived by the imagination.”

The man said, “Then tell me about your saying that He is Subtle, All-Hearing, All-Seeing, All-Knowing and All-Wise. Can He be the All-Hearing without ears, the All-Seeing without eyes, the Subtle without working with hands and the All-Wise without workmanship?”

Abul Hassan (a.s.) said, “Surely a person among us is subtle in accordance with (his) skill in workmanship. Have you not seen the man who undertakes a task and is subtle in his handling of it, so that it is said, 'How subtle is so and so!' Then how should it not be said of the Majestic Creator that He is Subtle, when He creates a subtle and majestic Creation, places in its living creatures their souls, creates every kind different in form from its own kind, and none resembles any of the other ones? Each possesses in the composition of its form a subtlety from the Subtle and All-Aware Creator.”

“Then we look upon the trees and their bearing of delicate things, whether edible or not, and we say that 'Surely our Creator is Subtle, (but) not like the subtlety of His creatures in their workmanship.'

And we say, 'Surely He is All-Hearing, since not hidden from Him are the sounds of His creatures between the Throne and the Earth, from a mote to what is larger than that, both in the land and at sea. And their words are not confused by Him.' We say that 'Surely He is All-Hearing, but not through ears.'“

“Then we say, 'Surely He is All-Seeing, but not through eyes, for He sees the trace of a black speck on a dark night on a black stone. He sees the tracks of an ant in a pitch-black night. He sees what is harmful for it and what is beneficial to it, and the result of its cohabitation, and its offspring and its descendents.' And we say, 'Surely He is All-Seeing, but not similar to the sight of His creatures.”

قَالَ: فَحُدَّهُ لِي، فَقَالَ: لا حَدَّ لَهُ، قَالَ: وَلِمَ؟ قَالَ: لانَّ كُلَّ مَحْدُودٍ، مُتَنَاهٍ إِلَى حَدٍّ، وَإِذَا احْتَمَلَ التَّحْدِيدَ احْتَمَلَ الزِّيَادَةَ، وَإِذَا احْتَمَلَ الزِّيَادَةَ احْتَمَلَ النُّقْصَانَ، فَهُوَغَيْرُ مَحْدُودٍ وَلا مُتَزَايِدٍ وَلا مُتَنَاقِصٍ وَلا مُتَجَزِّئٍ وَلا مُتَوَهَّمٍ.

قَالَ الرَّجُلُ: فَأَخْبِرْنِي عَنْ قَوْلِكُمْ: إِنَّهُ لَطِيفٌ وَسَمِيعٌ وَبَصِيرٌ وَعَلِيمٌ وَحَكِيمٌ، أَيَكُونُ السَّمِيعُ إِلا بِالأُذُنِ، وَالْبَصِيرُ إِلا بِالْعَيْنِ، وَاللَّطِيفُ إِلا بِعَمَلِ الْيَدَيْنِ، وَالْحَكِيمُ إِلا بِالصَّنْعَةِ؟ فَقَالَ: أَبُو الْحَسَنِ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ: إِنَّ اللَّطِيفَ مِنَّا عَلَى حَدِّ اتِّخَاذِ الصَّنْعَةِ، أَوَمَا رَأَيْتَ الرَّجُلَ يَتَّخِذُ شَيْئاً فَيَلْطُفُ فِي اتِّخَاذِهِ؟ فَيُقَالُ مَا أَلْطَفَ فُلاناً، فَكَيْفَ لا يُقَالُ لِلْخَالِقِ الْجَلِيلِ: لَطِيفٌ؟ إِذْ خَلَقَ خَلْقاً لَطِيفاً وَجَلِيلاً وَرَكَّبَ فِي الْحَيَوَانِ مِنْهُ أَرْوَاحَهَا وَخَلَقَ كُلَّ جِنْسٍ مُتَبَايِناً مِنْ جِنْسِهِ فِي الصُّورَةِ وَلا يُشْبِهُ بَعْضُهُ بَعْضاً فَكُلٌّ لَهُ لُطْفٌ مِنَ الْخَالِقِ اللَّطِيفِ الْخَبِيرِ فِي تَرْكِيبِ صُورَتِهِ، ثُمَّ نَظَرْنَا إِلَى الأَشْجَارِ وَحَمْلِهَا أَطَايِبَهَا الْمَأْكُولَةَ مِنْهَا وَغَيْرَ الْمَأْكُولَةِ فَقُلْنَا عِنْدَ ذَلِكَ: إِنَّ خَالِقَنَا لَطِيفٌ، لا كَلُطْفِ خَلْقِهِ فِي صَنْعَتِهِمْ وَقُلْنَا: إِنَّهُ سَمِيعٌ لانَّهُ لا يَخْفَى عَلَيْهِ أَصْوَاتُ خَلْقِهِ مَا بَيْنَ الْعَرْشِ إِلَى الثَّرَى مِنَ الذَّرَّةِ إِلَى أَكْبَرَ مِنْهَا فِي بَرِّهَا وَبَحْرِهَا، وَلا تَشْتَبِهُ عَلَيْهِ لُغَاتُهَا فَقُلْنَا عِنْدَ ذَلِكَ: إِنَّهُ سَمِيعٌ لا بِأُذُنٍ وَقُلْنَا: إِنَّهُ بَصِيرٌ لا بِبَصَرٍ، لانَّهُ يَرَى أَثَرَ الذَّرَّةِ السَّحْمَاءِ فِي اللَّيْلَةِ الظَّلْمَاءِ عَلَى الصَّخْرَةِ السَّوْدَاءِ، وَيَرَى دَبِيبَ الَّنمْلِ فِي اللَّيْلَةِ الدُّجْنَةِ وَيَرَى مَضَارَّهَا وَمَنَافِعَهَا وَأَثَرَ سِفَادِهَا وَفَرَاخَهَا وَنَسْلَهَا، فَقُلْنَا عِنْدَ ذَلِكَ: إِنَّهُ بَصِيرٌ لا كَبَصَرِ خَلْقِهِ.

The narrator added, “The man did not leave until he had embraced Islam. The Imam said other things as well.”

11-29 Muhammad ibn Ali Majiluwayh - may God be pleased with him -narrated that Ali ibn Ibrahim ibn Hashem quoted on the authority of al-Mokhtar ibn Muhammad al-Mokhtar al-Hamadani, on the authority of al-Fath ibn Yazid al-Gorgani, “I asked Abil Hassan (a.s.), ‘What is the least degree of recognition?’ The Imam (a.s.) replied, ‘It is the acknowledgement of God and that there is no other god; there is nothing like Him; there is nothing similar to Him; He is Stable, Eternal, Existing; He is never absent, and that there is nothing else like Him.’”

11-30 Ali ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Imran al-Daqqaq - may God be pleased with him - narrated that Muhammad ibn Abdullah al-Kufi quoted on the authority of Muhammad ibn Isma’il al-Barmaki, on the authority of Al-Husayn ibn Al-Hassan, on the authority of Bakr ibn Ziyad, on the authority of Abdul Aziz ibn al-Muhtadi that when he asked Imam Al-Ridha’ (a.s.) about Unity the Imam (a.s.) replied (the verse), “Whoever recites (the verse), ‘Say, He is God, the One, and Only’49 and believes in it has recognized the concept of the Unity of God.” He then asked the Imam (a.s.), “How should one recite this verse.” The Imam (a.s.) said, “Recite it as other people do”, and added, “plus saying ‘This is God, my Lord’ three times.’”

11-30 Ali ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Imran ad-Daqqaq - may God be pleased with him - narrated that Muhammad ibn Abi Abdillah al-Kufi quoted on the authority of Muhammad ibn Isma’il al-Barmaki, on the authority of Al-Husayn ibn Al-Hassan, on the authority of Bakr ibn Ziyad, on the authority of Abdul Aziz al-Mohtadi, “I asked Al-Ridha’ about the Unity. The Imam (a.s.) said, ‘Whoever recites (the Quranic verse) ‘Say, He is Allah, the One and Only’50 and believes in it has recognized Unity.’ Then I asked, ‘How should we recite it?’ The Imam (a.s.) said, ‘ Recite it as the people recite it.’ The Imam (a.s.) also added, ‘Kathaleka Rabbi. Kathaleka Rabbi’ (This is how my Lord is. This is how my Lord is)’ for three times.’”

11-31 Al-Husayn ibn Ahmad ibn Idris - may God be pleased with him - narrated that his father quoted on the authority of Muhammad ibn Bondar, on the authority of Muhammad ibn Ali al-Kufi, on the authority of Muhammad ibn Ali al-Khorasani - the servant of Al-Ridha’ (a.s.), “One of

قَالَ: فَمَا بَرِحَ حَتَّى أَسْلَمَ. وَفِيهِ كَلامٌ غَيْرُ هَذَا.

29 - حَدَّثَنا مُحَمَّد بْنِ عَلِى ماجِيلوَيْه رَضِىَ اللهُ عَنْهُ قالَ: حَدَّثَنا عَلِىِّ بْنِ إِبراهِيمِ بْنِ هاشِمٍ، عَنْ مُختارِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الُمخْتار الهَمْدانِيَّ، عَنِ الفَتح بْنِ يَزِيد الجُرجانِيُّ، عَنْ أَبي الحَسَن‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ قالَ: سَأَلْتُهُ عَنْ أَدْنَى الْمَعْرِفَةِ، قَالَ: الإِقْرَارُ بِأَنَّهُ لا إِلَهَ غَيْرُهُ وَلا شِبْهَ لَهُ وَلا نَظِيرَ لَهُ، وَأَنَّهُ قَدِيمٌ، مُثْبَتٌ مَوْجُودٌ غَيْرُ فَقِيدٍ، وَأَنَّهُ لَيْسَ كَمِثْلِهِ شَيْ‏ءٌ.

30 - حَدَّثَنا عَلِىِّ بْنِ أَحْمَد بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِمْران الدَّقَّاق رَضِىَ اللهُ عَنْهُ قالَ: حَدَّثَنا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ أَبي‏الكُوفِيِّ قالَ: حَدَّثَنا مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ إِسْمَاعِيل البَرمَكيِّ قالَ: حَدَّثَني الحُسَيْنِ بْنِ الحَسَن قالَ: حَدَّثَني بَكْرِ بْنِ زياد، عَنْ عَبْد العَزِيز بْنِ المُهْتَدِيّ، قالَ: سَأَلْتُ الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ عَنِ التَّوْحِيدِ، فَقَالَ: كُلُّ مَنْ قَرَأَ قُلْ هُوَاللَّهُ أَحَدٌ وَآمَنَ بِهَا فَقَدْ عَرَفَ التَّوْحِيدَ، قُلْتُ: كَيْفَ يَقْرَؤُهَا؟ قَالَ: كَمَا يَقْرَؤُهَا النَّاسُ، وَزَادَ فِيهِ «كَذَلِكَ اللَّهُ رَبِّي كَذَلِكَ اللَّهُ رَبِّي كَذَلِكَ اللَّهُ رَبِّي» - ثَلاثاً -.

31 - حَدَّثَنا الحُسَيْنِ بْنِ أَحْمَدِ بْنِ إِدْرِيس رَضِىَ اللهُ عَنْهُ، عَنْ أَبيهِ قالَ: حَدَّثَنا مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ بُنْذارٍ عَنْ‏عَلِيِّ الكُوفِي عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَلِى الخُراسانِي خادِم الرِّضا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ قالَ: قَالَ

the hypocrites asked Abil Hassan (a.s.), ‘Can we say that God is a ‘thing’? The Imam (a.s.) replied, ‘Yes. He has called Himself ‘thing’ in His Book as we read in the Quran, ‘Say, ‘What thing is most weighty in evidence?’ Say, ‘God is witness between me and you…’’51 He is a ‘Thing’ for which there is no other thing alike.’”

11-32 Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Yahya al-Attar (a.s.) - may God be pleased with him - narrated that Sa’d ibn Abdullah quoted on the authority of Ali ibn Ma’bad, on the authority of Al-Husayn ibn Khalid, on the authority of Abil Hassan Ali ibn Musa Al-Ridha’ (a.s.), “One day a man came to see Al-Ridha’ (a.s.) and said, “O son of God’s Prophet! What is the proof that the world is created?” The Imam (a.s.) replied, “You did not exist and were created. You know well that you were not the one who created you, and that there is no one else like you who created you.”

11-33 Tamim ibn Abdullah ibn Tamim al-Qurashi - may God be pleased with him - narrated that his father quoted on the authority of Ahmad ibn Ali Al-Ansari, on the authority of Abi Salt Abdul Salam ibn Salih al-Harawi52, “Al-Ma’mun asked Abul Hassan Ali ibn Musa Al-Ridha’ (a.s.) about what the Sublime God said, ‘He it is Who created the heavens and the earth in six Days - and His Throne was over the waters - that He might try you, which of you is best in conduct…’53

The Imam (a.s.) replied, ‘The Blessed the Sublime God created the Throne, the water, and the angels before the Creation of the heavens and the Earth. The angels used their own Creation, and the Throne and the water as means by which they proved the existence of the Honorable the Exalted God for themselves. Then He established His Throne over the water in order to manifest His Might to the angels so that they would know that He is capable of doing whatever He pleases. He then raised the Throne through His Might, moved it and established it above the seven heavens. Then He created the heavens and the Earth in six days while He was Omnipotent on His Throne. He was capable of creating them in the twinkle of an eye, but the Sublime One created them in six days in order to show the angels what He was creating one thing after the other so that they would know over and over that God is the Originator of each and every thing. God did not create the Throne because He was in need of it. He is independent of the Throne and of everything He has created. He cannot be described by saying that He is sitting on the Throne since He

بَعْضُ الزَّنَادِقَةِ لابِي الْحَسَنِ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ هَلْ يُقَالُ لِلَّهِ: إِنَّهُ شَيْ‏ءٌ؟ فَقَالَ: نَعَمْ وَقَدْ سَمَّى نَفْسَهُ بِذَلِكَ فِي كِتَابِهِ فَقَالَ قُلْ أَيُّ شَيْ‏ءٍ أَكْبَرُ شَهادَةً قُلِ اللَّهُ شَهِيدٌ بَيْنِي وَبَيْنَكُمْ فَهُوَشَيْ‏ءٌ لَيْسَ كَمِثْلِهِ شَيْ‏ءٌ.

32 - حَدَّثَنا أَحْمَدِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ يَحْيَى العَطَّار رَضِىَ اللهُ عَنْهُ قالَ: حَدَّثَنا سَعْدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّه قالابْراهيمِ بْنِ هاشِم عَنْ عَلِىِّ بْنِ معبد عَنْ الحُسَيْنِ بْنِ خالِد عَنْ أَبي الحَسَن عَلىِّ بْنِ مُوسَى الرِّضا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ أَنَّهُ دَخَلَ عَلَيْهِ رَجُلٌ فَقَالَ لَهُ يَا ابْنَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ مَا الدَّلِيلُ عَلَى حُدُوثِ الْعَالَمِ؟ فَقَالَ: أَنْتَ لَمْ تَكُنْ ثُمَّ كُنْتَ وَقَدْ عَلِمْتَ أَنَّكَ لَمْ تُكَوِّنْ نَفْسَكَ وَلا كَوَّنَكَ مَنْ هُوَمِثْلُك.

33 - حَدَّثَنا تَمِيمُ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّه بْنِ تَمِيمُ القُرَشِي قالَ: حَدَّثَنا أَبي عَنْ أَحْمَدِ بن عَلِيِّ الأَنْصارِي، عَنْ أَبي الصَّلْتِ عَبْد السَّلامُ بْنِ صالِح الهَرَوِيِّ قالَ: سَأَلَ مَأْمُونٌ أَبَا الْحَسَنِ عَلِيَّ بْنَ مُوسَى الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ عَنْ قَوْلِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ: «وَهُوَالَّذِي خَلَقَ السَّماواتِ وَالأَرْضَ فِي سِتَّةِ أَيَّامٍ وَكانَ عَرْشُهُ عَلَى الْماءِ لِيَبْلُوَكُمْ أَيُّكُمْ أَحْسَنُ عَمَلاً» فَقَالَ: إِنَّ اللَّهَ تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى خَلَقَ الْعَرْشَ وَالْمَاءَ وَالْمَلائِكَةَ قَبْلَ خَلْقِ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضِ فَكَانَتِ الْمَلائِكَةُ تَسْتَدِلُّ بِأَنْفُسِهَا وَبِالْعَرْشِ وَالْمَاءِ عَلَى اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ ثُمَّ جَعَلَ عَرْشَهُ عَلَى الْمَاءِ لِيُظْهِرَ بِذَلِكَ قُدْرَتَهُ لِلْمَلائِكَةِ فَتَعْلَمَ أَنَّهُ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْ‏ءٍ قَدِيرٌ ثُمَّ رَفَعَ الْعَرْشَ بِقُدْرَتِهِ وَنَقَلَهُ فَجَعَلَهُ فَوْقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ السَّبْعِ ثُمَّ خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضَ فِي سِتَّةِ أَيَّامٍ وَهُوَمُسْتَوْلٍ عَلَى عَرْشِهِ وَكَانَ قَادِراً عَلَى أَنْ يَخْلُقَهَا فِي طَرْفَةِ عَيْنٍ وَلَكِنَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ خَلَقَهَا فِي سِتَّةِ أَيَّامٍ لِيُظْهِرَ لِلْمَلائِكَةِ مَا يَخْلُقُهُ مِنْهَا شَيْئاً بَعْدَ شَيْ‏ءٍ فَتَسْتَدِلَّ بِحُدُوثِ مَا يَحْدُثُ عَلَى اللَّهِ تَعَالَى ذِكْرُهُ مَرَّةً بَعْدَ مَرَّةٍ وَلَمْ يَخْلُقِ اللَّهُ الْعَرْشَ لِحَاجَةٍ بِهِ إِلَيْهِ لانَّهُ غَنِيٌّ عَنِ الْعَرْشِ وَعَنْ جَمِيعِ مَا خَلَقَ لا يُوصَفُ بِالْكَوْنِ عَلَى الْعَرْشِ لانَّهُ لَيْسَ بِجِسْمٍ تَعَالَى عَنْ صِفَةِ خَلْقِهِ عُلُوّاً كَبِيراً.

has no physical body. Exalted He is above the characteristics of what He created. High indeed is He Exalted. And regarding what the Honorable the Exalted God said, ‘…that He might try you, which of you is best in conduct…’ This means that the Honorable the Exalted God created them so that He tries them through their acts of obedience and worship. Not in the form of an examination and experimentation since He has always known everything.’ Then Al-Ma’mun said, ‘How Excellent! O Abul Hassan! You have relieved me. May God grant you relief.’

Then Al-Ma’mun asked again, ‘O son of God’s Prophet! What is the meaning of the following Words of the Honorable the Exalted God, ‘If it had been thy Lord's will, they would all have believed - all who are on earth! wilt thou then compel mankind, against their will, to believe! No soul can believe, except by the will of Allah, and He will place doubt (or obscurity) on those who will not understand.?”54

Al-Ridha’ (a.s.) replied, ‘My father Musa ibn Ja’far (a.s.) narrated that his father Ja’far ibn Muhammad (a.s.) quoted on the authority of his father Muhammad ibn Ali (a.s.), on the authority of Ali ibn Al-Husayn (a.s.), on the authority of his father Al-Husayn ibn Ali (a.s.), on the authority of his father Ali ibn Abi Talib (a.s.), ‘The Muslims told the Messenger of God (a.s.), ‘O Messenger of God! We wished that you would force those whom you have conquered to accept Islam so that our numbers would increase, and we would become stronger in the face of our enemies.’

The Messenger of God (a.s.) replied, ‘I do not want to meet the Honorable the Exalted God having invented an innovation which He did not command me to do. I am not the type of person who forces others to do anything at all.’

It was then that the Sublime God revealed, ‘O Muhammad! If it had been thy Lord's will, they would all have believed - all who are on earth!…’ by means of forcing them, or when they find no other choice while in this world just as those who believe only after seeing God's Might and Retribution in the Hereafter. If I do such a thing to them, they would not deserve any reward from me. Nor would they deserve any praise. But I wish they would accept it out of their own choice, rather than being forced to do so in order that they will deserve to be close to me and be honored and reside in Paradise forever.’ God’s words continue with ‘…wilt thou then compel mankind, against their will, to believe!’

وَأَمَّا قَوْلُهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ: «لِيَبْلُوَكُمْ أَيُّكُمْ أَحْسَنُ عَمَلاً» فَإِنَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ خَلَقَ خَلْقَهُ لِيَبْلُوَهُمْ بِتَكْلِيفِ طَاعَتِهِ وَعِبَادَتِهِ، لا عَلَى سَبِيلِ الامْتِحَانِ وَالتَّجْرِبَةِ لانَّهُ لَمْ يَزَلْ عَلِيماً بِكُلِّ شَيْ‏ءٍ فَقَالَ الْمَأْمُونُ فَرَّجْتَ عَنِّي يَا أَبَا الْحَسَنِ فَرَّجَ اللَّهُ عَنْكَ.

ثُمَّ قَالَ لَهُ: يَا ابْنَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ فَمَا مَعْنَى قَوْلِ اللَّهِ جَلَّ ثَنَاؤُهُ: «وَلَوْ شاءَ رَبُّكَ لآَمَنَ مَنْ فِي الأَرْضِ كُلُّهُمْ جَمِيعاً أَفَأَنْتَ تُكْرِهُ النَّاسَ حَتَّى يَكُونُوا مُؤْمِنِينَ وَما كانَ لِنَفْسٍ أَنْ تُؤْمِنَ إِلا بِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ» فَقَالَ الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ: حَدَّثَنِي أَبِي مُوسَى بْنُ جَعْفَرٍ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ جَعْفَرِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَلِيٍّ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْحُسَيْنِ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ عَلِيٍّ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَلِيِّ بْنِ أَبِي طَالِبٍ‏ عَلَيْهِمُ السَّلاَمُ قَالَ: إِنَّ الْمُسْلِمِينَ قَالُوا لِرَسُولِ اللَّهِ‏ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ لَوْ أَكْرَهْتَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ مَنْ قَدَرْتَ عَلَيْهِ مِنَ النَّاسِ عَلَى الإِسْلامِ لَكَثُرَ عَدَدُنَا وَقَوِينَا عَلَى عَدُوِّنَا فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ مَا كُنْتُ لالْقَى اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ بِبِدْعَةٍ لَمْ يُحَدِّثْ إِلَيَّ فِيهَا شَيْئاً وَما أَنَا مِنَ الْمُتَكَلِّفِينَ فَأَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ عَلَيْهِ يَا مُحَمَّدُ وَلَوْ شاءَ رَبُّكَ لآَمَنَ مَنْ فِي الأَرْضِ كُلُّهُمْ جَمِيعاً عَلَى سَبِيلِ الإِلْجَاءِ وَالاضْطِرَارِ فِي الدُّنْيَا كَمَا يُؤْمِنُونَ عِنْدَ الْمُعَايَنَةِ وَرُؤْيَةِ الْبَأْسِ فِي الآْخِرَةِ وَلَوْ فَعَلْتُ ذَلِكَ بِهِمْ لَمْ يَسْتَحِقُّوا مِنِّي ثَوَاباً وَلا مَدْحاً وَلَكِنِّي أُرِيدُ مِنْهُمْ أَنْ يُؤْمِنُوا مُخْتَارِينَ غَيْرَ مُضْطَرِّينَ لِيَسْتَحِقُّوا مِنِّي الزُّلْفَى وَالْكَرَامَةَ وَدَوَامَ الْخُلُودِ فِي جَنَّةِ الْخُلْدِ «أَ فَأَنْتَ تُكْرِهُ النَّـاسَ حَتَّى يَكُونُوا مُؤْمِنِينَ» وَأَمَّا قَوْلُهُ عَزَّ وَجَـلَّ

And regarding the Sublime God’s words, ‘No soul can believe, except by the will of Allah…’ It does not mean that men are deprived of believing (without the prior consent of God); it simply means that they cannot believe without God’s Will. God’s Will consists of His ordering us to believe which is a form of obligation and worshipping. Forcing the people to believe would only apply if this obligation is removed.55’’’

Then Al-Ma’mun said, ‘How Excellent! O Abul Hassan! You have relieved me. May God grant you relief.’

Then Al-Ma’mun asked again, ‘Let me know about the meaning of the following Words of the Sublime God: ‘(Unbelievers) whose eyes had been under a veil from remembrance of Me, and who had been unable even to hear.56’’

The Imam (a.s.) replied, ’A veil in front of the eyes will not prevent one from remembering. God’s remembrance is not done by the eyes. However, the Honorable the Exalted God has likened those who refute the Mastery of Ali ibn Abi Talib (a.s.) to the blind since the words of the Prophet (S) were hard for them to bear and they could not listen to them.’

Then Al-Ma’mun said, ‘How Excellent! You have relieved me. May God grant you relief.’”

11-34 Abdul Wahid Muhammad ibn Ubdoos al-Neishaboori al-Attar - may God be pleased with him - narrated that Ali ibn Muhammad ibn Qutayba al-Neishaboori quoted on the authority of Hamdan ibn Soleiman, “I wrote to Al-Ridha’ (a.s.) and asked him (a.s.) about whether the deeds of the servants were created or not. The Imam (a.s.) wrote back, “In God’s Knowledge, the deeds of the servants were destined two-thousand years before the Creation of Adam.”

11-35 (The author of the book narrated) my father - may God be pleased with him - narrated that Sa’d ibn Abdullah quoted on the authority of Ali ibn Ibrahim ibn Hashem, on the authority of his father, on the authority of Ali ibn Ma’bad, on the authority of Al-Husayn ibn Khalid, on the authority of Ali ibn Musa Al-Ridha’ (a.s.), on the authority of his father (a.s.), on the authority of his forefathers (a.s.), on the authority of the Commander of the Faithful that God’s Prophet (S) said, “God will not bring to the Pool anyone who does not believe in my Pool. God will not let anyone who does not believe in my intercession to benefit from it.” Then the

«وَما كانَ لِنَفْسٍ أَنْ تُؤْمِنَ إِلا بِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ» فَلَيْسَ ذَلِكَ عَلَى سَبِيلِ تَحْرِيمِ الإِيمَانِ عَلَيْهَا وَلَكِنْ عَلَى مَعْنَى أَنَّهَا مَا كَانَتْ لِتُؤْمِنَ إِلا بِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ وَإِذْنُهُ أَمْرُهُ لَهَا بِالإِيمَانِ مَا كَانَتْ مُكَلَّفَةً مُتَعَبَّدَةً وَإِلْجَاؤُهُ إِيَّاهَا إِلَى الإِيمَانِ عِنْدَ زَوَالِ التَّكْلِيفِ وَالتَّعَبُّدِ عَنْهَا.

فَقَالَ الْمَأْمُونُ: فَرَّجْتَ عَنِّي يَا أَبَا الْحَسَنِ فَرَّجَ اللَّهُ عَنْكَ فَأَخْبِرْنِي عَنْ قَوْلِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ: «الَّذِينَ كانَتْ أَعْيُنُهُمْ فِي غِطاءٍ عَنْ ذِكْرِي وَكانُوا لا يَسْتَطِيعُونَ سَمْعاً» فَقَالَ: إِنَّ غِطَاءَ الْعَيْنِ لا يَمْنَعُ مِنَ الذِّكْرِ الذِّكْرُ لا يُرَى بِالْعَيْنِ، وَلَكِنَّ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ شَبَّهَ الْكَافِرِينَ بِوَلايَةِ عَلِيِّ بْنِ أَبِي طَالِبٍ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ بِالْعُمْيَانِ لانَّهُمْ كَانُوا يَسْتَثْقِلُونَ قَوْلَ النَّبِيِ‏ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ فِيهِ وَلا يَسْتَطِيعُونَ لَهُ سَمْعاً فَقَالَ الْمَأْمُونُ: فَرَّجْتَ عَنِّي فَرَّجَ اللَّهُ عَنْكَ.

34 - حَدَّثَنا عَبْد الواحِد بْنِ مُحَمَّد بْنِ عَبْدُوسٍ النِيْسابُوري العَطَّار رَضِىَ اللهُ عَنْهُ قالَ: حَدَّثَنا مُحَمَّد بْنِ قُتَيْبَةَ النِيْسابُوريّ، عَنْ حَمْدان بْنِ سُلَيْمان قالَ: كَتَبْتُ إِلَى الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ أَسْأَلُهُ عَنْ أَفْعَالِ الْعِبَادِ أَمَخْلُوقَةٌ أَمْ غَيْرُ مَخْلُوقَةٍ؟ فَكَتَبَ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ: أَفْعَالُ الْعِبَادِ مُقَدَّرَةٌ فِي عِلْمِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ قَبْلَ خَلْقِ الْعِبَادِ بِأَلْفَيْ عَامٍ.

35 - حَدَّثَنا أَبي رَضِىَ اللهُ عَنْهُ قالَ: حَدَّثَنا سَعْدُ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّه قالَ: حَدَّثَنا عَلِىِّ بْنِ إِبراهِيمِ بْنِ هاشِمٍ، عَنْ عَلِىِّ بْنِ مَعبَدٍ، عَنِ الحُسَيْنِ بْنِ خالِدٍ، عَنْ عَلِىِّ بْنِ مُوسَى الرِّضا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ، عَنْ أَبيهِ، عَنْ‏آبائِهِ‏ عَلَيْهِمُ السَّلاَمُ: أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنين‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ قالَ: قالَ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ‏ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ: مَنْ لَمْ يُؤْمِنْ بِحَوْضِي فَلا أَوْرَدَهُ اللَّهُ حَوْضِي وَمَنْ لَمْ يُؤْمِنْ بِشَفَاعَتِي فَلا أَنَالَهُ اللَّهُ شَفَاعَتِي، ثُمَّ قَالَ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ: إِنَّمَا شَفَاعَتِي لاهْلِ الْكَبَائِرِ مِنْ أُمَّتِي

Prophet (S) said, “My intercession applies to those of my nation who commit major sins. As for the good doers, they do not even deserve to be questioned.”

Al-Husayn ibn Khalid added, “I asked Al-Ridha’ (a.s.), ‘O son of the Prophet of God! What does the following Words of the Honorable the Exalted ‘…and they offer no intercession except for those who are acceptable…’57 mean?’”

Then the Imam (a.s.) said, “This means that they will not intercede on behalf of anyone unless God accepts their religion.”

The author said, “A believer is one whose good deeds make him happy and whose bad deeds make him upset since the Prophet (S) said, “Anyone whose good deeds pleases him and whose evil deeds upsets him is a believer. Whenever he gets upset about his bad deeds he becomes sorry. Becoming sorry is the same as repenting. One who repents deserves intercession and forgiveness. Whoever does not get upset about his evil deeds is not a believer. One who is not a believer does not deserve my intercession, since God does not accept his religion.”

11-36 Muhammad ibn Al-Qasim - the interpreter - may God be pleased with him - narrated that Yusuf ibn Muhammad ibn Ziyad and Ali ibn Muhammad ibn Sayyar quoted on the authority of their fathers, on the authority of Al-Hassan ibn Ali (a.s.), on the authority of his father Ali ibn Muhammad (a.s.), on the authority of his father Muhammad ibn Ali (a.s.), on the authority of his father Ali ibn Musa Al-Ridha’ (a.s.), on the authority of his father Musa ibn Ja’far (a.s.), on the authority of his father Ja’far ibn Muhammad (a.s.), on the authority of his father Muhammad ibn Ali (a.s.) that Ali ibn Al-Husayn (a.s.) said, “The Honorable the Exalted God’s words ‘…Who has made the Earth your couch, and the heavens your canopy…’58 mean that God has made the Earth suitable for your body and according to your nature. He has neither made it too hot to burn you, nor did He make it too cold in which to freeze. The winds do not smell so good that you get a headache, neither are they so bad-smelling to be bothersome to you. The Earth is not as soft as water in which to drown, and not so hard that you could not build your houses on or dig your graves in it. The Honorable the Exalted God has made the Earth hard enough to benefit you and for you to be able to build your houses upon it and dig your graves in it. This is the sense in which ‘He has made the

فَأَمَّا الُْمحْسِنُونَ فَمَا عَلَيْهِمْ مِنْ سَبِيلٍ.

قَالَ الْحُسَيْنُ بْنُ خَالِدٍ فَقُلْتُ لِلرِّضَايَا ابْنَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ فَمَا مَعْنَى قَوْلِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ: «وَلا يَشْفَعُونَ إِلا لِمَنِ ارْتَضى‏» ؟ قَالَ: لا يَشْفَعُونَ إِلا لِمَنِ ارْتَضَى اللَّهُ دِينَه.

قالَ المُصَنَّف: الْمُؤْمِنُ هُوَالَّذِي تَسُرُّهُ حَسَنَتُهُ وَتَسُوؤُهُ سَيِّئَتُهُ لِقَوْلِ النَّبِيِ‏ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ: مَنْ سَرَّتْهُ حَسَنَتُهُ وَسَاءَتْهُ سَيِّئَتُهُ فَهُوَمُؤْمِنٌ وَمَتَى سَاءَتْهُ سَيِّئَةٌ نَدِمَ عَلَيْهَا، وَالنَّدَمُ تَوْبَةٌ وَالتَّائِبُ مُسْتَحِقٌّ لِلشَّفَاعَةِ وَالْغُفْرَانِ، وَمَنْ لَمْ تَسُؤْهُ سَيِّئَتُهُ فَلَيْسَ بِمُؤْمِنٍ وَإِذَا لَمْ يَكُنْ مُؤْمِناً لَمْ يَسْتَحِقَّ الشَّفَاعَةَ لانَّ اللَّهَ غَيْرُ مُرْتَضٍ لِدِينِه.

36 - حَدَّثَنا مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ القاسِم المفسر رَضِىَ اللهُ عَنْهُ قالَ: حَدَّثَني يُوسف بْن مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ زِياد وَعَلِىِّ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ سيّارٍ، عَنْ أَبَوَيهُما، عَنِ الحَسَن بْنِ عَلِىِّ، عَنْ أَبيهِ عَلِىِّ بْنِ مُحَمَّد، عَنْ أَبيهِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَلِىٍّ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَلِىِّ بْنِ مُوسَى الرِّضا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ، عَنْ أَبيهِ مُوسَى بْنِ جَعْفَرٍ، عَنْ أَبيهِ جَعْفَرِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَلِى، عَنْ أَبيهِ عَلِىِّ بْنِ الحُسَيْن‏ عَلَيْهِمُ السَّلاَمُ فِي قَوْلِهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ: «الَّذِي جَعَلَ لَكُمُ الأَرْضَ فِراشاً وَالسَّماءَ بِناءً» قَالَ: جَعَلَهَا مُلائِمَةً لِطَبَائِعِكُمْ مُوَافِقَةً لاجْسَادِكُمْ وَلَمْ يَجْعَلْهَا شَدِيدَةَ الْحَمْيِ وَالْحَرَارَةِ فَتُحْرِقَكُمْ وَلا شَدِيدَةَ الْبُرُودَةِ فَتُجْمِدَكُمْ وَلا شَدِيدَةَ طِيبِ الرِّيحِ فَتُصَدَّعَ هَامَاتُكُمْ وَلا شَدِيدَةَ النَّتْنِ فَتُعْطِبَكُمْ وَلا شَدِيدَةَ اللِّينِ كَالْمَاءِ فَتُغْرِقَكُمْ وَلا شَدِيدَةَ الصَّلابَةِ فَتَمْتَنِعَ عَلَيْكُمْ فِي دُورِكُمْ وَأَبْنِيَتِكُمْ وَقُبُورِ مَوْتَاكُمْ وَلَكِنَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ جَعَلَ فِيهَا مِنَ الْمَتَانَةِ مَا تَنْتَفِعُونَ بِهِ وَتَتََماسَكُ عَلَيْهَا أَبْدَانُكُمْ وَبُنْيَانُكُمْ وَجَعَلَ فِيهَا مَا تَنْقَادُ بِهِ لِدُورِكُمْ وَقُبُورِكُمْ وَكَثِيرٍ مِنْ مَنَافِعِكُمْ فَذَلِكَ جَعَلَ لَكُمُ الأَرْضَ فِراشاً ثُمَّ قَـالَ: «وَالسَّمـاءَ بِنـاءً» سَقْفـاً مَحْفُوظـاً مِنْ

Earth your couch.’ 59 Then the Honorable the Exalted God said, ‘and the heavens your canopy…’60 Here canopy means ‘a covering’ or a ‘roof.’ A roof which God has made its Sun, Moon and the stars move in their orbits for your benefit.

Then the Honorable the Exalted God said, ‘…and sent down rain from the heavens…’61 This means that God sent down rain from the sky so that it can reach the mountains, the hills, and the valleys. God sent down water in various forms - rain, sleet, snow, hail so that the Earth could take it in. God did not sent down the water at once, as that would destroy the land, the trees, the fruits, and the harvest. Then the Honorable the Exalted God said, ‘…and brought forth therewith Fruits for your sustenance…’62 This means that God has established what grows out of the Earth as your sustenance. ‘…Then set not up rivals onto Allah when ye know (the truth)’63 meaning not to set up idols as rivals for God which neither have any intellect, nor do they hear, see or are able to do anything. You know well that these idols cannot grant you the many blessings which your Lord - the Blessed the Sublime - has bestowed upon you.

11-37 Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Sinani - may God be pleased with him - narrated that Muhammad ibn Abi Abdillah al-Kufi quoted on the authority Sahl ibn Ziyad al-Adami, on the authority of Abdul Azeem ibn Abdullah Al-Hassani, on the authority of Imam Ali ibn Muhammad (a.s.), on the authority of his father Muhammad ibn Ali (a.s.), on the authority of his father Ali ibn Musa Al-Ridha’ (a.s.), “One day Abu Hanifeh left As-Sadiq (a.s.) and encountered Musa ibn Ja’far (a.s.) along the way and asked him, “O young man! Who commits sins?” Musa ibn Ja’far (a.s.) replied, “There are only three cases to consider. It is either done by the Sublime God which is not the case since it is not at all proper for The Gracious to punish His servants for things they have not done. The second case to consider is that the sin is committed by both the Honorable the Exalted God and the servant. But it is not proper for a Powerful partner to oppress a weak partner. The last possibility is that the servants commit sins. That is the case. Then if the Sublime God punishes him it is due to the sins he has committed, and if God forgives him it is due to His Munificence.”

11-38 Ali ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Imran ad-Daqqaq - may God be pleased with him - narrated that Muhammad ibn Al-Hassan Al-Ta’ee

فَوْقِكُمْ يُدِيرُ فِيهَا شَمْسَهَا وَقَمَرَهَا وَنُجُومَهَا لِمَنَافِعِكُمْ ثُمَّ قَالَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ «وَأَنْزَلَ مِنَ السَّماءِ ماءً» يَعْنِي الْمَطَرَ يُنْزِلُهُ مِنْ عَلًى [عَلاً] لِيَبْلُغَ قُلَلَ جِبَالِكُمْ وَتِلالَكُمْ وَهِضَابَكُمْ وَأَوْهَادَكُمْ ثُمَّ فَرَّقَهُ رَذَاذاً وَوَابِلاً وَهَطْلاً وَطَلّاً لِتَنْشَفَهُ أَرَضُوكُمْ وَلَمْ يَجْعَلْ ذَلِكَ الْمَطَرَ نَازِلاً عَلَيْكُمْ قِطْعَةً وَاحِدَةً فَيُفْسِدَ أَرَضِيكُمْ وَأَشْجَارَكُمْ وَزُرُوعَكُمْ وَثِمَارَكُمْ ثُمَّ قَالَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ: «فَأَخْرَجَ بِهِ مِنَ الَّثمَراتِ رِزْقاً لَكُمْ» يَعْنِي مِمَّا يُخْرِجُهُ مِنَ الأَرْضِ رِزْقاً لَكُمْ «فَلا تَجْعَلُوا لِلَّهِ أَنْداداً» أَيْ أَشْبَاهاً وَأَمْثَالاً مِنَ الأَصْنَامِ الَّتِي لا تَعْقِلُ وَلا تَسْمَعُ وَلا تُبْصِرُ وَلا تَقْدِرُ عَلَى شَيْ‏ءٍ وَأَنْتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ أَنَّهَا لا تَقْدِرُ عَلَى شَيْ‏ءٍ مِنْ هَذِهِ النِّعَمِ الْجَلِيلَةِ الَّتِي أَنْعَمَهَا عَلَيْكُمْ رَبُّكُمْ تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى.

37 - حَدَّثَنا مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ أحْمَد السَنانِي رَضِىَ اللهُ عَنْهُ قالَ: حَدَّثَنا مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ أَبي عَبْدِ اللَّه الكُوفِي قالَ: حَدَّثَنا سَهْلِ بْنِ زِياد الأَدَمِي، عَنْ عَبْدِ العَظِيم بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّه الحَسَنِيِّ، عَنْ الإِمام عَلِىِّ بْنِ مُحَمَّد، عن مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَلِى، عَنْ أَبيهِ عَلِىِّ بْنِ مُوسَى الرِّضا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ قالَ: خَرَجَ أَبُو حَنِيفَةَ ذَاتَ يَوْمٍ مِنْ عِنْدِ الصَّادِقِ‏فَاسْتَقْبَلَهُ مُوسَى بْنُ جَعْفَرٍ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ فَقَالَ لَهُ: يَا غُلامُ مِمَّنِ الْمَعْصِيَةُ فَقَالَ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ: لا تَخْلُو مِنْ ثَلاثَةٍ إِمَّا أَنْ تَكُونَ مِنَ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ وَلَيْسَتْ مِنْهُ فَلا يَنْبَغِي لِلْكَرِيمِ أَنْ يُعَذِّبَ عَبْدَهُ بِمَا لَمْ يَكْتَسِبْهُ، وَإِمَّا أَنْ تَكُونَ مِنَ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ وَمِنَ الْعَبْدِ فَلا يَنْبَغِي لِلشَّرِيكِ الْقَوِيِّ أَنْ يَظْلِمَ الشَّرِيكَ الضَّعِيفَ، وَإِمَّا أَنْ تَكُونَ مِنَ الْعَبْدِ وَهِيَ مِنْهُ فَإِنْ عَاقَبَهُ اللَّهُ فَبِذَنْبِهِ، وَإِنْ عَفَا عَنْهُ فَبِكَرَمِهِ وَجُودِهِ.

38 - حَدَّثَنا عَلِىِّ بْنِ أَحْمَدِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِمْران الدَّقَّاق رَضِىَ اللهُ عَنْهُ قالَ: حَدَّثَنا مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الحَسَن الطَّائيّ قالَ: حَدَّثَني أَبُو سَعِيدُ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيادٍ الأَدَمِي الرَّازِيُّ عَنْ عَلِىِّ بْنِ

quoted on the authority of Abu Sa’eed Sahl ibn Ziyad al-Adami al-Razi, on the authority of Ali ibn Ja’far al-Kufi that he had heard the following from his Master Ali ibn Muhammad (a.s.), on the authority of his father (a.s.), on the authority of his father Ali ibn Musa Al-Ridha’ (a.s.), on the authority of his father Musa ibn Ja’far (a.s.), on the authority of his father Ja’far ibn Muhammad (a.s.), on the authority of his father Muhammad ibn Ali (a.s.), on the authority of Ali ibn Al-Husayn (a.s.), on the authority of his father Al-Husayn ibn Ali (a.s.). The same was narrated by Muhammad ibn Umar al-Hafiz al-Baghdadi who narrated that Abul Qasim Ishaq ibn Ja’far Al-Alawi quoted on the authority of Abi Ja’far ibn Muhammad ibn Ali, on the authority of Soleiman ibn Muhammad al-Qurashi, on the authority of Isma’il ibn Abi Ziyad, on the authority of Ja’far ibn Muhammad (a.s.), on the authority of his father (a.s.), on the authority of his grandfather Ali ibn Al-Husayn (a.s.), on the authority of Ali (a.s.). The same tradition was narrated by Abul Husayn Muhammad ibn Ibrahim Ishaq al-Farsi al-Aza’emi who quoted on the authority of Abu Sa’eed Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Romayh an-Nasawi at Gorgan, on the authority of Abdul Aziz ibn Ishaq ibn Ja’far at Baghdad, on the authority of Abdul Wahhab ibn Isa al-Marwazi, on the authority of Al-Hassan ibn Ali ibn Muhammad al-Balawi, on the authority of Muhammad ibn Abdullah ibn Nujayh, on the authority of his father, on the authority of Ja’far ibn Muhammad (a.s.), on the authority of his father (a.s.), on the authority of his grandfather (a.s.), on the authority of his father (a.s.). The same tradition was narrated by Al-Hassan ibn Ali al-Sokkari who quoted on the authority of Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Jowhari, on the authority of Al-Abbas ibn Bakkar al-Dhabiy, on the authority of Abu Bakr al-Hothali, on the authority of Ikremah, on the authority of Ibn Abbas, “When the Commander of the Faithful Ali ibn Abi Talib (a.s.) returned from the Siffin Battle, one of the elders who had seen the events in the battle with him stood up and said, ‘O Commander of the Faithful! Let us know if our course was destined by the Sublime God and by His Power?’” Al-Ridha’ (a.s.) has also narrated in another tradition on the authority of his forefathers, on the authority of Ali ibn Al-Husayn ibn Ali (a.s.), “A man from Iraq went to the Commander of the Faithful (a.s.) and said, ‘Let me know if our departure from Sham64 has been destined by the Sublime God and by His Power?’ The Commander of the Faithful (a.s.) replied, ‘O old man! Yes. By God, you did not climb any hills and did not go down any valleys except through God’s destiny and by His Power.’ Then the

جَعْفَر الكُوفِيّ سَمِعْتُ سَيِّدي عَلِىِّ بْنِ مُحَمَّد عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ يَقُولُ: حَدَّثَني أَبي مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَلِى، عَنْ أَبيهِ الرِّضا عَلِىِّ بْنِ مُوسَى، عَنْ أَبِيهِ مُوسَى بْنِ جَعْفَر، عَنْ أَبيهِ جَعْفَرِ بْنِ مُحَمَّد، عَنْ أَبيهِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَلِى، عَنْ أَبيهِ عَلِىِّ بْنِ الحُسَيْن، عَنْ أَبيهِ الحُسَيْنِ بْنِ عَلِى‏ عَلَيْهِمُ السَّلاَمُ وَحَدَّثَنا مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عُمَر الحافِظُ البَغدْادي قالَ: حَدَّثَني أَبُو القاسِم إِسْحاق بْنِ جَعْفَر العَلَوِي قالَ: حَدَّثَني أَبي جَعْفَرِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدبن عَلِيِّ عَنْ سُلَيْمان بْنِ مُحَمَّد القُرَشِي عَنْ إِسْمَاعِيل بْنِ أَبي زِياد عَنْ جَعْفَرِ بْنِ مُحَمَّد عَنْ أَبيهِ عَنْ جَدِّهِ‏الحُسَيْن عَنْ عَلِيِ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ وَحَدَّثَنا أَبُو الحُسَيْن مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ إِبْراهيمِ بْنِ إِسْحاق الفارْسِيِّ الغرائميقال حَدَّثَنا أَبُو سَعِيدُ أَحْمَدِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ رميح النسوي بجرجان قالَ: حَدَّثَنا عَبْد العَزِيز بن إِسْحاق بْنِ جَعْفَر بِبَغْداد قالَ: حَدَّثَني عَبْد الوَهَّاب بنعيسى المَرْوَزِىُّ قالَ: حَدَّثَني الحَسَن بن عَلِىِّ بْنِ مُحَمَّد البلوي قالَ: حَدَّثَني مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّه بْنِ نجيح عَنْ جَعْفَرِ بْنِ مُحَمَّد عَنْ أَبيهِ عَنْ جَدِّهِ عَنْ أَبِيهِ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ وَحَدَّثَنا أَحْمَدِ بْنِ الحَسَن القَطَّانُ قالَ: حَدَّثَنا الحَسَن بْنِ عَلِى السكري قالَ: حَدَّثَنا مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ زَكَرِيَّا الجوهري قالَ: حَدَّثَنا العَبَّاسِ بْنِ بكار الضبي قالَ: حَدَّثَنا أَبُو بَكْرِ الهذلي عَنْ عكرمة عَنْ ابْنِ عَبَّاس قالَ لَمَّا انْصَرَفَ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ عَلِيُّ بْنُ أَبِي طَالِبٍ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ مِنْ صِفِّينَ قَامَ إِلَيْهِ شَيْخٌ مِمَّنْ شَهِدَ الْوَقْعَةَ مَعَهُ فَقَالَ يَا أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ أَخْبِرْنَا عَنْ مَسِيرِنَا هَذَا أَبِقَضَاءٍ مِنَ اللَّهِ وَقَدَرٍ وَقَالَ الرِّضَا فِي رِوَايَتِهِ عَنْ آبَائِهِ عَنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ عَلِيٍ‏عَلَيْهِمَا السَّلاَمُ دَخَلَ رَجُلٌ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْعِرَاقِ عَلَى أَمِيرِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ‏فَقَالَ أَخْبِرْنَا عَنْ خُرُوجِنَا إِلَى أَهْلِ الشَّامِ أَبِقَضَاءٍ مِنَ اللَّهِ وَقَدَرٍ فَقَالَ لَهُ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ أَجَلْ يَا شَيْخُ فَوَاللَّهِ مَا عَلَوْتُمْ تَلْعَةً وَلا هَبَطْتُمْ بَطْنَ وَادٍ إِلا بِقَضَاءٍ مِنَ اللَّهِ وَقَدَرٍ فَقَالَ الشَّيْخُ: عِنْدَ اللَّهِ أَحْتَسِبُ عَنَائِي يَا أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ. فَقَـالَ: مَهْلاً يَا شَيْخُ! لَعَلَّـكَ تَظُـنُّ

old man said, ‘O Commander of the Faithful! Do my sufferings then have any rewards?’ Imam Ali ibn Abi Talib (a.s.) told him, ‘O old man! Wait a moment! It seems that you have thought that what I meant by God’s destiny was that it was a certainty. If so there would be no reward or punishment, no admonishing or advice, nor any Divine Promises. Then a sinner could not be blamed, and a good-doer will not deserve to be praised. Then a good-doer would even deserve to be blamed more than a sinner does. This is what the idol worshippers, the enemies of the Merciful God, the Qadarites65 and the Magi (Zoroastrians) in this nation say. O old man! The Sublime God has made the people responsible. However, the people are free to choose. He has admonished them but He has only warned them. He has granted a great reward for the very minute good deeds. One who disobeys does not defeat God. One who obeys Him is not forced to do so. God has not created the heavens and the Earth without a purpose, ‘Not without purpose did We create heaven and earth and all between! that were the thought of Unbelievers! but woe be to the Unbelievers because of the Fire (of Hell)!’66

The narrator added, “As the old man was standing up he recited the following,

‘You are the Leader through whose obedience we hope
to be saved by the Merciful on the Day of Saving (Resurrection).
You clarified for us that part of the religion
which was vague for us. May God grant you a good reward!
There are no excuses for doing any wicked deeds which I do -
Acts of corruption and disobedience.
No! No! I never think that Him who has admonished
against doing evil Himself forces one to do evil.
You will be serving Satan if you ever think so.
God does not like it.
He does not want corruption.
He has never allowed animosity with
and oppressively killing God’s Friend.
How could He - the Owner of Both Thrones -
have done so while His tradition has itself clearly declared this.’”

قَضَاءً حَتْماً وَقَدَراً لازِماً! لَوْ كَانَ كَذَلِكَ لَبَطَلَ الثَّوَابُ وَالْعِقَابُ وَالأَمْرُ وَالنَّهْيُ وَالزَّجْرُ، وَلَسَقَطَ مَعْنَى الْوَعْدِ وَالْوَعِيدِ، وَلَمْ تَكُنْ عَلَى مُسِي‏ءٍ لائِمَةٌ وَلا لُِمحْسِنٍ مَحْمَدَةٌ، وَلَكَانَ الُْمحْسِنُ أَوْلَى بِاللائِمَةِ مِنَ الْمُذْنِبِ، وَالْمُذْنِبُ أَوْلَى بِالإِحْسَانِ مِنَ الُْمحْسِنِ. تِلْكَ مَقَالَةُ عَبَدَةِ الأَوْثَانِ وَخُصَمَاءِ الرَّحْمَنِ وَقَدَرِيَّةِ هَذِهِ الأُمَّةِ وَمَجُوسِهَا. يَا شَيْخُ! إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ كَلَّفَ تَخْيِيراً وَنَهَى تَحْذِيراً وَأَعْطَى عَلَى الْقَلِيلِ كَثِيراً وَلَمْ يُعْصَ مَغْلُوباً وَلَمْ يُطَعْ مُكْرِهاً وَلَمْ يَخْلُقِ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضَ وَما بَيْنَهُما باطِلاً ذلِكَ ظَنُّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا فَوَيْلٌ لِلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مِنَ النَّارِ قَالَ فَنَهَضَ الشَّيْخُ وَهُوَ يَقُولُ:

أَنْتَ الإِمَامُ الَّذِي نَرْجُو بِطَاعَتِهِ‏

يَوْمَ النَّجَاةِ مِنَ الرَّحْمَنِ غُفْرَاناً

أَوْضَحْتَ مِنْ دِينِنَا مَا كَانَ مُلْتَبِساً

جَزَاكَ رَبُّكَ عَنَّا فِيهِ إِحْسَاناً

فَلَيْسَ مَعْذِرَةٌ فِي فِعْلِ فَاحِشَةٍ

قَدْ كُنْتُ رَاكِبَهَا فِسْقاً وَعِصْيَاناً

لالا وَلا قَابِلاً [قَائِلاً] نَاهِيهِ أَوْقَعَهُ

فِيهَا عَبَدْتُ إِذاً يَا قَوْمِ شَيْطَاناً

وَلا أَحَبَّ وَلا شَاءَ الْفُسُوقَ وَلا

قَتْلَ الْوَلِيِّ لَهُ ظُلْماً وَعُدْوَاناً

أَنَّى يُحِبُّ وَقَدْ صَحَّتْ عَزِيمَتُهُ‏

ذُو الْعَرْشِ أَعْلَنَ ذَاكَ اللَّهُ إِعْلاناً

The author of this book (a.s.heikh Sadooq) said, “Muhammad ibn Umar Al-Hafiz has only included the first two couplets at the end of this tradition.”

11-39 Abu Mansoor Ahmad ibn Ibrahim ibn Bakr al-Khori in Neishaboor67 narrated that Abu Ishaq Ibrahim ibn Muhammad ibn Marwan al-Khori quoted on the authority of Ja’far ibn Muhammad ibn Ziyad - the Khori jurisprudent in Neishaboor, on the authority of Ahmad ibn Abdullah Al-Joybari ash-Sheybani, on the authority of Ali ibn Musa Al-Ridha’ (a.s.), on the authority of his father (a.s.), on the authority of his forefathers (a.s.), on the authority of Ali (a.s.) that God’s Prophet (S) said, “Indeed the Honorable the Exalted God has destined the destiny and plotted the plans two-thousand years before the Creation of Adam.”

11-40 Abu Abdullah Al-Husayn ibn Muhammad al-Ashnani Ar-Razi al-Adl in Balkh narrated that Ali ibn Mehrayat al-Qazvini quoted on the authority of Dawood ibn Soleiman al-Farra’, on the authority of Ali ibn Musa Al-Ridha’ (a.s.), on the authority of his father (a.s.), on the authority of his forefathers (a.s.), on the authority of Al-Husayn ibn Ali (a.s.), “A Jew asked the Commander of the Faithful Ali ibn Abi Talib (a.s.): Let me know what is it that God does not have? What is it that is not with God? What is it that God does not know?”

Ali (a.s.) said, “What God does not know is what you Jews say, ‘Uzair (Ezra) is the son of God!’68 God does not know of any sons for Himself. And about what you said regarding what is not with God, you should know that it is ‘oppression to the servants’. And regarding what you said about what God does not have, you should know that it is any partners.” The Jew said, “I bear witness that there is no god but God and I bear witness that Muhammad is the Messenger of God.”

11-41 (The author of the book narrated) my father - may God be pleased with him - narrated that Sa’d ibn Abdullah quoted on the authority of Ibrahim ibn Hashem quoted on the authority of Ahmad ibn Soleiman, “A man asked Abul Hassan (a.s.) while he (a.s.) was performing the circumambulations (around the Kaaba), ‘Please tell me about the munificent.’ The Imam (a.s.) said, ‘There are two sides to your question. If you are asking about the creatures, then a munificent servant is one who performs the obligatory deeds, while a miser is someone who is miserly in performing what the Sublime God has made incumbent upon him. But

قالَ مُصَنَّفِ هذَا الكِتابِ: لَمْ يَذْكُرْ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عُمَرَ الْحَافِظُ فِي آخِرِ هَذَا الْحَدِيثِ مِنَ الشِّعْرِ إِلاّ بَيْتَيْنِ مِنْ أَوَّلِهِ.

39 - حَدَّثَنا أَبُو مَنْصُورِ أَحْمَدِ بْنِ إِبْراهيمِ بْنِ بَكْرِ الخوزي بِنِيْسابُورَ قالَ: حَدَّثَنا أَبُو إسحاق إِبْراهيمِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ مَرْوان الخوري قالَ: حَدَّثَنا جَعْفَرِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ زِياد الفقيه الخوري قالَ: حَدَّثَنا أَحْمَدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّه الجويباري الشَّيْباني، عَن عَلِىِّ بْنِ مُوسَى الرِّضا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ عَنْ أَبيهِ، عَن آبائِه، عَن عَلِيِّ عَلَيْهِمُ السَّلاَمُ قالَ: قالَ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلي اللَّه وَآلِهِ وَسَلَّمَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ قَدَّرَ الْمَقَادِيرَ وَدَبَّرَ التَّدَابِيرَ قَبْلَ أَنْ يَخْلُقَ آدَمَ بِأَلْفَيْ عَام.

40 - حَدَّثَنا الحُسَيْنِ بْنِ مُحَمَّد الأشنانِي الرَّازِيُّ العَدْل ببلخ قالَ: حَدَّثَنا عَلِىِّ بْنِ مهرويه القزويني قالَ: حَدَّثَنا داوُدِ بْنِ سُلَيْمان الفراء قالَ: حَدَّثَنا عَلِىِّ بْنِ مُوسَى الرِّضا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ، عَن أَبيهِ، عَن آبائِهِ، عَن الحُسَيْنِ بْنِ عَلِى عَلَيْهِمُ السَّلاَمُ قالَ إِنَّ يَهُودِيّاً سَأَلَ عَلِيَّ بْنَ أَبِي طَالِبٍ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ فَقَالَ أَخْبِرْنِي عَمَّا لَيْسَ لِلَّهِ وَعَمَّا لَيْسَ، عَن‏دَ اللَّهِ وَعَمَّا لا يَعْلَمُهُ اللَّهُ فَقَالَ عَلِيٌ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ أَمَّا مَا لا يَعْلَمُهُ اللَّهُ فَهُوَقَوْلُكُمْ يَا مَعْشَرَ الْيَهُودِ إِنَّ عُزَيْراً ابْنُ اللَّهِ وَاللَّهُ تَعَالَى لا يَعْلَمُ لَهُ وَلَداً أَمَّا قَوْلُكَ مَا لَيْسَ لِلَّهِ فَلَيْسَ لِلَّهِ شَرِيكٌ وَأَمَّا قَوْلُكَ مَا لَيْسَ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى فَلَيْسَ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ ظُلْمٌ لِلْعِبَادِ فَقَالَ الْيَهُودِيُّ أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لا إِلَهَ إِلا اللَّهُ وَأَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّداً رَسُولُ اللَّه.

41 - حَدَّثَنا أَبي رَضِىَ اللهُ عَنْهُ قالَ: حَدَّثَنا سَعْدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّه، عَن إِبْراهيمِ بْنِ هاشِم، عَن أَحْمَدِ بْنِ سُلَيْمان قالَ سَأَلَ رَجُلٌ أَبَا الْحَسَنِ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ وَهُوَفِي الطَّوَافِ فَقَالَ لَهُ أَخْبِرْنِي عَنِ الْجَوَادِ فَقَالَ إِنَّ لِكَلامِكَ وَجْهَيْنِ فَإِنْ كُنْتَ تَسْأَلُ عَنِ الَْمخْلُوقِ فَإِنَّ الْجَوَادَ الَّذِي يُؤَدِّي مَا افْتَرَضَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ عَلَيْهِ وَالْبَخِيلَ مَنْ بَخِلَ بِمَا افْتَرَضَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَإِنْ كُنْتَ تَعْنِي الْخَالِقَ فَهُوَ الْجَوَادُ إِنْ أَعْطَى وَهُوَ الْجَوَادُ إِنْ مَنَعَ لانَّهُ إِنْ أَعْطَى عَبْداً أَعْطَاهُ مَا

if you are asking about the Creator you should know that He is the Munificent whether He gives or not. That is because if He grants something to His servant, He has granted him what does not belong to him, and if He holds something back from His servant, that servant has no rights to it.’”

11-42 Al-Husayn ibn Ibrahim ibn Ahmad al-Mu’addib - may God be pleased with him - narrated that Ali ibn Ibrahim ibn Hashem quoted on the authority of his father, on the authority of Ali ibn Ma’bad, on the authority of Al-Husayn ibn Khalid, on the authority of Ali ibn Musa Al-Ridha’ (a.s.), on the authority of his father Musa ibn Ja’far (a.s.), on the authority of his father Ja’far ibn Muhammad (a.s.), on the authority of his father Muhammad ibn Ali (a.s.), on the authority of Ali ibn Al-Husayn (a.s.), on the authority of his father (a.s.), “The Commander of the Faithful (a.s.) said, ‘I heard God’s Prophet (S) say that the Exalted the Magnificent God said, ‘Whoever is not pleased with My Verdict, and whoever does not believe in My Destiny should adopt another god for himself.’ The Prophet of God (a.s.) has said, ‘There is some good for the believer in all of the Honorable the Exalted God’s Verdicts.’”

11-43 Al-Hakim Abu Ali Al-Husayn ibn Ahmad al-Bayhaqi narrated that Muhammad ibn Yahya al-Sowli quoted on the authority of Abu Zakwan, on the authority of Ibrahim ibn Al-Abbas, “I heard someone ask Al-Ridha’ (a.s.), ‘Does God ever order the servants to do what is beyond their ability to do?’ The Imam (a.s.) replied, ‘He is more Just than to do that.’ The man asked, ‘Are they able to do whatever they wish?’ The Imam (a.s.) replied, ‘They are weaker than that.’”

11-44 Abul Hassan Muhammad ibn Amr ibn Ali al-Basri narrated that Abul Hassan Ali ibn Al-Hassan ibn al-Maythami quoted on the authority of Abul Hassan Ali ibn Amr ibn Mehrawayh al-Qazvini, on the authority of Abu Ahmad al-Qadhi, on the authority of Abul Hassan Ali ibn Musa Al-Ridha’ (a.s.), on the authority of his father Musa ibn Ja’far (a.s.), on the authority of his father Abi Ja’far ibn Muhammad (a.s.), on the authority of his father Muhammad ibn Ali (a.s.), on the authority of his father Ali ibn Al-Husayn (a.s.), on the authority of his father Al-Husayn ibn Ali (a.s.), on the authority of his father Ali ibn Abi Talib (a.s.), “Deeds are ranked into three groups: the incumbent ones, the noble ones and the acts of disobedience. The incumbent deeds are done based on God’s orders and

لَيْسَ لَهُ وَإِنْ مَنَعَ مَنَعَ مَا لَيْسَ لَهُ.

42 - حَدَّثَنا الحُسَيْنِ بْنِ إِبْراهيمِ بْنِ أحْمَد المُؤَدِّبُ رَضِىَ اللهُ عَنْهُ قال: حَدَّثَنا عَلِىِّ بْنِ إِبراهِيمِ بْنِ هاشِم، عَن أَبِيهِ، عَن عَلِىِّ بْنِ معبد، عَن الحُسَيْنِ بْنِ خالِد، عَن عَلِىِّ بْنِ مُوسَى الرِّضا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ، عَن أَبيهِ مُوسَى بْنِ جَعْفَر عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ، عَن أَبيهِ جَعْفَرِ بْنِ مُحَمَّد عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ، عَن أَبيهِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَلِى‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ، عَن أَبِيهِ‏الحُسَيْن‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ‏الحُسَيْنِ بْنِ عَلِى‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ، عَن أَبيهِ عَلِىِّ بْنِ أَبِي طالِب‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ قالَ: سَمِعتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلي اللَّه وَآلِهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَقُولُ قَالَ اللَّهُ جَلَّ جَلالُهُ مَنْ لَمْ يَرْضَ بِقَضَائِي وَلَمْ يُؤْمِنْ بِقَدَرِي فَلْيَلْتَمِسْ إِلَهاً غَيْرِي وَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ‏ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ فِي كُلِّ قَضَاءِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ خِيَرَةٌ لِلْمُؤْمِنِ.

43 - حَدَّثَنا الْحاكِم أَبُو عَلِي الحُسَيْنِ بْنِ أحْمَد الْبِيْهَقِيُّ قالَ: حَدَّثَني مُحَمَّدبن يَحْيَى الصُّوليُّ قالَ: حَدَّثَنا أَبُو ذكوان قالَ: سَمِعتُ إِبْراهيمِ بْنِ العَبَّاسِ يَقُولُ سَمِعْتُ الرِّضا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ وَقَدْ سأله رَجُل أيُكَلِّف اللَّه العِبادِ ما لايطيقون فَقالَ هُوَأعدل من ذلِكَ قالَ أفيقدرون عَلَى كُلِّ ما أَرادَوه‏هم أعجز من ذلِكَ.

44 - حَدَّثَنا أَبُو الحَسَن مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عمرو بْنِ عَلِى البَصَرِيِّ قالَ: حَدَّثَنا أَبُو الحَسَن الحَسَن بْنِ الميثمي قالَ: حَدَّثَنا أَبُو الحَسَن عَلِىِّ بْنِ مهرويه القزويني قالَ: حَدَّثَنا أَبُوالغازي قالَ: حَدَّثَنا أَبُو الحَسَن عَلِىِّ بْنِ مُوسَى الرِّضا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ قالَ: حَدَّثَنا أَبي مُوسَى بْنِ جَعْفَر عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ قالابي جَعْفَرِ بْنِ مُحَمَّد عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ قالَ: حَدَّثَنا أَبي مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَلِى‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ قالَ: حَدَّثَنا أَبي عَلِىِّ بْنِ الحُسَيْن‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ قالابي الحُسَيْنِ بْنِ عَلِى‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ قالَ: سَمِعتُ أَبي عَلِىِّ بْنِ أَبِي طالِب‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ يَقُولُ الأَعْمَالُ عَلَى ثَلاثَةِ أَحْوَالٍ فَرَائِضُ وَفَضَائِلُ وَمَعَاصِي فَأَمَّا الْفَرَائِضُ فَبِأَمْرِ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى وَبِرِضَى اللَّهِ وَبِقَضَائِهِ وَتَقْدِيرِهِ وَمَشِيَّتِهِ وَعِلْمِهِ وَأَمَّا الْفَضَائِلُ فَلَيْسَتْ بِأَمْرِ اللَّهِ وَلَكِنْ بِرِضَى اللَّهِ وَبِقَضَاءِ اللَّهِ وَبِقَدَرِ اللَّهِ وَبِمَشِيـَّةِ

according to His Pleasure, Verdict, Destiny, Volition and Knowledge. The noble deeds are not done according to God’s orders. However, they are done subject to His Pleasure, Verdict, Destiny, Volition and Knowledge. And the acts of disobedience are not done according His orders. However, they are done subject to His Verdict, Destiny, Volition and Knowledge. God will punish us for doing such deeds.”

11-45 Ahmad ibn Ibrahim ibn Harun al-Fami in the Kufa Mosque narrated that Muhammad ibn Abdullah ibn Ja’far al-Himyari quoted on the authority of his father, on the authority of Ibrahim ibn Hashem, on the authority of Ali ibn Ma’bad, on the authority of Al-Husayn ibn Khalid that he told Abil Hassan Ali ibn Musa Al-Ridha’ (a.s.), “O son of the Prophet of God! People ascribe belief in likening (The act of comparing similarities, comparison) and predestination to us due to the traditions narrated on the authority of your forefathers - the Immaculate Imams (a.s.) in this regard.” The Imam (a.s.) said, “O Khalid! Let me know whether there are more traditions on this issue narrated on the authority of my forefathers - the Immaculate Imams (a.s.) or on the authority of God’s Prophet (S)?” I replied, “Of course, there are more narrated on the authority of God’s Prophet (S).” The Imam (a.s.) said, “Then it must be said that God’s Prophet (S) believed in likening and predestination.” I said, “They believe that God’s Prophet (S) has not said any of them.” The Imam (a.s.) said, “Then they must say that my forefathers - the Immaculate Imams (a.s.) have not said them either. Rather, they have ascribed lies to them.” The Imam (a.s.) then added, “Whoever believes in likening and predestination is a pagan polytheist. We are not associated with them in this world or in the Hereafter. O son of Khalid! The exaggerators who have underestimated the Majesty of God have falsely shown us as having approved of predestination and likening. Whoever likes them is our enemy. Whoever is their enemy is our friend. Whoever establishes ties of friendship with them has established ties of animosity with us. And whoever establishes animosity with them has established friendship with us. Whoever establishes ties with them has cut off ties from us, and whoever cuts off ties from them has established ties with us. Whoever treats them badly has been kind to us, and whoever treats them kindly has mistreated us. Whoever honors them has insulted us, and whoever insults them has honored us. Whoever accepts them and what they say has rejected us, and whoever rejects them has accepted us. Whoever is

اللَّهِ وَبِعِلْمِ اللَّهِ وَأَمَّا الْمَعَاصِي فَلَيْسَتْ بِأَمْرِ اللَّهِ وَلَكِنْ بِقَضَاءِ اللَّهِ وَبِقَدَرِ اللَّهِ وَبِمَشِيَّةِ اللَّهِ وَبِعِلْمِهِ ثُمَّ يُعَاقِبُ عَلَيْهَا.

45 - حَدَّثَنا أَحْمَدِ بْنِ إِبْراهيمِ بْنِ هارُون الفامي فِي مَسْجِد الكُوفَة قالَ: حَدَّثَنا مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّه بْنِ جَعْفَر الحِمْيَريُّ، عَن أَبيهِ قالَ: حَدَّثَنا إِبْراهيمِ بْنِ هاشِم، عَن عَلِىِّ بْنِ معبد، عَن الحُسَيْنِ بْنِ خالِد، عَن أَبي الحَسَن عَلِىِّ بْنِ مُوسَى الرِّضا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ قالَ: قُلْتُ لَهُ يَا ابْنَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ إِنَّ النَّاسَ يَنْسِبُونَا إِلَى الْقَوْلِ بِالتَّشْبِيهِ وَالْجَبْرِ لِمَا رُوِيَ مِنَ الأَخْبَارِ فِي ذَلِكَ عَنْ آبَائِكَ الأَئِمَّةِ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ فَقَالَ: يَا ابْنَ خَالِدٍ أَخْبِرْنِي، عَن الأَخْبَارِ الَّتِي رُوِيَتْ، عَن آبَائِيَ الأَئِمَّةِ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ فِي التَّشْبِيهِ وَالْجَبْرِ أَكْثَرُ أَمِ الأَخْبَارُ الَّتِي رُوِيَتْ، عَن النَّبِيِ‏ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ فِي ذَلِكَ فَقُلْتُ بَلْ مَا رُوِيَ، عَن النَّبِيِ‏ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ فِي ذَلِكَ أَكْثَرُ قَالَ فَلْيَقُولُوا إِنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ‏ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ كَانَ يَقُولُ فِي التَّشْبِيهِ وَالْجَبْرِ إِذاً فَقُلْتُ لَهُ إِنَّهُمْ يَقُولُونَ إِنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ‏ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ لَمْ يَقُلْ مِنْ ذَلِكَ شَيْئاً وَإِنَّمَا رُوِيَ عَلَيْهِ قَالَ فَلْيَقُولُوا فِي آبَائِيَ الأَئِمَّةِ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ إِنَّهُمْ لَمْ يَقُولُوا مِنْ ذَلِكَ شَيْئاً وَإِنَّمَا رُوِيَ عَلَيْهِمْ ثُمَّ قَالَ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ مَنْ قَالَ بِالتَّشْبِيهِ وَالْجَبْرِ فَهُوَكَافِرٌ مُشْرِكٌ وَنَحْنُ مِنْهُ بُرَءَاءُ فِي الدُّنْيَا وَالآْخِرَةِ يَا ابْنَ خَالِدٍ إِنَّمَا وَضَعَ الأَخْبَارَ، عَن‏ا فِي التَّشْبِيهِ وَالْجَبْرِ الْغُلاةُ الَّذِينَ صَغَّرُوا عَظَمَةَ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى فَمَنْ أَحَبَّهُمْ فَقَدْ أَبْغَضَنَا وَمَنْ أَبْغَضَهُمْ فَقَدْ أَحَبَّنَا وَمَنْ وَالاهُمْ فَقَدْ عَادَانَا وَمَنْ عَادَاهُمْ فَقَدْ وَالانَا وَمَنْ وَصَلَهُمْ فَقَدْ قَطَعَنَا وَمَنْ قَطَعَهُمْ فَقَدْ وَصَلَنَا وَمَنْ جَفَاهُمْ فَقَدْ بَرَّنَا وَمَنْ بَرَّهُمْ فَقَدْ جَفَانَـا وَمَنْ أَكْرَمَهُـمْ فَقَدْ أَهَـانَنَا وَمَنْ أَهَانَهُمْ فَقَدْ أَكْرَمَنَـا

kind to them has been unkind to us, and whoever is unkind to them has been kind to us. Whoever acknowledges them has denounced us, and whoever denounces them has acknowledged us. Whoever grants them something has deprived us, and whoever deprives them of something has indeed granted it to us. O son of Khalid! Whoever is one of our followers should not choose a friend or companion for himself from amongst them.”

11-46 Ja’far ibn Muhammad ibn Masroor - may God be pleased with him - narrated that Al-Husayn ibn Muhammad ibn A’mir quoted on the authority of al-Mo’alla ibn Muhammad al-Basri, on the authority of Al-Hassan ibn Ali al-Washsha’, “I asked Abil Hassan Al-Ridha’ (a.s.), ‘Has God authorized the servants regarding the affairs?’ The Imam (a.s.) replied, ‘He is Exalted High above that.’ Then I asked the Imam |(a.s.), ‘Has God predestined them to do acts of disobedience?’ The Imam (a.s.) replied, ‘God is Just and Wise High above that.’ Then the Imam (a.s.) added, ‘The Honorable the Exalted God said, ‘O son of Adam! I deserve that your good deeds be ascribed to Me. You deserve that your wicked deeds be ascribed to you. You do acts of disobedience using the power which I have established in you.’”

11-47 Muhammad ibn Ibrahim ibn Ishaq al-Mu’addib - may God be pleased with him - narrated that Ahmad ibn Ali Al-Ansari quoted on the authority of Abdul Salam ibn Salih al-Harawi, “Do not give any alms-tax and do not accept the testimony of whoever believes in predestination. In fact, the Sublime God never burdens anyone with more than he can bear, and never forces anyone to do what is beyond his power. ‘…Every soul draws the meed69 of its acts on none but itself: no bearer of burdens can bear the burden of another…’”70

11-48 (The author of the book narrated) my father - may God be pleased with him - narrated that Sa’d ibn Abdullah quoted on the authority of Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Khalid al-Barqi, on the authority of his father, on the authority of Soleiman ibn Ja’far al-Ja’fari that there was talk of predestination and authorization in the presence of Abil Hassan Al-Ridha’ (a.s.). He (a.s.) said, “Do you want me to teach you something on this issue so that you never have any differences with each other and can defeat anyone who argues with you about them?” We said, “If you please.” The Imam (a.s.) said, “The Sublime God will not be worshipped by

وَمَنْ قَبِلَهُمْ فَقَدْ رَدَّنَا وَمَنْ رَدَّهُمْ فَقَدْ قَبِلَنَا وَمَنْ أَحْسَنَ إِلَيْهِمْ فَقَدْ أَسَاءَ إِلَيْنَا وَمَنْ أَسَاءَ إِلَيْهِمْ فَقَدْ أَحْسَنَ إِلَيْنَا وَمَنْ صَدَّقَهُمْ فَقَدْ كَذَّبَنَا وَمَنْ كَذَّبَهُمْ فَقَدْ صَدَّقَنَا وَمَنْ أَعْطَاهُمْ فَقَدْ حَرَمَنَا وَمَنْ حَرَمَهُمْ فَقَدْ أَعْطَانَا يَا ابْنَ خَالِدٍ مَنْ كَانَ مِنْ شِيعَتِنَا فَلا يَتَّخِذَنَّ مِنْهُمْ وَلِيّاً وَلا نَصِيراً.

46 - حَدَّثَنا جَعْفَرِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ مَسْرُور رَضِىَ اللهُ عَنْهُ قالَ: حَدَّثَنا الحُسَيْنِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عامِر، عَن معلى بْنِ مُحَمَّد البَصَرِيِّ، عَن الحَسَن بْنِ عَلِى الوَشَّاء، عَن أَبي الحَسَن الرِّضا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ قالَ سَأَلْتُهُ فَقُلْتُ اللَّهُ فَوَّضَ الأَمْرَ إِلَى الْعِبَادِ قَالَ اللَّهُ أَعَزُّ مِنْ ذَلِكَ قُلْتُ فَأَجْبَرَهُمْ عَلَى الْمَعَاصِي قَالَ اللَّهُ أَعْدَلُ وَأَحْكَمُ مِنْ ذَلِكَ ثُمَّ قالَ: قالَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ يَا ابْنَ آدَمَ أَنَا أَوْلَى بِحَسَنَاتِكَ مِنْكَ وَأَنْتَ أَوْلَى بِسَيِّئَاتِكَ مِنِّي عَمِلْتَ الْمَعَاصِيَ بِقُوَّتِيَ الَّتِي جَعَلْتُهَا فِيكَ.

47 - حَدَّثَنا مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ إِبْراهيمِ بْنِ إِسْحاق المُؤَدِّبُ رَضِىَ اللهُ عَنْهُ قالَ: حَدَّثَنا أَحْمَدِ بْنِ عَلِى الأَنْصارِي، عَن عَبْد السَّلامُ بْنِ صالِح الهَرَوِيِّ قالَ: سَمِعتُ أَبَا الحَسَن عَلِىِّ بْنِ مُوسَى بْنِ جَعْفَر عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ يَقُولُ مَنْ قَالَ بِالْجَبْرِ فَلا تُعْطُوهُ مِنَ الزَّكَاةِ وَلا تَقْبَلُوا لَهُمْ شَهَادَةً إِنَّ اللَّهَ تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى لا يُكَلِّفُ نَفْساً إِلا وُسْعَهَا وَلا يُحَمِّلُهَا فَوْقَ طَاقَتِهَا وَلا تَكْسِبُ كُلُّ نَفْسٍ إِلا عَلَيْها وَلا تَزِرُ وازِرَةٌ وِزْرَ أُخْرى‏.

48 - حَدَّثَنا أَبي رَضِىَ اللهُ عَنْهُ قالَ: حَدَّثَنا سَعْدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّه قالَ: حَدَّثَنا أَحْمَدِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ خالِد البَرْقِي، عَن أَبِيهِ عَنْ سُلَيْمان بْنِ جَعْفَر الجَعْفَرِيِّ، عَن أَبي الحَسَن الرِّضا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ قالَ: ذُكِرَ، عِندَهُ الْجَبْرُ وَالتَّفْوِيضُ فَقَالَ أَلا أُعْطِيكُمْ فِي هَذَا أَصْلاً لا تَخْتَلِـفُونَ فِيهِ وَلا يُخَاصِمُكُمْ عَلَيْهِ أَحَدٌ إِلا كَسَرْتُمُوهُ قُلْنَا إِنْ رَأَيْتَ ذَلِكَ فَقَالَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَزَّ

compulsion. He will not be disobeyed through being overcome. He has not left His servants alone in His Dominion. He is the Owner of whatever they possess. He is Powerful over whatever He has empowered them to do. If the servants decide to obey Him, God will not prevent them from doing so. If the servants decide to disobey Him, He will prevent them from doing so if He wills. But if He does not do so, and they do their acts of disobedience, it is not Him who has made them commit sins.” Then the Imam (a.s.) added, “Whoever adheres to the limits set by these words will never be defeated in any opposing arguments.”

11-49 My father and Muhammad ibn Al-Hassan ibn Ahmad ibn al-Waleed - may God be pleased with them - narrated that Sa’d ibn Abdullah quoted on the authority of Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Isa, on the authority of Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Abi Nasr al-Bezanti told Abil Hassan Al-Ridha’ (a.s.) said, “Some of the Shiites believe in being forced while others believe in free will.” The Imam (a.s.) told me, “Take this down. The Sublime God has said, ‘O son of Adam! It is with my will that you are such a being that you will for yourself whatever you wish, and it is with my power that you carry out the duties which I have prescribed for you, and it is with my bounty that you find the strength to disobey Me. I made you hearing, seeing and strong. Whatever good comes to you is from Me, and whatever evil strikes you is from yourself. That is because I deserve more to be ascribed your virtues to, and you deserve more to be ascribed your vices to. ‘He cannot be questioned for His acts, but they will be questioned (for theirs).’71 I have established an order in everything you want.’”

11-50 Ali ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Imran ad-Daqqaq - may God be pleased with him - narrated that Muhammad ibn Yaqoob al-Kolayni quoted on the authority of Ali ibn Muhammad - known as Al’lan, on the authority of Muhammad ibn Isa, on the authority of Al-Husayn ibn Khalid that Abil Hassan Al-Ridha’ (a.s.) said, “May God bestow upon you knowledge of the good! Know that the Blessed the Sublime God is eternal. Eternity is that attribute which guides the wise to know that there was nothing before Him in eternity, nor is there anything eternal along with Him. That this attribute is a miraculous one has come to light from the acknowledgement by the common folks that there is nothing before God, with God or after Him. At the same time, it invalidates the belief that there was something before or along with Him. Had there been

وَجَلَّ لَمْ يُطَعْ بِإِكْرَاهٍ وَلَمْ يُعْصَ بِغَلَبَةٍ وَلَمْ يُهْمِلِ الْعِبَادَ فِي مُلْكِهِ هُوَالْمَالِكُ لِمَا مَلَّكَهُمْ وَالْقَادِرُ عَلَى مَا أَقْدَرَهُمْ عَلَيْهِ فَإِنِ ائْتَمَرَ الْعِبَادُ بِطَاعَتِهِ لَمْ يَكُنِ اللَّهُ عَنْهَا صَادّاً وَلا مِنْهَا مَانِعاً وَإِنِ ائْتَمَرُوا بِمَعْصِيَتِهِ فَشَاءَ أَنْ يَحُولَ بَيْنَهُمْ وَبَيْنَ ذَلِكَ فَعَلَ وَإِنْ لَمْ يَحُلْ وَفَعَلُوهُ فَلَيْسَ هُوَالَّذِي أَدْخَلَهُمْ فِيهِ ثُمَّ قَالَ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ مَنْ يَضْبِطْ حُدُودَ هَذَا الْكَلامِ فَقَدْ خَصَمَ مَنْ خَالَفَهُ.

49 - حَدَّثَنا أَبي رَضِىَ اللهُ عَنْهُ وَمُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الحَسَن بْنِ أَحْمَدِ بْنِ الوَلِيد رَضِىَ اللهُ عَنْهُ قالا حَدَّثَنا سَعْدِ بْنِ‏عَنْ أَحْمَدِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى، عَن أَحْمَدِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ أَبي نَصْرِ البِزَنْطِيِّ، عَن أَبي الحَسَن الرِّضا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ قالَ: قُلْتُ لَهُ: إِنَّ أَصْحَابَنَا بَعْضُهُمْ يَقُولُ بِالْجَبْرِ وَبَعْضُهُمْ يَقُولُ بِالاسْتِطَاعَةِ فَقَالَ لِيَ اكْتُبْ قَالَ اللَّهُ تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى يَا ابْنَ آدَمَ بِمَشِيَّتِي كُنْتَ أَنْتَ الَّذِي تَشَاءُ لِنَفْسِكَ مَا تَشَاءُ وَبِقُوَّتِي أَدَّيْتَ إِلَيَّ فَرَائِضِي وَبِنِعْمَتِي قَوِيتَ عَلَى مَعْصِيَتِي جَعَلْتُكَ سَمِيعاً بَصِيراً قَوِيّاً مَا أَصَابَكَ مِنْ حَسَنَةٍ فَمِنَ اللَّهِ وَمَا أَصَابَكَ مِنْ سَيِّئَةٍ فَمِنْ نَفْسِكَ وَذَلِكَ أَنِّي أَوْلَى بِحَسَنَاتِكَ مِنْكَ وَأَنْتَ أَوْلَى بِسَيِّئَاتِكَ مِنِّي وَذَلِكَ أَنِّي لا أُسْأَلُ عَمَّا أَفْعَلُ وَهُمْ يُسْئَلُونَ فَقَدْ نَظَمْتُ لَكَ كُلَّ شَيْ‏ءٍ تُرِيد.

50 - حَدَّثَنا عَلِىِّ بْنِ أَحْمَدِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِمْران الدَّقَّاق رَضِىَ اللهُ عَنْهُ قالَ: حَدَّثَنا مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ يَعْقُوبِ الكُلَيْنِيُّ قالَ: حَدَّثَنا عَلِىِّ بْنِ مُحَمَّدالمَعْرُوف بعلان، عَن مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى، عَن الحُسَيْنِ بْنِ خالِد، عَن أَبي الحَسَن الرِّضا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ أَنَّهُ قالَ: اعْلَمْ عَلَّمَكَ اللَّهُ الْخَيْرَ أَنَّ اللَّهَ تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى قَدِيمٌ وَالْقِدَمَ صِفَةٌ دَلَّتِ الْعَاقِلَ عَلَى أَنَّهُ لا شَيْ‏ءَ قَبْلَهُ وَلا شَيْ‏ءَ مَعَهُ فِي دَيْمُومِيَّتِهِ فَقَدْ بَانَ لَنَا بِإِقْرَارِ الْعَامَّةِ مُعْجِزَةَ [مُعْجِزَةُ] الصِّفَةِ أَنَّهُ لا شَيْ‏ءَ قَبْلَ اللَّهِ وَلا شَيْ‏ءَ مَعَ اللَّهِ فِي بَقَائِهِ وَبَطَلَ قَوْلُ مَنْ زَعَمَ أَنَّهُ كَانَ قَبْلَهُ شَيْ‏ءٌ أَوْ كَانَ مَعَهُ شَيْ‏ءٌ

something eternal along with Him, He would not have been the Creator of that thing. If it was along with Him, how then could He have been its creator? Had there been something existing before Him, then that thing might have been His creator because of its existing earlier than Him.

The Blessed the Sublime God has ascribed certain names to Himself. When He created His creatures, He enabled them to worship Him and told His creatures to call Him by those names. He called Himself All-Hearing, All-Seeing, All-Powerful, Guarding, Standing, Manifest, Hidden, Subtle, All-Aware, Powerful, Majestic, Wise, the All-Knowing and other similar names. When the animosity-mongers who speak lies heard us mention such names and that there is nothing similar to Him, and that none of the creatures are like onto Him they began to speak out. They said, “When you say that there is nothing like onto Him and nothing is similar to Him, then how come you also use those beautiful names for yourselves? This is a proof that you are similar to Him in all conditions or in some conditions because of having the same beautiful names.” It is said to them that the Blessed the Sublime God has named His servants with some of His own names but with differences in meaning. A name may have two different meanings. The proof of this is simply what is popular amongst the people. This is the same way that the Honorable the Exalted God has addressed the people. He has spoken to them by means of things that they understand so that they will have no excuse in their misdeeds.

A man is sometimes called a dog, a donkey, a bull, a lion, sweet or bitter. All these are used with a meaning different from their true meaning since they are not used in their original meaning. Man is not a lion or a dog. May God have Mercy upon you! Please pay close attention to this.

The Honorable the Exalted God is called All-Aware. This does not mean that He has created knowledge. It does not mean that with His knowledge of things He knows things and He uses this knowledge to preserve His future commands and the process of creating what He creates, and destroying what He destroys and without such knowledge He would have been weak and ignorant.

We see that people of knowledge among the people are called knowledgeable because of having some created knowledge, which they did not have at some time before. Perhaps such knowledge may go away from them and they become ignorant.

فِي بَقَائِهِ لَمْ يَجُزْ أَنْ يَكُونَ خَالِقاً لَهُ لانَّهُ لَمْ يَزَلْ مَعَهُ فَكَيْفَ يَكُونُ خَالِقاً لِمَنْ لَمْ يَزَلْ مَعَهُ وَلَوْ كَانَ قَبْلَهُ شَيْ‏ءٌ كَانَ الأَوَّلَ ذَلِكَ الشَّيْ‏ءُ لا هَذَا وَكَانَ الأَوَّلُ أَوْلَى بِأَنْ يَكُونَ خَالِقاً لِلأَوَّلِ الثَّانِي.

ثُمَّ وَصَفَ نَفْسَهُ تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى بِأَسْمَاءٍ دَعَا الْخَلْقَ إِذْ خَلَقَهُمْ وَتَعَبَّدَهُمْ وَابْتَلاهُمْ إِلَى أَنْ يَدْعُوهُ بِهَا فَسَمَّى نَفْسَهُ سَمِيعاً بَصِيراً قَادِراً قَاهِراً حَيّاً قَيُّوماً ظَاهِراً بَاطِناً لَطِيفاً خَبِيراً قَوِيّاً عَزِيزاً حَكِيماً عَلِيماً وَمَا أَشْبَهَ هَذِهِ الأَسْمَاءَ فَلَمَّا رَأَى ذَلِكَ مِنْ أَسْمَائِهِ الْغَالُونَ الْمُكَذِّبُونَ وَقَدْ سَمِعُونَا نُحَدِّثُ عَنِ اللَّهِ أَنَّهُ لا شَيْ‏ءَ مِثْلُهُ وَلا شَيْ‏ءَ مِنَ الْخَلْقِ فِي حَالِهِ قَالُوا أَخْبِرُونَا إِذْ زَعَمْتُمْ أَنَّهُ لا مِثْلَ لِلَّهِ وَلا شِبْهَ لَهُ كَيْفَ شَارَكْتُمُوهُ فِي أَسْمَائِهِ الْحُسْنَى فَتَسَمَّيْتُمْ بِجَمِيعِهَا فَإِنَّ فِي ذَلِكَ دَلِيلاً عَلَى أَنَّكُمْ مِثْلُهُ فِي حَالاتِهِ كُلِّهَا أَوْ فِي بَعْضِهَا دُونَ بَعْضٍ إِذْ قَدْ جَمَعَتْكُمُ الأَسْمَاءُ الطَّيِّبَةُ قِيلَ لَهُمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى أَلْزَمَ الْعِبَادَ أَسْمَاءً مِنْ أَسْمَائِهِ عَلَى اخْتِلافِ الْمَعَانِي وَذَلِكَ كَمَا يَجْمَعُ الاسْمُ الْوَاحِدُ مَعْنَيَيْنِ مُخْتَلِفَيْنِ وَالدَّلِيلُ عَلَى ذَلِكَ قَوْلُ النَّاسِ الْجَائِزُ عِنْدَهُمُ السَّائِغُ وَهُوَالَّذِي خَاطَبَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ بِهِ الْخَلْقَ فَكَلَّمَهُمْ بِمَا يَعْقِلُونَ لِيَكُونَ عَلَيْهِمْ حُجَّةً فِي تَضْيِيعِ مَا ضَيَّعُوا وَقَدْ يُقَالُ لِلرَّجُلِ كَلْبٌ وَحِمَارٌ وَثَوْرٌ وَسُكَّرَةٌ وَعَلْقَمَةٌ وَأَسَدٌ كُلُّ ذَلِكَ عَلَى خِلافِهِ لانَّهُ لَمْ تَقَعِ الأَسْمَاءُ عَلَى مَعَانِيهَا الَّتِي كَانَتْ بُنِيَتْ عَلَيْهَا لانَّ الإِنْسَانَ لَيْسَ بِأَسَدٍ وَلا كَلْبٍ فَافْهَمْ ذَلِكَ رَحِمَكَ اللَّهُ.

وَإِنَّمَا تُسَمَّى اللَّهُ بِالْعَالِمِ لِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ حَادِثٍ عَلِمَ بِهِ الأَشْيَاءَ وَاسْتَعَانَ بِهِ عَلَى حِفْظِ مَا يَسْتَقْبِلُ [يُسْتَقْبَلُ] مِنْ أَمْرِهِ وَالرَّوِيَّةِ فِيَما يَخْلُقُ مِنْ خَلْقِهِ وَيُفْنِيهِ مِمَّا مَضَى مِمَّا أَفْنَى مِنْ خَلْقِهِ مِمَّا لَوْ لَمْ يَحْضُرْهُ ذَلِكَ الْعِلْمُ وَيَغِيبُهُ كَانَ جَاهِلاً ضَعِيفاً كَمَا أَنَّا رَأَيْنَا عُلَمَاءَ الْخَلْقِ إِنَّمَا سُمُّوا بِالْعِلْمِ لِعِلْمٍ حَادِثٍ إِذْ كَانُوا قَبْلَهُ جَهَلَةً وَرُبَّمَا فَارَقَهُمُ الْعِلْمُ بِالأَشْيَاءِ فَصَارُوا إِلَى الْجَهْلِ.

God is called All-Knowing because He is not ignorant of anything. Thus, the Creator and the creatures are both called knowing, but the meaning is different as you have noticed.

Our Lord is called All-Hearing. However, this it is not through a body part on Him with which He could hear the sound but could not see as is the case with us. We cannot see with the part with which we hear. However, the Honorable the Exalted God has told us that no sound is hidden from Him. His hearing is not limited as it is in our case. Here again the name hearing is used in both cases, but its meaning is different. He is also All-Seeing in the same way. That is He is seeing not through an organ unlike us. We see using a body part with which we cannot do anything else. However, God is All-Seeing but not by looking at any object. Again the same name is used in both cases, but its meaning is different.

God is said to be Standing but not in the sense of standing in an upright position on the legs as is the case with other things. When He says that He is Standing it means that He is the Guardian. This is like saying that a man is standing behind our affairs. The Honorable the Exalted God is Standing behind every soul regarding what it gains. As used by people the word standing also has meanings like remaining and sufficing. As you may say to a man, ‘Stand up over the affairs of so and so’ which means deal with them in a sufficient manner. Standing for us means that we stand on our legs. Therefore, the name is similar but its meaning is different.

The name al-Latif, meaning ‘the Subtle’ is not in the sense of smallness or being infinitesimal, but it is in the rarity and hard to perceive nature of things. As an example it may be said, ‘It has become very delicate for me and that so and so is very delicate in his manners and dealings.’ This means that it is profound for the intellect and it is very difficult to understand. It has become so delicate that even one’s imagination cannot perceive it. The Blessed the Sublime God is far more Subtle than to be comprehended through definitions or be limited by an attribute in the way we are subtle, small and delicate. Names are the same but different in meaning.

The name al-Khabir, meaning ‘All-Aware’, is for One Who knows all things completely but not by means of gaining experience and learning

وَإِنَّمَا سُمِّيَ اللَّهُ عَالِماً لانَّهُ لا يَجْهَلُ شَيْئاً فَقَدْ جَمَعَ الْخَالِقَ وَالَْمخْلُوقَ اسْمُ الْعِلْمِ وَاخْتَلَفَ الْمَعْنَى عَلَى مَا رَأَيْتَ.

وَسُمِّيَ رَبُّنَا سَمِيعاً لا بِجُزْءٍ فِيهِ يَسْمَعُ بِهِ الصَّوْتَ لا يُبْصِرُ بِهِ كَمَا أَنَّ جُزْءَنَا الَّذِي نَسْمَعُ بِهِ لا نَقْوَى عَلَى النَّظَرِ بِهِ وَلَكِنَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ أَخْبَرَ أَنَّهُ لا تَخْفَى عَلَيْهِ الأَصْوَاتُ لَيْسَ عَلَى حَدِّ مَا سُمِّينَا بِهِ نَحْنُ فَقَدْ جَمَعَنَا الاسْمُ بِالسَّمِيعِ وَاخْتَلَفَ الْمَعْنَى.

وَهَكَذَا الْبَصِيرُ لا بِجُزْءٍ بِهِ أَبْصَرَ كَمَا أَنَّا نُبْصِرُ بِجُزْءٍ مِنَّا لا نَنْتَفِعُ بِهِ فِي غَيْرِهِ وَلَكِنَّ اللَّهَ بَصِيرٌ لا يَجْهَلُ شَخْصاً مَنْظُوراً إِلَيْهِ فَقَدْ جَمَعَنَا الاسْمُ وَاخْتَلَفَ الْمَعْنَى.

وَهُوَقَائِمٌ لَيْسَ عَلَى مَعْنَى انْتِصَابٍ وَقِيَامٍ عَلَى سَاقٍ فِي كَبَدٍ كَمَا قَامَتِ الأَشْيَاءُ وَلَكِنَّهُ أَخْبَرَ أَنَّهُ قَائِمٌ يُخْبِرُ أَنَّهُ حَافِظٌ كَقَوْلِ الرَّجُلِ الْقَائِمُ بِأَمْرِنَا فُلانٌ وَهُوَعَزَّ وَجَلَّ الْقَائِمُ عَلى‏ كُلِّ نَفْسٍ بِما كَسَبَتْ وَالْقَائِمُ أَيْضاً فِي كَلامِ النَّاسِ الْبَاقِي وَالْقَائِمُ أَيْضاً يُخْبِرُ عَنِ الْكِفَايَةِ كَقَوْلِكَ لِلرَّجُلِ قُمْ بِأَمْرِ فُلانٍ أَيِ اكْفِهِ وَالْقَائِمُ مِنَّا قَائِمٌ عَلَى سَاقٍ فَقَدْ جَمَعَنَا الاسْمُ وَلَمْ يَجْمَعْنَا الْمَعْنَى.

وَأَمَّا اللَّطِيفُ فَلَيْسَ عَلَى قِلَّةٍ وَقَضَافَةٍ وَصِغَرٍ وَلَكِنْ ذَلِكَ عَلَى النَّفَاذِ فِي الأَشْيَاءِ وَالامْتِنَاعِ مِنْ أَنْ يُدْرَكَ كَقَوْلِكَ لَطُفَ عَنِّي هَذَا الأَمْرُ وَلَطُفَ فُلانٌ فِي مَذْهَبِهِ وَقَوْلِهِ يُخْبِرُكَ أَنَّهُ غَمَضَ فَبَهَرَ الْعَقْلَ [فَبُهِرَ الْعَقْلُ] وَفَاتَ الطَّلَبُ وَعَادَ مُتَعَمِّقاً مُتَلَطِّفاً لا يُدْرِكُهُ الْوَهْمُ فَهَكَذَا لَطُفَ اللَّهُ تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى، عَن أَنْ يُدْرَكَ بِحَدٍّ أَوْ يُحَدَّ بِوَصْفٍ وَاللَّطَافَةُ مِنَّا الصِّغَرُ وَالْقِلَّةُ فَقَدْ جَمَعَنَا الاسْمُ وَاخْتَلَفَ الْمَعْنَى.

وَأَمَّا الْخَبِيرُ فَالَّذِي لا يَعْزُبُ عَنْهُ شَيْ‏ءٌ وَلا يَفُوتُهُ لَيْسَ لِلتَّجْرِبَةِ وَلا لِلاعْتِبَـارِ بِالأَشْيَــاءِ

from the past as if were it not for this experience he would know nothing. One without any experience and training is an ignorant person. The Sublime God is always All-Aware of what He has created. The people who are well are those people who are learning to overcome their ignorance. Thus names are the same but again, they differ in meaning.

The name al-Zahir meaning ‘clear and conspicuous’ is not because of Him being over and on top of all things or sitting on the topmost part of them, but it is because of His Domination and having power over all things. An example of this is when a person says, ‘I overcame my enemies or that God granted me victory over my enemies.’ In this case, there is a report of the failure and victory. Thus this shows God’s Domination over all things.

Another example is that His Existence is clear for those who want (to know) Him. Nothing is hidden from Him and He is the guardian of all that can be seen. Whose existence can then be clearer than that of the Sublime God? Wherever you are you will see His creatures. Even within your own self there is enough of His Creation. However, for us our existence is what is apparent and has limits. Therefore the names are the same, but their meaning differs.

The name al-Batin, means ‘the Hidden.’ This is not in the sense of being inside of things by means of diving in, or by other means. Rather it is in the sense of His dealing with, having knowledge of, preserving and regulating the internal aspect of all things. As one may say, “I tried to find the inside to learn and discover the secrets.” Hidden for us is what is unseen and covered. In this case again the names are the same but they differ in meaning.

The name al-Qahir, means ‘the Subduer.’ It is not in the sense of plotting, using certain devices and speaking attractive words or cunning means as some people subdue each other. The victorious among the people may become subdued and vice versa. For the Blessed the Sublime God all the creatures are weak. Due to the absence of obstacles in what He wills about them, it only takes less than a blinking of the eye to say it Be and it is. ‘We but say the word, ‘Be’, and it is.’72 Subduing in our case is how I mentioned and explained. Thus names are alike but their meanings differ. That is the case for all the names, although we have not mentioned all of them. We will suffice with this for learning purposes. May the Honorable the Exalted God be your helper and our helper in the matters of guidance and success.”

فَتُفِيدَهُ التَّجْرِبَةُ وَالاعْتِبَارُ عِلْماً لَوْلاهُمَا مَا عَلِمَ لانَّ مَنْ كَانَ كَذَلِكَ كَانَ جَاهِلاً وَاللَّهُ لَمْ يَزَلْ خَبِيراً بِمَا يَخْلُقُ وَالْخَبِيرُ مِنَ النَّاسِ الْمُسْتَخْبِرُ عَنْ جَهْلٍ الْمُتَعَلِّمُ وَقَدْ جَمَعَنَا الاسْمُ وَاخْتَلَفَ الْمَعْنَى وَأَمَّا الظَّاهِرُ فَلَيْسَ مِنْ أَجْلِ أَنَّهُ عَلا الأَشْيَاءَ بِرُكُوبٍ فَوْقَهَا وَقُعُودٍ عَلَيْهَا وَتَسَنُّمٍ لِذُرَاهَا وَلَكِنَّ ذَلِكَ لِقَهْرِهِ وَلِغَلَبَتِهِ الأَشْيَاءَ وَقُدْرَتِهِ عَلَيْهَا كَقَوْلِ الرَّجُلِ ظَهَرْتُ عَلَى أَعْدَائِي وَأَظْهَرَنِيَ اللَّهُ عَلَى خَصْمِي يُخْبِرُ عَنِ الْفَلْجِ وَالْغَلَبَةِ فَهَكَذَا ظُهُورُ اللَّهِ عَلَى الأَشْيَاءِ.

وَوَجْهٌ آخَرُ أَنَّهُ الظَّاهِرُ لِمَنْ أَرَادَهُ لا يَخْفَى عَلَيْهِ شَيْ‏ءٌ وَأَنَّهُ مُدَبِّرٌ لِكُلِّ مَا يَرَى فَأَيُّ ظَاهِرٍ أَظْهَرُ وَأَوْضَحُ أَمْراً مِنَ اللَّهِ تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى فَإِنَّكَ لا تَعْدَمُ صَنْعَتَهُ حَيْثَُما تَوَجَّهْتَ وَفِيكَ مِنْ آثَارِهِ مَا يُغْنِيكَ وَالظَّاهِرُ مِنَّا الْبَارِزُ بِنَفْسِهِ وَالْمَعْلُومُ بِحَدِّهِ فَقَدْ جَمَعَنَا الاسْمُ وَاخْتَلَفَ الْمَعْنَى.

وَأَمَّا الْبَاطِنُ فَلَيْسَ عَلَى مَعْنَى الاسْتِبْطَانِ لِلأَشْيَاءِ بِأَنْ يَغُورَ فِيهَا وَلَكِنْ ذَلِكَ مِنْهُ عَلَى اسْتِبْطَانِهِ لِلأَشْيَاءِ عِلْماً وَحِفْظاً وَتَدْبِيراً كَقَوْلِ الْقَائِلِ أَبْطَنْتُهُ يَعْنِي خَبَّرْتُهُ وَعَلِمْتُ مَكْتُومَ سِرِّهِ وَالْبَاطِنُ مِنَّا بِمَعْنَى الْغَائِرِ فِي الشَّيْ‏ءِ الْمُسْتَتِرِ فَقَدْ جَمَعَنَا الاسْمُ وَاخْتَلَفَ الْمَعْنَى.

وَأَمَّا الْقَاهِرُ فَإِنَّهُ لَيْسَ عَلَى عِلاجٍ وَنَصَبٍ وَاحْتِيَالٍ وَمُدَارَاةٍ وَمَكْرٍ كَمَا يَقْهَرُ الْعِبَادُ بَعْضُهُمْ بَعْضاً فَالْمَقْهُورُ مِنْهُمْ يَعُودُ قَاهِراً وَالْقَاهِرُ يَعُودُ مَقْهُوراً وَلَكِنْ ذَلِكَ مِنَ اللَّهِ تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى عَلَى أَنَّ جَمِيعَ مَا خَلَقَ مُتَلَبِّسٌ بِهِ الذُّلُّ لِفَاعِلِهِ وَقِلَّةُ الامْتِنَاعِ لِمَا أَرَادَ بِهِ لَمْ يَخْرُجْ مِنْهُ طَرْفَةَ عَيْنٍ غَيْرَ أَنَّهُ يَقُولُ لَهُ كُنْ فَيَكُونُ فَالْقَاهِرُ مِنَّا عَلَى مَا ذَكَرْتُ وَوَصَفْتُ فَقَدْ جَمَعَنَا الاسْمُ وَاخْتَلَفَ الْمَعْنَى وَهَكَذَا جَمِيعُ الأَسْمَاءِ وَإِنْ كُنَّا لَمْ نُسَمِّهَا كُلَّهَا.

فَقَدْ تَكْتَفِي لِلاعْتِبَارِ بِمَا أَلْقَيْنَا إِلَيْكَ وَاللَّهُ عَوْنُنَا وَعَوْنُكَ فِي إِرْشَادِنَا وَتَوْفِيقِنَا.

Imam Al-Ridha’’s Sermon on the Unity of God

11-51 Muhammad ibn Al-Hassan ibn Ahmad ibn al-Waleed - may God be pleased with him - narrated that Muhammad ibn Umar al-Katib quoted on the authority of Muhammad ibn Ziyad al-Qolzomy, on the authority of Muhammad ibn Abi Ziyad al-Jadiy, on the authority of Muhammad ibn Yahya ibn Umar ibn Ali ibn Ali Talib (a.s.), “I heard Abul Hassan Al-Ridha’ (a.s.) say these things in the presence of Al-Ma’mun on the subject of Unity. Ibn Abi Ziyad and others such as Ahmad ibn Abdullah Al-Alawi (the Alawid) have quoted on the authority of Al-Qasim ibn Ayyoub Al-Alawi, “When Al-Ma’mun decided to empower Al-Ridha’ (as his successor), he gathered the Hashemites together and told them, “Verily I have decided to empower Al-Ridha’ to run the affairs after me.” The Hashemites73 envied Al-Ridha’ (a.s.) and said, “Will you appoint an ignorant man who does not possess the necessary insight to run the affairs of the Caliphate? Send someone after him so that he is brought to us. Then you can see his ignorance as a proof against him.”

Al-Ma’mun sent someone after him and he came. The Hashemites told him, “O Abul Hassan! Climb up the pulpit74 and display for us a sign whereby we may worship God.” So he (a.s.) climbed up the pulpit and sat there for a long time with his head bowed down in silence. Then he trembled - a great trembling - and stood up straight, praised the Sublime God, and recited God’s praises and asked for His blessing for His Prophet and the Members of the Holy Household.

Then he (a.s.) said, “The first element in the worship of the Sublime God is His recognition. The root of recognition of God is to profess to His Unity. The order for professing the Unity of God is to deny He has any attributes, since the powers of reasoning testify that every attribute and everything which possesses an attribute are created. Everything that is created testifies that it has a Creator which is neither an attribute nor does it possess any attributes. Every attribute and everything possessing an attribute testify to the association between the attribute and that to which it is attributed. Any association testifies to temporality (hadath). And temporality testifies that it accepts not the Beginningless which accepts not the temporal.

So it is not God whose Essence is recognized through striking similitude. It is not His Unity that is professed by someone who attempts to fathom

خطبة الرِّضا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ فِي التَوحِيد

51 - حَدَّثَنا مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الحَسَن بْنِ أَحْمَدِ بْنِ الوَلِيد رَضِىَ اللهُ عَنْهُ قالَ: حَدَّثَنا مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عمر الكاتب، عَن مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ زِياد القلزمي، عَن مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ أَبي زِياد الجدي صاحِبَ الصَّلاة بجدة قالَ‏مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ يَحْيَى بْنِ عمر بْنِ عَلِىِّ بْنِ أَبِي طالِب‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ قالَ: سَمِعْتُ أَبَا الْحَسَنِ الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ يَتَكَلَّمُ بِهَذَا الْكَلامِ عِنْدَ الْمَأْمُونِ فِي التَّوْحِيدِ قَالَ ابْنُ أَبِي زِيَادٍ وَرَوَاهُ لِي أَيْضاً أَحْمَدُ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ الْعَلَوِيُّ مَوْلًى لَهُمْ وَخَالاً لِبَعْضِهِمْ عَنِ الْقَاسِمِ بْنِ أَيُّوبَ الْعَلَوِيِّ أَنَّ الْمَأْمُونَ لَمَّا أَرَادَ أَنْ يَسْتَعْمِلَ الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ جَمَعَ بَنِي هَاشِمٍ فَقَالَ إِنِّي أُرِيدُ أَنْ أَسْتَعْمِلَ الرِّضَا عَلَى هَذَا الأَمْرِ مِنْ بَعْدِي فَحَسَدَهُ بَنُو هَاشِمٍ وَقَالُوا تُوَلِّي رَجُلاً جَاهِلاً لَيْسَ لَهُ بَصَرٌ بِتَدْبِيرِ الْخِلافَةِ فَابْعَثْ إِلَيْهِ يَأْتِنَا فَتَرَى مِنْ جَهْلِهِ مَا تُسْتَدَلُّ بِهِ عَلَيْهِ فَبَعَثَ إِلَيْهِ فَأَتَاهُ فَقَالَ لَهُ بَنُو هَاشِمٍ يَا أَبَا الْحَسَنِ اصْعَدِ الْمِنْبَرَ وَانْصِبْ لَنَا عَلَماً نَعْبُدُ اللَّهَ عَلَيْهِ فَصَعِدَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ الْمِنْبَرَ فَقَعَدَ مَلِيّاً لا يَتَكَلَّمُ مُطْرِقاً ثُمَّ انْتَفَضَ انْتِفَاضَةً وَاسْتَوَى قَائِماً وَحَمِدَ اللَّهَ وَأَثْنَى عَلَيْهِ وَصَلَّى عَلَى نَبِيِّهِ وَأَهْلِ بَيْتِهِ.

ثُمَّ قَالَ: أَوَّلُ عِبَادَةِ اللَّهِ مَعْرِفَتُهُ وَأَصْلُ مَعْرِفَةِ اللَّهِ تَوْحِيدُهُ وَنِظَامُ تَوْحِيدِ اللَّهِ نَفْيُ الصِّفَاتِ عَنْهُ لِشَهَادَةِ الْعُقُولِ أَنَّ كُلَّ صِفَةٍ وَمَوْصُوفٍ مَخْلُوقٌ وَشَهَادَةِ كُلِّ مَوْصُوفٍ أَنَّ لَهُ خَالِقاً لَيْسَ بِصِفَةٍ وَلا مَوْصُوفٍ وَشَهَادَةِ كُلِّ صِفَةٍ وَمَوْصُوفٍ بِالاقْتِرَانِ وَشَهَادَةِ الاقْتِرَانِ بِالْحَدَثِ وَشَهَادَةِ الْحَدَثِ بِالامْتِنَاعِ مِنَ الأَزَلِ الْمُمْتَنِعِ مِنَ الْحَدَثِ فَلَيْسَ اللَّهُ [اللَّهَ] مَنْ عَرَفَ بِالتَّشْبِيهِ ذَاتَهُ وَلا إِيَّاهُ وَحَّدَ مَنِ اكْتَنَهَهُ وَلا حَقِيقَتَهُ أَصَابَ مَنْ مَثَّلَهُ وَلا بِهِ صَدَّقَ مَنْ نَهَّاهُ

Him. It is not His reality (haqiqa) that is attained by someone who strikes a similitude for Him. It is not He who is confirmed (tasdiq) by him who professes an end for Him. If one points to Him, it is not God that is pointed to. It is not He who is meant by him who compares Him (to something). It one ascribes parts to God, he has not indeed humbled himself in the presence of God. And it is not God who is desired by one who conceives of God in his imagination.

Everything that can be known in itself (binafsih) is fashioned (masnu’). All that stands apart from Him is an effect (ma’lul). God is inferred from what He fashions, the recognition of Him is expedited by the powers of reasoning, and the argument (hujja) for Him is established by (man's) primordial nature (fitrah).

God's creating of the creatures is a veil between Him and them. His separation (mubayana) from them is due to the fact that He is disengaged from their localization (ayniyyah). That He is their origin (ibtida’) is proof for them that He has no origin, for none that has an origin can originate others. That He has created them possessing means (of accomplishing things) is proof that He has no means (adapt), for means are witness to the poverty of those who use them.

So His names are an expression (ta’bir), His acts (af’al) are (a way) to make (Him) understood (tafhim), and His Essence is Reality (haqiqa). His innermost center (kunh) separates Him from Creation, and His otherness limits what is other than Him. Therefore ignorant of God is he who asks for Him to be described! Transgressing against Him is he who seeks to encompass Him! Mistaken is he who imagines to have fathomed Him!

Whoever asks 'how?' has compared Him (to something). Whoever says 'why?' has professed for Him a cause. Whoever says 'when?' has determined Him in time. Whoever says 'in what?' has enclosed Him. Whoever says 'to what?' has professed for Him a limit. Whoever says 'until what?' has given Him an end. Whoever gives Him an end has associated an end with Him. Whoever associates an end with Him has divided Him. Whoever divides Him has described Him. Whoever describes Him has deviated from the straight path concerning Him.

God does not change with the changes undergone by Creation, just as He does not become limited by delimiting that which is limited (mahdud).

وَلا صَمَدَ صَمْدَهُ مَنْ أَشَارَ إِلَيْهِ وَلا إِيَّاهُ عَنَى مَنْ شَبَّهَهُ وَلا لَهُ تَذَلَّلَ مَنْ بَعَّضَهُ وَلا إِيَّاهُ أَرَادَ مَنْ تَوَهَّمَهُ كُلُّ مَعْرُوفٍ بِنَفْسِهِ مَصْنُوعٌ وَكُلُّ قَائِمٍ فِي سِوَاهُ مَعْلُولٌ بِصُنْعِ اللَّهِ يُسْتَدَلُّ عَلَيْهِ وَبِالْعُقُولِ تُعْتَقَدُ مَعْرِفَتُهُ وَبِالْفِطْرَةِ تَثْبُتُ حُجَّتُهُ خِلْقَةُ اللَّهِ الْخَلْقَ حِجَابٌ بَيْنَهُ وَبَيْنَهُمْ وَمُبَايَنَتُهُ إِيَّاهُمْ مُفَارَقَتُهُ أَيْنِيَّتَهُمْ [إِنِّيَّتَهُمْ] وَابْتِدَاؤُهُ إِيَّاهُمْ دَلِيلُهُمْ عَلَى أَنْ لا ابْتِدَاءَ لَهُ لِعَجْزِ كُلِّ مُبْتَدَإٍ عَنِ ابْتِدَاءِ غَيْرِهِ وَأَدْوُهُ إِيَّاهُمْ دَلِيلٌ عَلَى أَنْ لا أَدَاةَ فِيهِ لِشَهَادَةِ الأَدَوَاتِ بِفَاقَةِ المادّين.

فَأَسْمَاؤُهُ تَعْبِيرٌ وَأَفْعَالُهُ تَفْهِيمٌ وَذَاتُهُ حَقِيقَةٌ وَكُنْهُهُ تَفْرِيقٌ بَيْنَهُ وَبَيْنَ خَلْقِهِ وَغَيُورُهُ [غُيُورُهُ] تَحْدِيدٌ لِمَا سِوَاهُ فَقَدْ جَهِلَ اللَّهَ مَنِ اسْتَوْصَفَهُ وَقَدْ تَعَدَّاهُ مَنِ اشْتَمَلَهُ وَقَدْ أَخْطَأَهُ مَنِ اكْتَنَهَهُ وَمَنْ قَالَ كَيْفَ فَقَدْ شَبَّهَهُ وَمَنْ قَالَ لِمَ فَقَدْ عَلَّهُ [عَلَّلَهُ] وَمَنْ قَالَ مَتَى فَقَدْ وَقَّتَهُ وَمَنْ قَالَ فِيمَ فَقَدْ ضَمَّنَهُ وَمَنْ قَالَ إِلامَ فَقَدْ نَهَّاهُ وَمَنْ قَالَ حَتَّامَ فَقَدْ غَيَّاهُ وَمَنْ غَيَّاهُ فَقَدْ غَايَاهُ وَمَنْ غَايَاهُ فَقَدْ جَزَّأَهُ وَمَنْ جَزَّأَهُ فَقَدْ وَصَفَهُ وَمَنْ وَصَفَهُ فَقَدْ أَلْحَدَ فِيهِ وَلا يَتَغَيَّرُ اللَّهُ بِانْغِيَارِ الَْمخْلُوقِ كَمَا لا يَنْحَدُّ بِتَحْدِيدِ الَْمحْدُودِ؛ أَحَدٌ لا بِتَأْوِيلِ عَدَدٍ، ظَاهِرٌ لا بِتَأْوِيلِ الْمُبَـاشَرَةِ

He is One, not according to the explanation offered by number; Outward, not according to the explanation of being immediate (to the senses); Manifest, not through the appearance of a vision (of Him); Inward (batin), not through separation (muzayala); Apart (muba’in), not through distance; Near, not through approach; Subtle, not through corporealness75; Existent, not after nonexistence; Active, not through coercion; Determining, not through the activity of thought; Directing (mudabbir), not through movement; Desiring, not through resolution; Willing (a.s.ha’a), not through directing attention (himmah); Grasping (mudrik), not through touch (majassah); Hearing, not through means; and Seeing, not through organs.

Times accompany Him not, places enclose Him not, slumber seizes Him not, attributes delimit Him not, and instruments (adawat) are of no use to Him. His Being (kawn) precedes times (awqat), His Existence (wujud) precedes non-existence and His Beginninglessness (azal) precedes beginning (ibtida’).

By His giving sense to the sense organs it is known that He has no sense organs. By His giving substance to substances it is known that He has no substance. By His causing opposition among things it is known that He has no opposite. By His causing affiliation among affairs it is known that He has no affiliate. He made darkness opposite to light, obscurity to clarity, moisture to dryness, and heat to cold. He joins together those things which are in total contradiction with one another and separates those which are near. They prove (the existence of) their Separator by their separation and their Joiner by their junction. That is (the meaning of) the Sublime (God’s) words, ‘And of every thing We have created pairs: That ye may receive instruction.’76

So through them He separated 'before' and 'after' that it might be known that He has no before and after. They testify with their temperaments that He who gave them temperaments has no temperament. They prove by their disparity that He who made them disparate has no disparity. They announce by their subjection to time that He who subjected them to time is not subject to it Himself.

He veiled some of them from others, so that it might be known that there is no veil between Him and them other than them. His is the true meaning of lordship (rububiyyah) when there was none over whom He

مُتَجَلٍّ لا بِاسْتِهْلالِ رُؤْيَةٍ بَاطِنٌ لا بِمُزَايَلَةٍ مُبَايِنٌ لا بِمَسَافَةٍ قَرِيبٌ لا بِمُدَانَاةٍ لَطِيفٌ لا بِتَجَسُّمٍ مَوْجُودٌ لا بَعْدَ عَدَمٍ فَاعِلٌ لا بِاضْطِرَارٍ مُقَدِّرٌ لا بِجَوْلِ فِكْرَةٍ مُدَبِّرٌ لا بِحَرَكَةٍ مُرِيدٌ لا بِهَمَامَةٍ شَاءٍ لا بِهِمَّةٍ مُدْرِكٌ لا بِمَجَسَّةٍ سَمِيعٌ لا بِآلَةٍ بَصِيرٌ لا بِأَدَاةٍ لا تَصْحَبُهُ الأَوْقَاتُ وَلا تَضَمَّنُهُ الأَمَاكِنُ وَلا تَأْخُذُهُ السِّنَاتُ وَلا تَحُدُّهُ الصِّفَاتُ وَلا تُفِيدُهُ الأَدَوَاتُ سَبَقَ الأَوْقَاتَ كَوْنُهُ وَالْعَدَمَ وُجُودُهُ وَالابْتِدَاءَ أَزَلُهُ.

بِتَشْعِيرِهِ الْمَشَاعِرَ عُرِفَ أَنْ لا مَشْعَرَ لَهُ وَبِتَجْهِيرِهِ الْجَوَاهِرَ عُرِفَ أَنْ لا جَوْهَرَ لَهُ وَبِمُضَادَّتِهِ بَيْنَ الأَشْيَاءِ عُرِفَ أَنْ لا ضِدَّ لَهُ وَبِمُقَارَنَتِهِ بَيْنَ الأُمُورِ عُرِفَ أَنْ لا قَرِينَ لَهُ ضَادَّ النُّورَ بِالظُّلْمَةِ وَالْجَلايَةَ بِالْبُهَمِ وَالجُسُوءَ بِالْبَلَلِ وَالصَّرْدَ بِالْحَرُورِ مُؤَلِّفٌ بَيْنَ مُتَعَادِيَاتِهَا مُفَرِّقٌ بَيْنَ مُتَدَانِيَاتِهَا دَالَّةً بِتَفْرِيقِهَا عَلَى مُفَرِّقِهَا وَبِتَأْلِيفِهَا عَلَى مُؤَلِّفِهَا ذَلِكَ قَوْلُهُ وَعَزَّ وَجَلَّ: «وَمِنْ كُلِّ شَيْ‏ءٍ خَلَقْنا زَوْجَيْنِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَذَكَّرُونَ» فَفَرَّقَ بِهَا بَيْنَ قَبْلٍ وَبَعْدٍ لِيُعْلَمَ أَلا قَبْلَ لَهُ وَلا بَعْدَ شَاهِدَةً بِغَرَائِزِهَا أَلا غَرِيزَةَ لِمُغَرِّزِهَا [لِمُغْرِزِهَا] دَالَّةً بِتَفَاوُتِهَا أَلا تَفَاوُتَ لِمُفَاوِتِهَا مُخْبِرَةً بِتَوْقِيتِهَا أَلا وَقْتَ لِمُوَقِّتِهَا حَجَبَ بَعْضَهَا، عَن بَعْضٍ لِيُعْلَمَ أَلا حِجَابَ بَيْنَهُ وَبَيْنَهَا مِنْ غَيْرِهَـا لَهُ مَعْنَى الرُّبُوبِيَّةِ إِذْ لا مَرْبُوبٌ وَحَقِيقَةُ الإِلَهِيَّــةِ إِذْ لا مَأْلُوهٌ وَمَعْنَى الْعَالِمِ وَلا

was Lord; the reality of Godhood (ilahiyyah) when there was nothing for whom He was God; the true meaning of All-Knower when there was nothing to be known; the true meaning of Creator when there was nothing created and the interpreter of hearing when there was nothing to be heard. It is not because He created that which makes Him deserve the true meaning (of the term) 'Creator' and not because He brought the creatures into being that the true meaning of 'making' is derived.

How (could it not be so)? For using such words as ‘ago’ (mudh) conceals Him not, 'already' (qad) brings Him not near, ‘perhaps’ (li’alla) veils Him not, 'when' (mata) limits Him not in time, 'at the time of' (heen) contains Him not, and 'with' (ma’a) associates Him not.

Instruments limit only themselves and means are only effective upon other similar means. Their activities are found only in things. The word ‘ago’ keeps things from being eternal (qidmah); the word 'already' shields them from beginninglessness; and the words 'if only' (lawla) wards off perfection (takmilah). Things become separate and thus they prove (the existence of) their Separator. They become distinguished and thus they prove their Distinguisher (muba’in). Through them their Maker manifests Himself to the powers of reasoning, and He becomes veiled to the sight through these powers. To these powers of reasoning imaginations appeal for a decision. And in them is substantiated (only) other than Him. From them is suspended the proof and through them He has revealed to them the acknowledgement (iqrar) of His Unity.

Confirmation (tasdiq) of God is made fast by the powers of reasoning, and faith in Him attains perfection through acknowledgment. There is no religiousness (diyanah) except after recognition (ma’rifah), no knowledge except through sincerity and no sincerity along with striking similitude. If one ascribes attributes for God, then he has indeed drawn a similitude.

So nothing in Creation is found in its Creator. All that is possible in it is impossible in its Maker. Movement (harakah) and stillness (a.s.ukun) do not affect Him. How should that which He affects (in others) have any effect upon Him, or that which He has originated recur for Him? Then His Essence would be disparate, His innermost center would be divided and His being Eternal would become an impossibility. How would then the Creator have a meaning different from the created?

مَعْلُومٌ وَمَعْنَى الْخَالِقِ وَلا مَخْلُوقٌ وَتَأْوِيلُ السَّمْعِ وَلا مَسْمُوعٌ لَيْسَ مُذْ خَلَقَ اسْتَحَقَّ مَعْنَى الْخَالِقِ وَلا بِإِحْدَاثِهِ الْبَرَايَا اسْتَفَادَ مَعْنَى الْبَارِئِيَّةِ كَيْفَ وَلا تُغَيِّبُهُ [تَغِيبُهُ] مُذْ وَلا تُدْنِيهِ قَدْ وَلا يَحْجُبُهُ لَعَلَّ وَلا يُوَقِّتُهُ مَتَى وَلا يَشْتَمِلُهُ حِينٌ وَلا تُقَارِنُهُ مَعَ إِنَّمَا تَحُدُّ الأَدَوَاتُ أَنْفُسَهَا وَتُشِيرُ الآْلَةُ إِلَى نَظَائِرِهَا وَفِي الأَشْيَاءِ يُوجَدُ أَفْعَالُهَا مَنَعَتْهَا مُذُ الْقِدْمَةَ وَحَمَتْهَا قَدُ الأَزَلِيَّةَ وَجَنَّبَتْهَا لَوْلا التَّكْمِلَةَ افْتَرَقَتْ فَدَلَّتْ عَلَى مُفَرِّقِهَا وَتَبَايَنَتْ فَأَعْرَبَتْ، عَن مُبَايِنِهَا بِهَا تَجَلَّى صَانِعُهَا لِلْعُقُولِ وَبِهَا احْتَجَبَ عَنِ الرُّؤْيَةِ وَإِلَيْهَا تَحَاكَمَ الأَوْهَامُ وَفِيهَا أُثْبِتَ غَيْرُهُ وَمِنْهَا أُنِيطَ الدَّلِيلُ وَبِهَا عَرَّفَهَا الإِقْرَارَ بِالْعُقُولِ يُعْتَقَدُ التَّصْدِيقُ بِاللَّهِ وَبِالإِقْرَارِ يَكْمُلُ الإِيمَانُ بِهِ لا دِيَانَةَ إِلا بَعْدَ مَعْرِفَةٍ وَلا مَعْرِفَةَ إِلا بِإِخْلاصٍ وَلا إِخْلاصَ مَعَ التَّشْبِيهِ وَلا نَفْيَ مَعَ إِثْبَاتِ الصِّفَاتِ لِلتَّشْبِيهِ فَكُلُّ مَا فِي الْخَلْقِ لا يُوجَدُ فِي خَالِقِهِ وَكُلُّ مَا يُمْكِنُ فِيهِ يَمْتَنِعُ فِي صَانِعِهِ لا تَجْرِي عَلَيْهِ الْحَرَكَةُ وَالسُّكُونُ وَكَيْفَ يَجْرِي عَلَيْهِ مَا هُوَأَجْرَاهُ أَوْ يَعُودُ فِيهِ مَا هُوَابْتَدَأَهُ إِذاً لَتَفَاوَتَتْ ذَاتُهُ وَلَتَجَزَّأَ كُنْهُهُ وَلامْتَنَعَ مِنَ الأَزَلِ مَعْنَاهُ وَلَمَّا كَـانَ لِلْبَـارِئِ مَعْنًى

If something from behind limited Him, then something in front would limit Him. If perfection (tamam) were seeking Him, imperfection would be upon Him. How should that which does not transcend (imtina’) temporality be worthy of (the Name) 'Beginningless'? How should that which does not transcend being produced (insha), produce the things (of the world)? There they would have arisen in Him a sign of having been made (masnu’) and He would become a proof (dalil) after having been the proven (madlul al-Ayah).

There is no argument in absurd opinions77; there is no answer when it (absurdity) is asked about; and there is no glorification of Him in its meaning. Nor is there any absurdity in distinguishing Him from Creation, unless it be that the Independent accepts not to be made into two, nor does the Beginningless accepts to have a beginning.

There is no god but God, the All-High, and the Tremendous. They have cried lies that ascribe equals to God! They have gone astray into far-reaching error and suffered a manifest loss! May God’s Blessings be upon Muhammad and his Pure Household.

  • 1. Qur'an, 75:22-23
  • 2. Abdul Salam ibn Salih al-Harawi was a close companion of Imam Al-Ridha’ (a.s.) and is now buried in a shrine in the vicinity of the holy city of Mashhad.
  • 3. Qur'an, 4:80
  • 4. Ibid.
  • 5. Qur'an, 55:26-27
  • 6. Qur'an, 28:88
  • 7. According to Tradition No. 6-25 Itra is “It is I, Al-Hassan, Al-Husayn and the other nine Divine Leaders from the descendants of Al-Husayn. The ninth of them is their Al-Mahdi (Divinely Guided One) and is their Riser. They will not separate themselves from God’s Book and God’s Book will not separate from them until they meet God’s Prophet (S) at his Pool.”
  • 8. Qur'an, 55:43-44
  • 9. A houri is one of the beautiful maidens that in Muslim belief live with the blessed in Paradise.
  • 10. This implies that God is weak without His Might, and is in itself a form of polytheism.
  • 11. Qur'an, 45:29
  • 12. Qur’an, 6:28
  • 13. Qur’an, 2:30
  • 14. Ibid.
  • 15. Buried in Neishaboor
  • 16. Qur’an, 16:40
  • 17. "So God created man in His own IMAGE (Genesis1:27; Colossians 1:15; Hebrews 1:3)
  • 18. Qur’an, 38:75
  • 19. Ibid.
  • 20. Ibid.
  • 21. Qur’an, 68:42
  • 22. Al-Boraq refers to the creature which carried the Prophet of God (a.s.) from the ‘Al-Haram Mosque in Mecca to ‘Al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem.
  • 23. Qur’an, 2:17
  • 24. Qur’an, 2:7
  • 25. Qur’an, 4:155
  • 26. Qur’an, 41:46
  • 27. Qur’an, 9:67
  • 28. Qur’an, 19:64
  • 29. Qur’an, 59:11
  • 30. Qur’an, 7:51
  • 31. Qur’an, 2:17
  • 32. Qur’an, 83:15
  • 33. Qur’an, 89:22
  • 34. Qur’an, 2:210
  • 35. Qur’an, 9:79
  • 36. Qur’an, 2:15
  • 37. Qur’an, 3:54
  • 38. Qur’an, 4:142
  • 39. Qur’an, 2:255
  • 40. It means ‘The Path’. In Muslim tradition, the Bridge to Paradise or Al-Sirat is narrower than a spider's thread and sharper than a sword. Only the good pass swiftly over it, while the wicked fall down to the mid-Hell which it spans over. The Bridge to Paradise is also called the Bridge of Hell.
  • 41. Qur’an, 40:16
  • 42. Ibid.
  • 43. Ibid.,17
  • 44. Qur’an, 17:88
  • 45. Qur’an, 6:125
  • 46. Ibid.
  • 47. Qur’an, 6:125
  • 48. Ibid.
  • 49. Qur’an, 112:2
  • 50. Ibid.,1
  • 51. Qur’an, 6:19.
  • 52. There is a shrine in the vicinity of Mashhad known as Khajeh Aba Salt thought to be his tomb
  • 53. Qur’an, 11:7.
  • 54. Qur’an, 10:99-100.
  • 55. Such as after death and seeing the Divine Chastisement!
  • 56. Qur’an, 18:101
  • 57. Qur’an, 21:28
  • 58. Qur’an, 2:22
  • 59. Qur’an, 2:22
  • 60. Ibid.
  • 61. Ibid.
  • 62. Ibid.
  • 63. Ibid.
  • 64. Damascus, Syria
  • 65. The Qadarites believed that all their deeds and actions are created by themselves and God has no control over them.
  • 66. Qur’an, 38:27
  • 67. In the Khorasan province in the Northeast of Iran
  • 68. The Jews call 'Uzair a son of Allah, and the Christians call Christ the son of Allah. That is a saying from their mouth; (in this) they but imitate what the unbelievers of old used to say. Allah's curse be on them: how they are deluded away from the Truth![Qur’an, Tauba 9:30].
  • 69. That which is bestowed or rendered in consideration of merit; reward; recompense.
  • 70. Qur’an, 6:164
  • 71. Qur’an, 21:23
  • 72. Qur’an, 16:40
  • 73. A respectable Iranian researcher and translator -Mr. Ghaffari - has commented that this refers to the Abbasids. God knows best!
  • 74. The Muslim pulpit is a wooden form haven several steps to the top where the preacher sits.
  • 75. Corporeal means having, consisting of, or relating to a physical material body. It also means not spiritual, being of a physical or worldly nature.
  • 76. Qur’an, 51:49
  • 77. Such as those presented above