Table of Contents

Chapter 3: On The birthdate of Imam Al-Ridha’(a.s.)

3-1 Muhammad ibn Ibrahim ibn Ishaq Taleqani - may God be pleased with him - quoted on the authority of Al-Hassan ibn Ali ibn Zakariyya from Medina who quoted on the authority of Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Khalilan, on the authority of his father, on the authority of his grand-

فِيها، ثُمَّ قالَ لَهُ: اعْرِضْ عَلَيْنا، قالَ: ما عِنْدِي شَي‏ءٌ فَقالَ لَهُ: بَلى‏ اعْرِضْ عَلَيْنا، قالَ: لا وَاللَّهِ، ما عِنْدِي إِلاّ جارِيَةٌ مَرِيضَةٌ، فَقالَ لَهُ: ما عَلَيْكَ أَنْ تَعْرِضَها؟ فَأبي عَلَيْهِ، ثُمَّ انصَرَفَ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ ثُمَّ اِنَّهُ أَرْسِلْنِي مِنَ الغَدِ إِلَيْهِ، فَقالَ لي‏: قُلْ لَهُ: كَمْ غايَتُكَ فِيها؟ فَإِذا قالَ: كَذا وَكَذا فَقُلْ: قَدْ أَخَذْتُها.

فَأَتَيْتُهُ،[وَ] قالَ: ما اُرِيدُ أَنْ أَنْقُصَها مِنْ كَذا [وَكَذا] ، فَقُلْتُ: قَدْ أَخَذْتُها وَهُوَ لَكَ، فَقالَ: هِيَ لَكَ، وَلكِن مَنَ الرَّجُل الَّذِي كانَ مَعَكَ بِالأَمْسِ؟ فَقُلْتُ: رَجُلٌ مِنْ بَنِي هاشِم؛ فَقالَ: مِنْ أيِّ بَنِي هاشِم؟ [فَقُلْتُ مِنْ نُقَبائِهِم‏] فَقالَ: اُرِيدُ أَكْثَرَ مِنْهُ، فَقُلْتُ: ما عِنْدِي أَكْثَرُ مِنْ هذا، فَقالَ: أَخْبِرُكَ عَنْ هذِهِ الوَصِيفَةِ، إِنِّي اشْتَرَيْتُها مِنْ أَقْصى‏ بِلاد الْمَغْرِبِ، فَلَقِيَتْني اِمْرَأَةٌ مِن أَهْلِ الْكِتاب، فَقالَتْ: ما هذِهِ الوَصِيفَةِ مَعَكَ؟ فَقُلْتُ اشْتَرَيْتُها لِنَفْسِي. فَقالَتْ: ما يَنْبَغِي أَن تَكُون هذِهِ الوَصِيفَةُ عِنْدَ مِثْلِكَ، إِنَّ هذِهِ الجارِيَةَ يَنْبَغِي‏أَن تَكُون عِنْدَ خَيْرَ أَهْلِ الأَرْض، فَلا تَلْبَثُ عنْدَهُ إِلاّ قَلِيلاً حَتّى‏ تَلِدَ مِنْهُ غُلاماً يَدَيْنُ لَهُ شَرْقُ الأَرْض وَغَرْبُها، قالَ: فَأَتَيْتَهُ بِها، فَلَمْ تَلْبَثْ عنْدَهُ إِلاّ قَلِيلاً حَتّى‏ وَلَدَتْ لَهُ عَلِيّاً عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ.

وَحَدَّثَني بِهذَا الْحَدِيثِ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَلِى ماجِيلوَيْه رَضِىَ اللهُ عَنْهُ قالَ: حَدَّثَني عَمِّي مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ أَبي القاسِم، عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَلِى الكُوفِيِّ، عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ خالِد، عَنْ هِشامِ الأَحْمَرِ مِثْلَهُ سَواءٌ.

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بابُ فِي ذِكْرِ مَوْلِد الرِّضا عَلِىِّ بْنِ مُوسَى‏عَلَيْهِمَا السَّلاَمُ‏

1 - حَدَّثَنا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ إِبْراهيمَ بْنِ إِسْحاقَ الطَّالِقانِيُّ رَضِىَ اللهُ عَنْهُ قالَ: حَدَّثَني الحَسَنُ بْنُ عَلِىِّ بْنِ زَكَرِيَّا بِمَدِينَةِ السَّلامُ قالَ: حَدَّثَني أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّهِ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ خَلِيلان قالَ: حَدَّثَني أَبي، عَنْ أَبيهِ، عَنْ جَدِّهِ، عَنْ عَتابِ بْنِ اُسَيِّد قالَ: سَمِعْتُ جَماعَةً من أَهْلِ المَدِينَةِ يَقُولُونَ:

father, on the authority of Attab ibn Osayd who narrated that he had heard from a group of the Sheikhs from Medina, “Al-Ridha’ Ali ibn Musa (a.s.) was born in Medina on Thursday the 11th of Rabi’ul Awwal1 in the year 153 A.H. (769 A.D.) - five years after the death of Imam As-Sadiq (a.s.) He died in Toos in a village called Sanabad in the town of Nawqan. He was buried in Hamid ibn Al-Ta’ee’s house in the same vault in which Harun Al-Rashid was buried. He was buried on the Qibla2 side of the grave of Harun Ar-Rashid. This occurred on Friday the 21st (or the 20th) of the (Arabic) month of Ramadhan in the year 203 A.H. (817 A.D.). He lived for forty-nine years and six months. He spent twenty-nine years and two months with his noble father Imam Musa ibn Ja'far (a.s.). Then he succeeded his father, and was Imam for a period of twenty years and four months. He became Imam when he was twenty-nine years and two months old. This period of his Divine Leadership coincided with the period of the ruling of Harun Ar-Rashid. After Ar-Rashid, Muhammad known as Al-Amin who was the son of Zobayda ruled for three years and twenty-five days. Al-Amin was then dethroned and his uncle Ibrahim ibn Shaklah was put in power for fourteen days. Then he released Muhammad ibn Zobayda (al-Amin) from prison, and had the people pledge allegiance to him again. He ruled for another year and a half and twenty-three days. Then Abdullah Al-Ma’mun ruled for twenty years and twenty-three days. It was then that he (al-Ma’mun) took a pledge of succession from Ali ibn Musa Al-Ridha’ (a.s.) without his consent.

This he did after threatening him (Imam al-Ridha’) with death. He insisted on this over and over. The Imam (a.s.) refused to accept this offer every time, until he finally faced the threat of being killed. Then he said, “O My God! Verily you have admonished me against getting myself killed. Indeed I dislike it but I am forced to accept the succession of Abdullah Al-Ma’mun, else he would kill me. Indeed I dislike it but I am forced to do it, just as Joseph (a.s.) and Daniel (a.s.) were forced to when they each accepted the succession of the tyrant rulers of their time. O My God! There is no pledge for me except Your Pledge, and there is no succession for me except what You may grant to me. Help me succeed in establishing Your Religion, and reviving the tradition of your Prophet Muhammad - may God's Peace and Blessings be upon him and his Household- since You are my Master and my Helper. How good a Master and Helper!” Then he (a.s.) accepted the succession from Al-Ma’mun with

وُلِدَ الرِّضا عَلِىُّ بْنُ مُوسَى‏عَلَيْهِمَا السَّلاَمُ بِالْمَدِينَةِ يَوْمَ الْخَمِيس لِإِحْدى‏ عَشَرةَ لَيْلَةً خَلَتْ مِنْ رَبِيعِ الأَوَّلِ سَنَةَ ثَلاثٍ وَخَمْسِينَ وَمائَةٍ مِنَ الهِجْرَةِ بَعْد وَفاة أَبي عَبْدِاللَّه‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ بِخَمْسِ سِنِينَ وَتُوُفِّيَ بِطُوسَ فِي قَرْيَةِ يُقالُ لَها: سَناباذَ مِن رُسْتاق نَوْقانَ، وَدُفِنَ فِي دارِ حُمِيد بْنِ قَحْطَبَة الطَّائيّ فِي القُبَّةِ الَّتِي فِيها هارُونُ الرَّشِيد إِلى جانِبِهِ مِمَّا يَلي القِبْلَةَ وَذلِكَ فِي شَهْرِ رَمَضان لِتِسْعٍ بَقِينَ مِنْهُ يَوْمَ الجُمْعَةِ سَنَةَ ثَلاثِ وَمائتَيْنِ، وَقَدْ تَمَّ عُمْرُهُ تِسْعاً وَأَرْبَعِينَ سِنَةَ وَسِتَّةَ أَشْهُرٍ، مِنْها مَعَ أَبِيهِ مُوسَى بْنِ جَعْفَرعَلَيْهِمَا السَّلاَمُ تِسْعاً وَعِشْرِينَ سَنَةَ وَشَهْرَيْنِ، وَبَعْد أَبِيهِ أيَّام إِمامَتِهِ عِشْرِينَ سَنَةَ وَأَرْبَعَةَ أَشْهَر، وَقامَ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ بِالأَمرِ وَلهُ تِسْعٌ و عِشْرُونَ سَنَةِ وَشَهْرانِ وَكانَ فِي‏أيَّام إِمامَتِهِ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ بَقِيَّةُ مُلْكِ الرَّشِيد ثُمَّ مَلَكَ بَعْدَ الرَّشِيد مُحَمَّد المَعْرُوفُ بِالأَمِين وَهُوَ ابْنُ زُبَيْدَةَ ثَلاثَ سِنِينَ وَخَمْسَةً وَعِشْرِينَ يَوْماً ثُمَّ خُلِعَ الأَمِين وَاُجْلِسَ عَمُّهِ إِبْراهيمُ بْنُ شَكْلَةَ أَرْبَعَةَ عَشَرَ يَوْماً، ثُمَّ اُخْرِجَ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ زُبَيْدَةَ مِنَ الحَبْسِ و بُويِعَ لَهُ ثانِيَةً، وَجَلَسَ فِي المُلْكِ سَنَةَ وَسِتَّةِ أَشْهُرٍ وَثَلاثَةً وَعِشْرِينَ يَوْماً، ثُمَّ مَلَكَ عَبْدُاللَّهِ الْمَأمُونُ عِشْرِينَ سَنَةَ وَثَلاثَةً وَعِشْرِينَ يَوْماً، فَأَخَذَ البَيْعَةَ فِي مُلْكِهِ لِعَلِيِّ بْنِ مُوسَى الرِّضاعَلَيْهِمَا السَّلاَمُ بِعَهْدِ الْمُسْلِمِين مِنْ غَيْرِ رِضاهُ وَذلِكَ بَعْد أَنْ هَدَّدَهُ بِالْقَتْلِ وَأَلَحَّ عَلَيْه مَرَّةً بَعْد اُخْرى‏، فِي كُلِّها يَأْبى‏ عَلَيْهِ حَتّى‏ أَشْرَفَ مِنْ تَأَبِّيهِ عَلَى الهَلاكِ، فَقالَ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ:

«اَللَّهُمَّ إنَّكَ قَدْ نَهَيْتَنِي عَنِ الإلْقاءِ بِيَدِي إِلى التَّهْلُكَةِ، وَقَدْ أُكْرَهْتُ وَاضْطُرَرْتُ كَما أُشْرَفْتُ مِنْ قِبَلِ عَبْدِاللَّه الْمَأمُونِ عَلَى القَتْلِ مَتى‏ لَمْ أَقْبَلْ وِلايَةَ عَهْدِهِ، وَقَدْ أَكْرَهْتُ وَاضْطُرِرْتُ، كَما اضْطُرَّ يُوسِفُ وَدانِيال‏عَلَيْهِمَا السَّلاَمُ، إِذْ قَبْلَ كُلِّ واحِدٍ مِنْهُما الوِلايَة مِنْ طاغِيَةَ زَمانِه، اَللَّهُمَّ لا عَهْدَ لِي إِلاّ عَهْدَكَ وَلا وِلايَةَ لِي‏ إِلاّ من قِبَلِكَ فَوَفِّقْنِي لِإِقامَةَ دِينِكَ وَإِحْياءِ سُنَّةَ نَبِيَّكَ مُحَمَّد صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ فَإِنَّكَ أَنْتَ المَوْلى‏ وَأَنْتَ النَّصِير وَنِعْمَ المَوْلى‏ أَنْتَ وَنِعْمَ النَّصِير».

tears and silence on condition that he will not appoint anyone, dismiss anyone, or change any customs or traditions. He accepted to be a counselor on the affairs from a distance. Then Al-Ma’mun had all the people including his personal entourage, and the general public pledge allegiance to Imam Al-Ridha’ (a.s.). However, whenever one of the nobilities of Imam Al-Ridha’ (a.s.), his knowledge and good management ability was manifested in front of Al-Ma’mun; Al-Ma’mun became jealous of the Imam (a.s.) - up to the point that he could not bear it anymore. He then tricked Imam Al-Ridha’ (a.s.) and poisoned him to death to go to the Almighty God's Heaven and His Nobility.”

3-2 Tamim ibn Abdullah ibn Tamim al-Qurashi - may God be pleased with him - narrated that his father quoted on the authority of Ahmad ibn Ali Al-Ansari, on the authority of Ali ibn Maysam on the authority of his father, “I heard Najma, the mother of Imam Al-Ridha’ (a.s.), say, ‘When I was pregnant with my son Ali, I did not feel any burden. I used to hear God's praises, glorification and supplications from my stomach when I slept. I got scared hearing these sounds and woke up to hear nothing more when I was awake. Once I gave birth to my child, he put both of his hands on the ground, and raised his head towards the sky and moved his lips as if he was saying something.’ His father, Musa ibn Ja'far (a.s.) came to me said, ‘O Najma! Congratulations for this Divine Blessing that God has bestowed upon you.” Then I wrapped the baby in white cloth and handed him to Imam Al-Kazim (a.s.)3 He (a.s.) said the ‘Azan4 in his right ear and the Iqamah5 in his left ear. Then he (a.s.) asked for some water from the Euphrates River and gave the infant (Imam Ridha’) some of it. Then he gave the baby back to me and said, “Take him. He is God's Continuation (baqiyyatulah) on the Earth.”

  • 1. One of the months in the Arabic calendar
  • 2. The direction in which Muslims pray to or the Kaaba in Mecca.
  • 3. Imam Al-Ridha’'s father (a.s.)
  • 4. The general call to prayer
  • 5. The call to stand to pray