Table of Contents

Chapter 27: On What Al-Ridha’ (a.s.) Said About Harut And Marut

27-1 The interpreter Muhammad ibn Al-Qasim al-Jurjani known as Abil Hassan - may God be pleased with him - narrated that Yusuf ibn Muhammad ibn Ziyad and Ali ibn Muhammad ibn Sayyar quoted on the authority of their father, on the authority of Al-Hassan ibn Ali (a.s.), on the authority of his father Ali ibn Muhammad (a.s.), on the authority of his father Muhammad ibn Ali (a.s.), on the authority of his father Al-Ridha’ Ali ibn Musa (a.s.), on the authority of his father Musa ibn Ja’far (a.s.), on the authority of his father As-Sadiq Ja’far ibn Muhammad (a.s.) who said the following regarding the Honorable the Exalted God’s words, ‘They followed what the evil ones gave out (falsely) against the power of Solomon: the blasphemers Were, not Solomon, but the evil ones, teaching men Magic, and such things as came down at Babylon to the angels Harut and Marut. But neither of these taught anyone (a.s.uch things) without saying, ‘We are only for trial; so do not blaspheme.’ They learned from them the means to sow discord between man and wife. But they could not thus harm anyone except by Allah's permission. And they learned what harmed them, not what profited them. And they knew that the buyers of (magic) would have no share in the happiness of the

عَلَى وَجْهِهِ فَشَكَرَ الْجِنُّ لِلأَرَضَةِ صَنِيعَهَا فَلاجْلِ ذَلِكَ لا تُوجَدُ الأَرَضَةُ فِي مَكَانٍ إِلا وَعِنْدَهَا مَاءٌ وَطِينٌ وَذَلِكَ قَوْلُ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ فَلَمَّا قَضَيْنا عَلَيْهِ الْمَوْتَ ما دَلَّهُمْ عَلى‏ مَوْتِهِ إِلا دَابَّةُ الأَرْضِ تَأْكُلُ مِنْسَأَتَهُ يَعْنِي عَصَاهُ فَلَمَّا خَرَّ تَبَيَّنَتِ الْجِنُّ أَنْ لَوْ كانُوا يَعْلَمُونَ الْغَيْبَ ما لَبِثُوا فِي الْعَذابِ الْمُهِينِ.

ثُمَّ قَالَ الصَّادِقُ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ: وَاللَّهِ مَا نَزَلَتْ هَذِهِ الآْيَةُ هَكَذَا، وَإِنَّمَا نَزَلَتْ فَلَمَّا خَرَّ تَبَيَّنَتِ الإِنْسُ أَنَّ الْجِنَّ لَوْ كَانُوا يَعْلَمُونَ الْغَيْبَ مَا لَبِثُوا فِي الْعَذَابِ الْمُهِينِ.

27

بابُ ما جاءَ عَنِ الرِّضا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ فِي هارُوتِ وَمارُوتِ‏

1 - حَدَّثَنا مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ القاسِم المفسر المَعْرُوف بِأَبِي الحَسَن الجرجانِي رَضِىَ اللهُ عَنْهُ قالَ: حَدَّثَنا يُوسِف بن مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ زِياد وَعَلِىِّ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ سيار، عَن أَبُويهما عَنِ الحَسَن بْنِ عَلِى‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ، عَن أَبِيهِ مُحَمَّد عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ، عَن أَبيهِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَلِى‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ عَنْ أَبيهِ الرِّضا عَلِىِّ بْنِ مُوسَى‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ، عَن أَبيهِ مُوسَى بْنِ جَعْفَر عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ، عَن أَبيهِ الصَّادِق جَعْفَرِ بْنِ مُحَمَّد عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ فِي قَوْلِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ: (وَاتَّبَعُوا ما تَتْلُوا الشَّياطِينُ عَلى مُلْكِ سُلَيْمَانَ وَمَا كَفَرَ سُلَيْمَانُ وَلَكِنَّ الشَّيَاطِينَ كَفَرُوا يُعَلِّمُونَ النَّاسَ السِّحْرَ وَمَا أُنزِلَ عَلَى الْمَلَكَيْنِ بِبَابِلَ هَارُوتَ وَمَارُوتَ وَمَا يُعَلِّمَانِ مِنْ أَحَدٍ حَتَّى يَقُولَا إِنَّمَا نَحْنُ فِتْنَةٌ فَلَا تَكْفُرْ فَيَتَعَلَّمُونَ مِنْهُمَا مَا يُفَرِّقُونَ بِهِ بَيْنَ الْمَرْءِ وَزَوْجِهِ وَمَا هُمْ بِضَارِّينَ بِهِ مِنْ أَحَدٍ إِلَّا بِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ وَيَتَعَلَّمُونَ مَا يَضُرُّهُمْ وَلَا يَنفَعُهُمْ وَلَقَدْ عَلِمُوا لَمَنْ اشْتَرَاهُ مَا لَهُ فِي الْآخِرَةِ مِنْ خَلَاقٍ وَلَبِئْسَ مَا شَرَوْا بِهِ أَنفُسَهُمْ لَوْ كَانُوا يَعْلَمُونَ)

Hereafter. And vile was the price for which they did sell their souls, if they but knew!’1 The atheist evil ones used magic for the people of Solomon. The people followed them and thought that Solomon had used the same forms of magic to rule. So they thought that they would use the same means of magic to show miracles to the people and have the people obey them. They said that Solomon was a blasphemer and a powerful magician. The Honorable the Exalted God refutes them and says, ‘…the blasphemers Were, not Solomon,…’2 He did not use magic as they claim ‘…but the evil ones (blasphemed), teaching men Magic…’3 which they ascribed to Solomon and the two angels ‘…and such things as came down at Babylon to the angels Harut and Marut…’4

There were many magicians and tricksters after Noah. Therefore, the Honorable the Exalted God sent the two angels (Harut and Marut) to the Prophet of the time to teach him magic and how to cancel its effect. Solomon learned this from those two angels and taught it to the people according to the Honorable the Exalted God’s orders. He ordered the two angels to stand up against magic and cancel its effect this way. He admonished them against using magic on the people. This is like introducing a poison and its anti-poison to someone.

Then the Honorable the Exalted God said, “…But neither of these taught anyone (a.s.uch things) without saying, ‘We are only for trial; so do not blaspheme….’5 This means that that Prophet (S) ordered the two angels to appear to the people in human form and teach the people what God had taught them in this regard. The Honorable the Exalted God also said, But neither of these taught anyone (a.s.uch things) without saying, ‘We are only for trial; so do not blaspheme…’’6 And the trial for the people is obeying the Honorable the Exalted God by what they learn and cancel the effect of the magic acts of the magicians. Therefore, you should also not blaspheme by using this magical power and harming the people, or inviting them to believe that you raise the dead or put the living to death using these magical powers and do things which no one but God can do. Do not blaspheme since these deeds constitute blasphemy.

The Honorable the Exalted God said, ‘…They learned from them…’7 meaning the people who were seeking magic learned it from what the Satans wrote for the people of Solomon and things which were sent down at Babylon to the angels Harut and Marut. They learned ‘the means to

‏قَالَ اتَّبَعُوا مَا تَتْلُو كَفَرَةُ الشَّيَاطِينِ مِنَ السِّحْرِ وَالنَّيْرَنْجَاتِ عَلَى مُلْكِ سُلَيَْمانَ الَّذِينَ يَزْعُمُونَ أَنَّ سُلَيَْمانَ بِهِ مُلْكٌ وَنَحْنُ أَيْضاً بِهِ نُظْهِرُ الْعَجَائِبَ حَتَّى يَنْقَادَ لَنَا النَّاسُ وَنَسْتَغْنِيَ عَنِ الانْقِيَادِ لِعَلِيٍّ وَقَالُوا كَانَ سُلَيَْمانُ كَافِراً سَاحِراً مَاهِراً بِسِحْرِهِ مَلَكَ مَا مَلَكَ وَقَدَرَ عَلَى مَا قَدَرَ فَرَدَّ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ عَلَيْهِمْ فَقَالَ: (وَما كَفَرَ سُلَيْمانُ) وَلا اسْتَعْمَلَ السِّحْرَ كَمَا قَالَ هَؤُلاءِ الْكَافِرُونَ (وَلكِنَّ الشَّياطِينَ كَفَرُوا يُعَلِّمُونَ النَّاسَ السِّحْرَ) الَّذِي نَسَبُوهُ إِلَى سُلَيَْمانَ وَإِلَى (ما أُنْزِلَ عَلَى الْمَلَكَيْنِ بِبابِلَ هارُوتَ وَمارُوتَ) وَكَانَ بَعْدَ نُوحٍ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ قَدْ كَثُرَ السَّحَرَةُ وَالْمُمَوِّهُونَ فَبَعَثَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ مَلَكَيْنِ إِلَى نَبِيِّ ذَلِكَ الزَّمَانِ بِذِكْرِ مَا يَسْحَرُ بِهِ السَّحَرَةُ وَذِكْرِ مَا يُبْطِلُ بِهِ سِحْرَهُمْ وَيَرُدُّ بِهِ كَيْدَهُمْ فَتَلَقَّاهُ النَّبِيُّ عَنِ الْمَلَكَيْنِ وَأَدَّاهُ إِلَى عِبَادِ اللَّهِ بِأَمْرِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ وَأَمَرَهُمْ أَنْ يَقِفُوا بِهِ عَلَى السِّحْرِ وَأَنْ يُبْطِلُوهُ وَنَهَاهُمْ أَنْ يَسْحَرُوا بِهِ النَّاسَ وَهَذَا كَمَا يَدُلُّ عَلَى السَّمِّ مَا هُوَ وَعَلَى مَا يُدْفَعُ بِهِ غَائِلَةُ السَّمِّ ثُمَّ يُقَالُ لِلْمُتَعَلِّمِ ذَلِكَ هَذَا السَّمُّ فَمَنْ رَأَيْتَهُ يَسُمُّ فَادْفَعْ غَائِلَتَهُ بِكَذَا وَإِيَّاكَ أَنْ تَقْتُلَ بِالسَّمِّ أَحَداً ثُمَّ قَالَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ: (وَما يُعَلِّمانِ مِنْ أَحَدٍ حَتَّى يَقُولا إِنَّما نَحْنُ فِتْنَةٌ فَلا تَكْفُرْ) يَعْنِي أَنَّ ذَلِكَ النَّبِيَّ أَمَرَ الْمَلَكَيْنِ أَنْ يَظْهَرَا لِلنَّاسِ بِصُورَةِ بَشَرَيْنِ وَيُعَلِّمَاهُمَا مَا عَلَّمَهُمَا اللَّهُ مِنْ ذَلِكَ فَقَالَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ: (وَما يُعَلِّمانِ مِنْ أَحَدٍ) ذَلِكَ السِّحْرَ وَإِبْطَالَهُ (حَتَّى يَقُولا) لِلْمُتَعَلِّمِ (إِنَّما نَحْنُ فِتْنَةٌ) امْتِحَانٌ لِلْعِبَادِ لِيُطِيعُوا اللَّهَ فِيَما يَتَعَلَّمُونَ مِنْ هَذَا وَيُبْطِلُوا بِهِ كَيْدَ السَّاحِرِ وَلا يَسْحَرُوهُمْ (فَلا تَكْفُرْ) بِاسْتِعْمَـالِ هَذَا السِّحْـرِ وَطَلَبِ الإِضْـرَارِ بِهِ وَدُعَاءِ النَّاسِ إِلَى أَنْ يَعْتَقِدُوا أَنَّكَ بِهِ تُحْيِي وَتُمِيتُ وَتَفْعَلُ مَا لا يَقْدِرُ عَلَيْهِ إِلا اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ فَإِنَّ ذَلِكَ كُفْرٌ قَالَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ: (فَيَتَعَلَّمُونَ) يَعْنِي طَالِبِي السِّحْرِ (مِنْهُما) يَعْنِي مِمَّـا كَتَبَتِ الشَّيَاطِينُ عَلى‏ مُلْــكِ سُلَيْمانَ مِنَ النَّيْرَنْجَاتِ وَما أُنْزِلَ عَلَى الْمَلَكَيْنِ بِبابِلَ هارُوتَ وَمارُوتَ يَتَعَلَّمُونَ مِنْ هَذَيْنِ الصِّنْفَيْــنِ

sow discord between man and wife.’8 These were the people who taught other people ways to harm others.”

Using various tricks and manipulations such as such and such a thing is buried in such and such a place, or so and so did such and such an act, they learned how to harm the people and make a married woman fall in love with a strange man or make a married man fall in love with a woman. Thus they caused discord between a couple. Then the Honorable the Exalted says, ‘…But they could not thus harm anyone except by Allah's permission…’9 This means that God is aware of what they do, but leaves them on their own. Had He willed to stop them He could have done so using force and wrath. He then says, ‘…And they learned what harmed them, not what profited them…’10, since once they learned magic with the intention of casting a spell over others and harming them they would have learned what would hurt their religion or what would be of no benefit for their religion. Rather they would have abandoned God’s religion using magic. These people knew well that whoever sells his religion for these things will have no share in Paradise, ‘…And they knew that the buyers of (magic) would have no share in the happiness of the Hereafter…’11 Then the Honorable the Exalted God said, ‘…And vile was the price for which they did sell their souls, if they but knew!…’12 and exposed themselves to everlasting punishment. They had sold their Hereafter and abandoned their share of Paradise. But those who taught magic were the same people who believed that there is no God, no Resurrection and no Hereafter. That is why God says, ‘…And they knew that the buyers of (magic) would have no share in the happiness of the Hereafter…!’13, since they believed that there is no Hereafter. They believed that if there is no Hereafter, they would not have any benefits in this world either. And if there is a Hereafter, they would not gain any benefits there due to their disbelief. Then God says, ‘… And vile was the price for which they did sell their souls…’14 meaning that they will be punished since they sold the Hereafter for this world and exposed themselves to everlasting punishment ‘… if they but knew!’15 But they do not know since they deny it. Once they did not ponder over God’s proofs to understand and learn, God will punish them for their false beliefs and for their denial of the truth.

Yusuf ibn Muhammad ibn Ziyad and Ali ibn Muhammad ibn Sayyar quoted on the authority of their fathers that they have told Al-Hassan ibn

(ما يُفَرِّقُونَ بِهِ بَيْنَ الْمَرْءِ وَزَوْجِهِ) هَذَا مَنْ يَتَعَلَّمُ لِلإِضْرَارِ بِالنَّاسِ يَتَعَلَّمُونَ التَّضْرِيبَ بِضُرُوبِ الْحِيَلِ وَالَّتمَائِمِ وَالإِيهَامِ أَنَّهُ قَدْ دَفَنَ فِي مَوْضِعِ كَذَا وَعَمِلَ كَذَا لِيُحَبِّبَ الْمَرْأَةَ إِلَى الرَّجُلِ وَالرَّجُلَ إِلَى الْمَرْأَةِ أَوْ يُؤَدِّيَ إِلَى الْفِرَاقِ بَيْنَهُمَا ثُمَّ قَالَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ: (وَما هُمْ بِضارِّينَ بِهِ مِنْ أَحَدٍ إِلاّ بِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ) أَيْ مَا الْمُتَعَلِّمُونَ لِذَلِكَ بِضَارِّينَ بِهِ مِنْ أَحَدٍ إِلا بِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ يَعْنِي بِتَخْلِيَةِ اللَّهِ وَعِلْمِهِ فَإِنَّهُ لَوْ شَاءَ لَمَنَعَهُمْ بِالْجَبْرِ وَالْقَهْرِ.

ثُمَّ قَالَ: (وَيَتَعَلَّمُونَ ما يَضُرُّهُمْ وَلا يَنْفَعُهُمْ) لانَّهُمْ إِذَا تَعَلَّمُوا ذَلِكَ السِّحْرَ لِيَسْحَرُوا بِهِ وَيَضُرُّوا فَقَدْ تَعَلَّمُوا مَا يَضُرُّهُمْ فِي دِينِهِمْ وَلا يَنْفَعُهُمْ فِيهِ بَلْ يَنْسَلِخُونَ عَنْ دِينِ اللَّهِ بِذَلِكَ، (وَلَقَدْ عَلِمَوا) عَلِمَ هَؤُلاءِ الْمُتَعَلِّمُونَ (لَمَنِ اشْتَراهُ) بِدِينِهِ الَّذِي يَنْسَلِخُ عَنْهُ بِتَعَلُّمِهِ (ما لَهُ فِي الآْخِرَةِ مِنْ خَلاقٍ) أَيْ مِنْ نَصِيبٍ فِي ثَوَابِ الْجَنَّةِ.

ثُمَّ قَالَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ: (وَلَبِئْسَ ما شَرَوْا بِهِ أَنْفُسَهُمْ) وَهَنُوهَا بِالْعَذَابِ (لَوْ كانُوا يَعْلَمُونَ) أَنَّهُمْ قَدْ بَاعُوا الآْخِرَةَ وَتَرَكُوا نَصِيبَهُمْ مِنَ الْجَنَّةِ لأنَّ الْمُتَعَلِّمِينَ لِهَذَا السِّحْرِ هُمُ الَّذِينَ يَعْتَقِدُونَ أَنْ لا رَسُولَ وَلا إِلَهَ وَلا بَعْثَ وَلا نُشُورَ. فَقَالَ: (وَلَقَدْ عَلِمُوا لَمَنِ اشْتَراهُ ما لَهُ فِي الآْخِرَةِ مِنْ خَلاقٍ) لأنَّهُمْ يَعْتَقِدُونَ أَنْ لا آخِرَةَ فَهُمْ يَعْتَقِدُونَ أَنَّهَا إِذَا لَمْ تَكُنْ آخِرَةٌ فَلا خَلاقَ لَهُمْ فِي دَارٍ بَعْدَ الدُّنْيَا وَإِنْ كَانَ بَعْدَ الدُّنْيَا آخِرَةٌ فَهُمْ مَعَ كُفْرِهِمْ بِهَا لا خَلاقَ لَهُمْ فِيهَا ثُمَّ قَالَ: (وَلَبِئْسَ ما شَرَوْا بِهِ أَنْفُسَهُمْ) إِذْ بَاعُوا الآْخِرَةَ بِالدُّنْيَا وَرَهَنُوا بِالْعَذَابِ الدَّائِمِ أَنْفُسَهُمْ (لَوْ كانُوا يَعْلَمُونَ) أَنَّهُمْ قَدْ بَاعُوا أَنْفُسَهُمْ بِالْعَذَابِ وَلَكِنْ لا يَعْلَمُونَ ذَلِكَ لِكُفْرِهِمْ بِهِ فَلَمَّا تَرَكُوا النَّظَرَ فِي حُجَجِ اللَّهِ حَتَّى يَعْلَمُوا عَذَابَهُمْ عَلَى اعْتِقَادِهِمُ الْبَاطِلَ وَجَحْدِهِمْ الْحَقَّ.

قَالَ يُوسُفُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ وَعَلِيُّ بْنُ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ سَيَّارٍ عَنْ أَبَوَيْهِمَا أَنَّهُمَا قَالا فَقُلْنَا لِلْحَسَنِ أَبِي الْقَائِمِ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ فَإِنَّ قَوْماً عِنْدَنَا يَزْعُمُونَ أَنَّ هَارُوتَ وَمَــارُوتَ مَلَكَــانِ

Ali (al-Askari) (a.s.), “There are some people who believe that Harut and Marut were two angels who were sent down to the Earth when the extent of the disobedience of the Children of Adam increased. God chose those two angels and sent them down along with another angel. They were attracted to Venus and fell into sin by lusting after her, and drinking wine and killing people. Then God punished them in Babylon and perverted that woman named Venus into the form of the planet Venus.” The Imam (a.s.) said, “I seek refuge in God from these words! The angels are innocent, and are safeguarded from atheism and bad deeds by God’s Grace. About them the Honorable the Exalted God said, ‘…who flinch not (from executing) the Commands they receive from Allah, but do (precisely) what they are commanded.’16 Also the Honorable the Exalted God said, ‘To Him belong all (creatures) in the heavens and on earth. Even those who are in His (very) Presence17 are not too proud to serve Him, nor are they (ever) weary (of His service). They celebrate His praises night and day, nor do they ever flag or intermit.’18 God has also said the following about the angels, ‘…Glory be to Him! they are (but) servants raised to honor. They speak not before He speaks, and they act (in all things) by His Command. He knows what is before them, and what is behind them, and they offer no intercession except for those who are acceptable, and they stand in awe and reverence of His (Glory).’19

Then the Imam added, “Then if it be as they said, God had established these angels as His vicegerents on the Earth and they were like the Prophets and the Divine Leaders. Do the Prophets and the Divine Leaders ever commit murders or adultery? Don’t you know that the Honorable the Exalted God has never left the Earth without a human Prophet or Divine Leader? Has not the Honorable the Exalted God said, ‘Nor did We send before thee (as apostles)…’20 meaning apostles to the people ‘… any but men, whom we did inspire, (men) living in human habitations…’21 Therefore He has informed us that He has not sent the angels down to the Earth as leaders or rulers but to be as messengers to God’s Prophets.”

Yusuf ibn Muhammad ibn Ziyad and Ali ibn Muhammad ibn Sayyar added, “We asked him, ‘Was Satan an angel or not?’ He (a.s.) said, ‘No. He was of the genies. Have you not heard that the Honorable the Exalted God said, ‘Behold! We said to the angels, ‘Bow down to Adam.’ They bowed down except Satan. He was one of the Jinn…’22 Thus in this verse

اخْتَارَتْهُمَا الْمَلائِكَةُ لَمَّا كَثُرَ عِصْيَانُ بَنِي آدَمَ وَأَنْزَلَهُمَا اللَّهُ مَعَ ثَالِثٍ لَهُمَا إِلَى الدُّنْيَا وَأَنَّهُمَا افْتَتَنَا بِالزُّهَرَةِ وَأَرَادَا الزِّنَا بِهَا وَشَرِبَا الْخَمْرَ وَقَتَلا النَّفْسَ الُْمحْتَرَمَةَ وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى يُعَذِّبُهُمَا بِبَابِلَ وَأَنَّ السَّحَرَةَ مِنْهُمَا يَتَعَلَّمُونَ السِّحْرَ وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ مَسَخَ تِلْكَ الْمَرْأَةَ هَذَا الْكَوْكَبَ الَّذِي هُوَ الزُّهَرَةُ. فَقَالَ الإِمَامُ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ: مَعَاذَ اللَّهِ مِنْ ذَلِكَ! إِنَّ مَلائِكَةَ اللَّهِ مَعْصُومُونَ مَحْفُوظُونَ مِنَ الْكُفْرِ وَالْقَبَائِحِ بِأَلْطَافِ اللَّهِ. قَالَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ فِيهِمْ: (لا يَعْصُونَ اللَّهَ ما أَمَرَهُمْ وَيَفْعَلُونَ ما يُؤْمَرُونَ) وَقَالَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ: (وَلَهُ مَنْ فِي السَّماواتِ وَالأَرْضِ وَمَنْ عِنْدَهُ) يَعْنِي مِنَ الْمَلائِكَةِ (لا يَسْتَكْبِرُونَ عَنْ عِبادَتِهِ وَلا يَسْتَحْسِرُونَ يُسَبِّحُونَ اللَّيْلَ وَالنَّهارَ لا يَفْتُرُونَ) وَقَالَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ فِي الْمَلائِكَةِ أَيْضاً: (بَلْ عِبادٌ مُكْرَمُونَ لا يَسْبِقُونَهُ بِالْقَوْلِ وَهُمْ بِأَمْرِهِ يَعْمَلُونَ يَعْلَمُ ما بَيْنَ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَما خَلْفَهُمْ وَلا يَشْفَعُونَ إِلا لِمَنِ ارْتَضى‏ وَهُمْ مِنْ خَشْيَتِهِ مُشْفِقُونَ)

ثُمَّ قَالَ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ: لَوْ كَانَ كَمَا يَقُولُونَ كَانَ اللَّهُ قَدْ جَعَلَ هَؤُلاءِ الْمَلائِكَةَ خُلَفَاءَ عَلَى الأَرْضِ وَكَانُوا كَالأَنْبِيَاءِ فِي الدُّنْيَا أَوْ كَالأَئِمَّةِ فَيَكُونُ مِنَ الأَنْبِيَاءِ وَالأَئِمَّةِ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ قَتْلُ النَّفْسِ وَالزِّنَا.

ثُمَّ قَالَ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ: أَوَلَسْتَ تَعْلَمُ أَنَّ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ لَمْ يُخْلِ الدُّنْيَا قَطُّ مِنْ نَبِيٍّ أَوْ إِمَامٍ مِنَ الْبَشَرِ؟ أَوَلَيْسَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ يَقُولُ: (وَما أَرْسَلْنا قَبْلَكَ يَعْنِي إِلَى الْخَلْقِ إِلا رِجالاً نُوحِي إِلَيْهِمْ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْقُرى)‏ فَأَخْبَرَ أَنَّهُ لَمْ يَبْعَثِ الْمَلائِكَةَ إِلَى الأَرْضِ لِيَكُونُوا أَئِمَّةً وَحُكَّاماً وَإِنَّمَا أُرْسِلُوا إِلَى أَنْبِيَاءِ اللَّهِ.

قَالا: قُلْنَا لَهُ: فَعَلَى هَذَا لَمْ يَكُنْ إِبْلِيسُ أَيْضاً مَلَكاً.

فَقَالَ: لا. بَلْ كَانَ مِنَ الْجِنِّ. أَمَا تَسْمَعَانِ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ يَقُولُ: (وَإِذْ قُلْنا لِلْمَلائِكَةِ اسْجُدُوا لآِدَمَ فَسَجَدُوا إِلا إِبْلِيسَ كانَ مِنَ الْجِنِّ) فَأَخْبَرَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ أَنَّهُ كَانَ مِنَ الْجِنِّ. وَهُوَ الَّذِي قَــالَ

the Honorable the Exalted God informs us that Satan is one of the genies. It is the same about whom the Honorable the Exalted God said, And the Jinn race, We had created before, from the fire of a scorching wind.’23

Al-Imam Al-Hassan ibn Ali (a.s.) narrated that his father (a.s.) quoted on the authority of his grandfather (a.s.), on the authority of Al-Ridha’ (a.s.), on the authority of his forefathers (a.s.), on the authority of Ali (a.s.) that God’s Prophet (S) said, “The Honorable the Exalted God chose us the Household of Muhammad and chose the Prophets and the nearby-stationed angels. This appointment was based upon the fact that we will not do anything which would cause us to forgo His Mastery, would be denied His Protection and join the ranks of those who deserve His Punishment.”

Yusuf ibn Muhammad ibn Ziyad and Ali ibn Muhammad ibn Sayyar added, “We told him that it is narrated that when God’s Prophet (S) declared the Mastery of Ali (a.s.), the Honorable the Exalted God presented His Mastery to a group of people and angels in the Heavens but they refused to accept it. Then God perverted them into the shape of frogs.” The Imam (a.s.) said, “I take refuge in God! They denounce us and ascribe lies to us. The angels are God’s messengers like other Prophets and Messengers to the people. Could they blaspheme to God?” We said, “No.” The Imam (a.s.) said, “The angels are this way. The rank of the angels is very high. Their affairs are very magnificent.”

27-2 Tamim ibn Abdullah ibn Tamim al-Qurashi - may God be pleased with him - narrated that Ahmad ibn Ali Al-Ansari quoted on the authority of Muhammad ibn Al-Jahm, “I heard that Al-Ma’mun asked Al-Ridha’ Ali ibn Musa (a.s.) about the following which the people say, “Venus is the perverted form of a woman with whom Harut and Marut practiced black witchcraft and Canopus24 is the perverted form of the tax collector in Yemen.” Al-Ridha’ (a.s.) said, “No. They lie when they say that those two were perverted into Venus and Canopus stars. They were perverted into two aqueous creatures. The people are mistaken when they say that those two were perverted into two stars. God would not distort His enemies into the form of bright stars which would illuminate forever. The perverted would not live for more than three days. They will not reproduce either. There are no perverted creatures on the Earth these days. Animals like monkeys, pigs, bears or other similar animals are not

اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ وَالْجَانَّ خَلَقْناهُ مِنْ قَبْلُ مِنْ نارِ السَّمُومِ.

قَالَ الإِمَامُ الْحَسَنُ بْنُ عَلِيٍ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ حَدَّثَنِي أَبِي، عَن جَدِّي عَنِ الرِّضَا، عَن آبَائِهِ، عَن عَلِيٍ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ قالَ: قالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ‏ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ اخْتَارَنَا مَعَاشِرَ آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ وَاخْتَارَ النَّبِيِّينَ وَاخْتَارَ الْمَلائِكَةَ الْمُقَرَّبِينَ وَمَا اخْتَارَهُمْ إِلا عَلَى عِلْمٍ مِنْهُ بِهِمْ أَنَّهُمْ لا يُوَاقِعُونَ مَا يَخْرُجُونَ بِهِ عَنْ وَلايَتِهِ وَيَنْقَلِعُونَ بِهِ عَنْ عِصْمَتِهِ وَيَنْتَمُونَ بِهِ إِلَى الْمُسْتَحِقِّينَ لِعَذَابِهِ وَنِقْمَتِهِ قَالا فَقُلْنَا لَهُ فَقَدْ رُوِيَ لَنَا أَنَّ عَلِيّاً عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ لَمَّا نَصَّ عَلَيْهِ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ‏ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ بِالإِمَامَةِ عَرَضَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ وَلايَتَهُ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ عَلَى فِئَامٍ مِنَ النَّاسِ وَفِئَامٍ مِنَ الْمَلائِكَةِ فَأَبَوْهَا فَمَسَخَهُمُ اللَّهُ ضَفَادِعَ فَقَالَ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ مَعَاذَ اللَّهِ هَؤُلاءِ الْمُكَذِّبُونَ لَنَا الْمُفْتَرُونَ عَلَيْنَا الْمَلائِكَةُ هُمْ رُسُلُ اللَّهِ فَهُمْ كَسَائِرِ أَنْبِيَاءِ اللَّهِ وَرُسُلِهِ إِلَى الْخَلْقِ فَيَكُونُ مِنْهُمُ الْكُفْرُ بِاللَّهِ قُلْنَا لا قَالَ فَكَذَلِكَ الْمَلائِكَةُ إِنَّ شَأْنَ الْمَلائِكَةِ لَعَظِيمٌ وَإِنَّ خَطْبَهُمْ لَجَلِيلٌ.

2 - حَدَّثَنا تَمِيمُ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّه بْنِ تَمِيمُ القُرَشِي رَضِىَ اللهُ عَنْهُ قالَ: حَدَّثَني أَبي، عَن أَحْمَدِ بْنِ عَلِى الأَنْصارِي، عَن عَلِيِّ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْجَهْمِ قالَ: سَمِعتُ الْمَأْمُونَ يَسْأَلُ الرِّضَا عَلِيَّ بْنَ مُوسَى‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ عَمَّا يَرْوِيهِ النَّاسُ مِنْ أَمْرِ الزُّهَرَةِ وَأَنَّهَا كَانَتِ امْرَأَةً فُتِنَ بِهَا هَارُوتُ وَمَارُوتُ وَمَا يَرْوُونَهُ مِنْ أَمْرِ سُهَيْلٍ وَأَنَّهُ كَانَ عَشَّاراً بِالَْيمَنِ فَقَالَ كَذَبُوا فِي قَوْلِهِمْ إِنَّهُمَا كَوْكَبَانِ وَإِنَّمَا كَانَتَا دَابَّتَيْنِ مِنْ دَوَابِّ الْبَحْرِ فَغَلِطَ النَّاسُ وَظَنُّوا أَنَّهُمَا كَوْكَبَانِ وَمَا كَانَ اللَّهُ لَِيمْسَخَ أَعْدَاءَهُ أَنْوَاراً مُضِيئَةً ثُمَّ يُبْقِيَهَا مَا بَقِيَتِ السَّمَاءُ وَالأَرْضُ وَإِنَّ الْمُسُوخَ لَمْ يَبْقَ أَكْثَرَ مِنْ ثَلاثَةِ أَيَّامٍ حَتَّى مَاتَتْ وَمَا تَنَاسَلَ مِنْهَا شَيْ‏ءٌ وَمَا عَلَى وَجْهِ الأَرْضِ الْيَوْمَ مَسْخٌ وَإِنَّ الَّتِي وَقَعَ عَلَيْهَا اسْمُ الْمُسُوخِيَّةِ مِثْلُ الْقِرَدَةِ وَالْخِنْزِيرِ وَالدُّبِّ وَأَشْبَاهِهَا إِنَّمَا هِيَ

perverted themselves, but are similar to those who were cursed and perverted by God for denying the Unity of God and denouncing the Prophets. However, Harut and Marut were two angels who taught the people magic so that they could escape the magic of the magicians and cancel the effect of their magic. They told whomever they taught magic, ‘…We are only for trial; so do not blaspheme…’25 However, there were some people who blasphemed via what they had learned and used what they had learned to cause discord and separation between husband and wife. The Honorable the Exalted God says, ‘… But they could not thus harm anyone except by Allah’s permission…’26 meaning with His Knowledge.”

  • 1. Qur’an, 2:102
  • 2. Qur’an, 2:102
  • 3. Ibid.
  • 4. Ibid.
  • 5. Ibid.
  • 6. Ibid.
  • 7. Qur’an, 2:102
  • 8. Ibid.
  • 9. Ibid.
  • 10. Ibid
  • 11. Ibid.
  • 12. Qur’an, 2:102
  • 13. Ibid.
  • 14. Ibid.
  • 15. Ibid.
  • 16. Qur’an, 66:6
  • 17. Referring to the angels.
  • 18. Qur’an, 21:19-20
  • 19. Qur’an, 21:26-28
  • 20. Qur’an, 12:109
  • 21. Ibid.
  • 22. Qur’an, 18:50
  • 23. Qur’an, 15:27
  • 24. Canopus which is also called Suhail. Canopus, or Alpha Carinae, is the brightest star in the southern constellation of Carina. A yellowish-white supergiant star, Canopus is the second brightest star in the sky with a visual magnitude of -0.62. It is located well into the southern hemisphere, at a Declination of -52° 42' (2000) and a Right Ascension of 06:24.0, and is visible on the southern horizon of even the southern US States as far north as Virginia or the African coast of the Mediterranean Sea.
  • 25. Qur’an, 2:102
  • 26. Ibid.