Table of Contents

Chapter 40: On The Reasons why Ali ibn Musa Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) accepted the succession to the throne from Al-Ma’mun, what Went On, those who were displeased and those who were pleased

40-1 Al-Mudhaffar ibn Ja’far ibn Al-Mudhaffar al-Alawi al-Samarqandi - may God be pleased with him - narrated that Ja’far ibn Muhammad ibn Mas’ood al-Ayyashi quoted on the authority of his father, on the authority of Muhammad ibn Nosayr, on the authority of Al-Hassan ibn Musa (al-Khashshab) that his companions1 quoted on the authority of Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) that a man asked him, “May God settle your affairs! Why did you accept this affair and go to Al-Ma’mun?2 He was somehow blaming the Imam (a.s.) for this. However, Abul Hassan Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) asked him, “Hey you! Please tell me whether a Prophet is nobler or a Trustee?” The man said, “Certainly a Prophet.” He (a.s.) asked, “Is a Muslim nobler or an atheist?” He replied, “Certainly a Muslim.” He (a.s.) said, “Indeed al-Aziz - the king of Egypt - was an atheist while Joseph (a.s.) was a Prophet. And Al-Ma’mun is a Muslim and I am a Trustee. Joseph (a.s.) asked al-Aziz to establish him as a leader when he asked the king of Egypt, “Set me over the store-houses of the land: I will indeed guard them, as one that knows (their importance)” But I was forced to do so. And when he (a.s.) said God’s words, ‘Set me over the store-houses of the land: I will indeed guard them, as one that knows (their importance).’3 He said that since he knew well how to take care of it and knew all the languages.

وَلا عَلَى مُخِّي وَلا عَلَى عَصَبِي وَلا عَلَى عِظَامِي وَلا عَلَى مَالِي وَلا عَلَى أَهْلِي وَلا عَلَى مَا رَزَقَنِي رَبِّي سَتَرْتُ بَيْنِي وَبَيْنَكَ بِسِتْرِ النُّبُوَّةِ الَّذِي اسْتَتَرَ بِهِ أَنْبِيَاءُ اللَّهِ مِنْ سُلْطَانِ الْفَرَاعِنَةِ جَبْرَئِيلُ، عَن يَمِينِي وَمِيكَائِيلُ، عَن يَسَارِي وَإِسْرَافِيلُ مِنْ وَرَائِي وَمُحَمَّدٌ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ أَمَامِي وَاللَّهُ مُطَّلِعٌ عَلَيَّ يَمْنَعُكَ مِنِّي وَيَمْنَعُ الشَّيْطَانَ مِنِّي اللَّهُمَّ لا يَغْلِبُ جَهْلُهُ أَنَاتَكَ أَنْ يَسْتَفِزَّنِي وَيَسْتَخِفَّنِي اللَّهُمَّ إِلَيْكَ الْتَجَأْتُ اللَّهُمَّ إِلَيْكَ الْتَجَأْتُ اللَّهُمَّ إِلَيْكَ الْتَجَأْتُ.

40

بابُ السَبَب الَّذِي مِن أَجَلِهِ قَبْلُ عَلِىُّ بْنُ مُوسَى الرِّضاعَلَيْهِمَا السَّلاَمُ وِلايَةَ الْعَهْدِ مِنَ‏الْمَأمُونِ، ذِكرِ ما جَرى‏ فِي ذلِكَ وَمَن كَرِهَهُ وَمَن رَضِيَ بِهِ وَغَيْرِ ذلِكَ‏

1 - حَدَّثَنا المُظَفَّر بْنِ جَعْفَرِ بْنِ المُظَفَّر العَلَوِي السَمَرْقَنْدِيُّ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ قالَ: حَدَّثَنا جَعْفَرِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ مَسْعُود العَيَّاشِيُّ، عَن أَبيهِ قالَ: حَدَّثَنا مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ نصير، عَن الحَسَن بْنِ مُوسَى قالَ رَوى‏ أَصْحابُنا عَنِ الرِّضا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ أَنَّهُ قَالَ لَهُ رَجُلٌ أَصْلَحَكَ اللَّهُ كَيْفَ صِرْتَ إِلَى مَا صِرْتَ إِلَيْهِ مِنَ الْمَأْمُونِ وَكَأَنَّهُ أَنْكَرَ ذَلِكَ عَلَيْهِ فَقَالَ لَهُ أَبُو الْحَسَنِ الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ يَا هَذَا أَيُّهُمَا أَفْضَلُ النَّبِيُّ أَوِ الْوَصِيُّ قَالَ لا بَلِ النَّبِيُّ قَالَ فَأَيُّهُمَا أَفْضَلُ مُسْلِمٌ أَوْ مُشْرِكٌ قَالَ لا بَلْ مُسْلِمٌ قَالَ فَإِنَّ الْعَزِيزَ عَزِيزَ مِصْرَ كَانَ مُشْرِكاً وَكَانَ يُوسُفُ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ نَبِيّاً وَإِنَّ الْمَأْمُونَ مسلما [مُسْلِمٌ] وَأَنَا وَصِيٌّ وَيُوسُفُ سَأَلَ الْعَزِيزَ أَنْ يُوَلِّيَهُ حِينَ قَالَ اجْعَلْنِي عَلى‏ خَزائِنِ الأَرْضِ إِنِّي حَفِيظٌ عَلِيمٌ وَأَنَا أُجْبِرْتُ عَلَى ذَلِكَ.

وَقَالَ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ فِي قَوْلِهِ اجْعَلْنِي عَلى‏ خَزائِنِ الأَرْضِ إِنِّي حَفِيظٌ عَلِيمٌ قَالَ حَافِظٌ لِمَا فِي يَدَيَّ عَالِمٌ بِكُلِّ لِسَانٍ.

40-2 Ahmad ibn Ziyad ibn Ja’far al-Hamadani - may God be pleased with him - narrated that Ali ibn Ibrahim ibn Hashem quoted on the authority of his father, on the authority of al-Rayyan ibn al-Salt, “I went to see Ali ibn Musa Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) and told him, “O son of the Prophet! The people say that although you show asceticism, you have accepted the succession to the throne.” He (a.s.) replied, “Indeed God knows how much I hated this. However when I was only given the choice to either accept this or be killed, I chose this (the acceptance of the succession to the throne) over being killed. Woe be to them! Do they not know that Joseph (a.s.), who was a Prophet, said the following to the King of Egypt when it was necessary to do so, ‘Set me over the store-houses of the land: I will indeed guard them, as one that knows (their importance).’4

I was also forced to accept this (the acceptance of the succession to the throne) even though I did not like to. I unwillingly accepted it when I was about to be killed. I accepted this affair like one who has no interest in it. And I will take my complaint to God on this issue and seek His Assistance.

40-3 Al-Husayn ibn Ibrahim ibn Tatana - may God be pleased with him - narrated that Ali ibn Ibrahim ibn Hashem quoted on the authority of his father Ibrahim ibn Hashem, on the authority of Abi Salt al-Harawi, “Indeed Al-Ma’mun told Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.), ‘O son of the Prophet of God! I recognized your knowledge, nobility, abstinence, piety and servitude. I have realized that you deserve to be the Caliph more than I do.’ Then Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) told him, ‘I am proud of servitude to God the Honorable the Exalted. I seek protection against the evils of this world through abstinence. I hope to attain prosperity and Divine Profit by practicing piety regarding the forbidden things. I hope to attain a high rank before God the Honorable the Exalted by being humble in this world.’ Al-Ma’mun told him, ‘I am planning to dismiss myself from the post of the Caliphate and assign you to that post and pledge allegiance to you.’ Then Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) told him, ‘If this Caliphate is yours, then God has established it for you and it is not proper for you to relieve yourself of it and place someone else in that position. But if it is not yours, you are not authorized to give what is not yours to me.’

Al-Ma’mun told him, ‘O son of the Prophet! You are forced to accept this order.’ Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) said, ‘I will never accept this willingly.’ Al-

2 - حَدَّثَنا أَحْمَدِ بْنِ زِيادِ بْنِ جَعْفَر الْهَمَذانيّ رَضِىَ اللهُ عَنْهُ قالَ: حَدَّثَنا عَلِىِّ بْنِ إِبراهِيمِ بْنِ هاشِم‏عَنْ الرَّيانِ بْنِ الصَّلْتِ قالَ دَخَلْتُ عَلَى عَلِيِّ بْنِ مُوسَى الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ فَقُلْتُ لَهُ يَا ابْنَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ إِنَّ النَّاسَ يَقُولُونَ إِنَّكَ قَبِلْتَ وِلايَةَ الْعَهْدِ مَعَ إِظْهَارِكَ الزُّهْدَ فِي الدُّنْيَا فَقَالَ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ قَدْ عَلِمَ اللَّهُ كَرَاهَتِي لِذَلِكَ فَلَمَّا خُيِّرْتُ بَيْنَ قَبُولِ ذَلِكَ وَبَيْنَ الْقَتْلِ اخْتَرْتُ الْقَبُولَ عَلَى الْقَتْلِ وَيْحَهُمْ أَمَا عَلِمُوا أَنَّ يُوسُفَ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ كَانَ نَبِيّاً رَسُولاً فَلَمَّا دَفَعَتْهُ الضَّرُورَةُ إِلَى تَوَلِّي خَزَائِنِ الْعَزِيزِ قَالَ لَهُ اجْعَلْنِي عَلى‏ خَزائِنِ الأَرْضِ إِنِّي حَفِيظٌ عَلِيمٌ وَدَفَعَتْنِي الضَّرُورَةُ إِلَى قَبُولِ ذَلِكَ عَلَى إِكْرَاهٍ وَإِجْبَارٍ بَعْدَ الإِشْرَافِ عَلَى الْهَلاكِ عَلَى أَنِّي مَا دَخَلْتُ فِي هَذَا الأَمْرِ إِلا دُخُولَ خَارِجٍ مِنْهُ فَإِلَى اللَّهِ الْمُشْتَكَى وَهُوَ الْمُسْتَعَانُ.

3 - حَدَّثَنا الحُسَيْنِ بْنِ إِبْراهيمِ بْنِ ناتانَةَ رَضِىَ اللهُ عَنْهُ قالَ: حَدَّثَنا عَلِىِّ بْنِ إِبراهِيمِ بْنِ هاشِم‏إِبْراهيمِ بْنِ هاشِم عَنْ أَبي الصَّلْتِ الهَرَوِيِّ قالَ إِنَّ الْمَأْمُونَ قَالَ لِلرِّضَا عَلِيِّ بْنِ مُوسَى‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ يَا ابْنَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ قَدْ عَرَفْتُ فَضْلَكَ وَعِلْمَكَ وَزُهْدَكَ وَوَرَعَكَ وَعِبَادَتَكَ وَأَرَاكَ أَحَقَّ بِالْخِلافَةِ مِنِّي فَقَالَ الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ بِالْعُبُودِيَّةِ لِلَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ أَفْتَخِرُ وَبِالزُّهْدِ فِي الدُّنْيَا أَرْجُو النَّجَاةَ مِنْ شَرِّ الدُّنْيَا وَبِالْوَرَعِ عَنِ الَْمحَارِمِ أَرْجُو الْفَوْزَ بِالْمَغَانِمِ وَبِالتَّوَاضُعِ فِي الدُّنْيَا أَرْجُو الرِّفْعَةَ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ فَقَالَ لَهُ الْمَأْمُونُ فَإِنِّي قَدْ رَأَيْتُ أَنْ أَعْزِلَ نَفْسِي عَنِ الْخِلافَةِ وَأَجْعَلَهَا لَكَ وَأُبَايِعَكَ فَقَالَ لَهُ الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ إِنْ كَانَتْ هَذِهِ الْخِلافَةُ لَكَ وَجَعَلَهَا اللَّهُ لَكَ فَلا يَجُوزُ أَنْ تَخْلَعَ لِبَاساً أَلْبَسَكَهُ اللَّهُ وَتَجْعَلَهُ لِغَيْرِكَ وَإِنْ كَانَتِ الْخِلافَةُ لَيْسَتْ لَكَ فَلا يَجُوزُ لَكَ أَنْ تَجْعَلَ لِي مَا لَيْسَ لَكَ فَقَالَ لَهُ الْمَأْمُونُ يَا ابْنَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ لا بُدَّ لَكَ مِنْ قَبُولِ هَذَا الأَمْرِ فَقَـالَ لَسْتُ أَفْعَلُ ذَلِكَ طَائِعاً أَبَداً

Ma’mun kept insisting on this issue day after day until he lost all hope. Then he said, ‘Now that you do not accept the Caliphate and do not let me pledge allegiance to you as the Caliph, you must accept the succession to the throne (to be the caliph after me).’ Then Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) told him, ‘I swear by God that my father (a.s.) narrated that his forefathers (a.s.) quoted on the authority of the Commander of the Faithful (a.s.), on the authority of God’s Prophet (S) that I will leave this world before you by being oppressively poisoned. The angels of the heavens and the Earth will cry for me. I will be buried in the land of loneliness next to Harun Al-Rashid.’ Then Al-Ma’mun cried. Then he asked, ‘O son of the Prophet of God! Who will kill you? Who will be able to or dare do such a thing to you for as long as I live?’ Then Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) said, ‘I will only introduce my murderer if I please.’ Al-Ma’mun said, ‘O son of the Prophet of God! Do you want to relieve yourself from accepting the succession to the throne with these words, so that the people say to themselves how greatly you abstain from the world?’ Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) said, ‘By God, I have never lied from the day God the Honorable the Exalted created me. I have not abstained from the world to attain this world. I know very well what it is that you are after.’ Al-Ma’mun asked, ‘What am I after?’ Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) replied, ‘Will you grant immunity for an honest answer?’ Al-Ma’mun said, ‘You are immune.’ Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) said, ‘You wish for the people to say: Ali ibn Musa (ar-Ridha’) (a.s.) has not abstained from the world. Rather it is the world that has abstained from him. Don’t you see how he accepted the succession to the throne in greed for the post of Caliphate?’ Then Al-Ma’mun became angry and said, ‘You constantly treat me in the way that I do not like, as if you are immune from my power. I swear by God that you must accept the succession to the throne yourself, or else I will force you to do so. If you accept it yourself it is fine. However, if you do not, I will chop off your head.’ Then Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) said, ‘Indeed God the Highest has admonished me against getting myself killed. If the situation is as you say, then do as you please. I will accept it under the condition that I do not interfere in dismissals or appointments, nor change any practices or traditions. I will just be a distant advisor.’ Al-Ma’mun accepted these conditions and established Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) as the successor to the throne, even though the Imam (a.s.) disliked it.

فَمَا زَالَ يُجْهِدُ بِهِ أَيَّاماً حَتَّى يَئِسَ مِنْ قَبُولِهِ فَقَالَ لَهُ فَإِنْ لَمْ تَقْبَلِ الْخِلافَةَ وَلَمْ تُحِبَّ مُبَايَعَتِي لَكَ فَكُنْ وَلِيَّ عَهْدِي لِتَكُونَ لَكَ الْخِلافَةُ بَعْدِي فَقَالَ الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ وَاللَّهِ لَقَدْ حَدَّثَنِي أَبِي، عَن آبَائِهِ، عَن أَمِيرِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ، عَن رَسُولِ اللَّهِ‏ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ أَنِّي أَخْرُجُ مِنَ الدُّنْيَا قَبْلَكَ مَقْتُولاً بِالسَّمِّ مَظْلُوماً تَبْكِي عَلَيَّ مَلائِكَةُ السَّمَاءِ وَمَلائِكَةُ الأَرْضِ وَأُدْفَنُ فِي أَرْضِ غُرْبَةٍ إِلَى جَنْبِ هَارُونَ الرَّشِيدِ فَبَكَى الْمَأْمُونُ ثُمَّ قَالَ لَهُ: يَا ابْنَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ وَمَنِ الَّذِي يَقْتُلُكَ أَوْ يَقْدِرُ عَلَى الإِسَاءَةِ إِلَيْكَ وَأَنَا حَيٌّ فَقَالَ الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ أَمَا إِنِّي لَوْ أَشَاءُ أَنْ أَقُولَ مَنِ الَّذِي يَقْتُلُنِي لَقُلْتُ فَقَالَ الْمَأْمُونُ يَا ابْنَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ إِنَّمَا تُرِيدُ بِقَوْلِكَ هَذَا التَّخْفِيفَ عَنْ نَفْسِكَ وَدَفْعِ هَذَا الأَمْرِ عَنْكَ لِيَقُولَ النَّاسُ أَنَّكَ زَاهِدٌ فِي الدُّنْيَا فَقَالَ الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ وَاللَّهِ مَا كَذَبْتُ مُنْذُ خَلَقَنِي رَبِّي عَزَّ وَجَلَّ وَمَا زَهِدْتُ فِي الدُّنْيَا لِلدُّنْيَا وَإِنِّي لاعْلَمُ مَا تُرِيدُ فَقَالَ الْمَأْمُونُ وَمَا أُرِيدُ قَالَ الأَمَانُ عَلَى الصِّدْقِ قَالَ لَكَ الأَمَانُ قَالَ تُرِيدُ بِذَلِكَ أَنْ يَقُولَ النَّاسُ إِنَّ عَلِيَّ بْنَ مُوسَى لَمْ يَزْهَدْ فِي الدُّنْيَا بَلْ زَهِدَتِ الدُّنْيَا فِيهِ أَلا تَرَوْنَ كَيْفَ قَبِلَ وِلايَةَ الْعَهْدِ طَمَعاً فِي الْخِلافَةِ فَغَضِبَ الْمَأْمُونُ ثُمَّ قَالَ: إِنَّكَ تَتَلَقَّانِي أَبَداً بِمَا أَكْرَهُهُ وَقَدْ آمَنْتَ سَطْوَتِي فَبِاللَّهِ أُقْسِمُ لَئِنْ قَبِلْتَ وِلايَةَ الْعَهْدِ وَإِلا أَجْبَرْتُكَ عَلَى ذَلِكَ فَإِنْ فَعَلْتَ وَإِلا ضَرَبْتُ عُنُقَكَ فَقَالَ الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ قَدْ نَهَانِيَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ أَنْ أُلْقِيَ بِيَدِي إِلَى التَّهْلُكَةِ فَإِنْ كَانَ الأَمْرُ عَلَى هَذَا فَافْعَلْ مَا بَدَا لَكَ وَأَنَا أَقْبَلُ ذَلِكَ عَلَى أَنِّي لا أُوَلِّي أَحَداً وَلا أَعْزِلُ أَحَداً وَلا أَنْقُضُ رَسْماً وَلا سُنَّةً وَأَكُونُ فِي الأَمْرِ مِنْ بَعِيدٍ مُشِيراً فَرَضِيَ مِنْهُ بِذَلِكَ وَجَعَلَهُ وَلِيَّ عَهْدِهِ عَلَى كَرَاهَةٍ مِنْهُ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ لِذَلِكَ.

40-4 Ali ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Imran al-Daqqaq - may God be pleased with him - narrated that Muhammad ibn Abi Abdullah al-Kufi quoted on the authority of Muhammad ibn Isma’il al-Barmaki, on the authority of Muhammad ibn Arafat that he asked Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.), “O son of the Prophet of God! What forced you to accept the succession to the throne?” The Imam (a.s.) replied, “The same thing which forced my grandfather the Commander of the Faithful (a.s.) to join the arbItraion council.”

40-5 Ali ibn Abdullah al-Var’raq - may God be pleased with him - narrated that Ali ibn Ibrahim ibn Hashem quoted on the authority of his father, on the authority of Abdil Salam ibn Salih al-Harawi, “By God! Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) did not accept this affair willingly. He was unwillingly taken to Kufa, then he was taken to Marv by way of Basra and Fars.”

40-6 Abu Muhammad Al-Hassan ibn Yahya al-Alawi Al-Husayni - may God be pleased with him - narrated in Medina that his grandfather Yahya ibn Al-Hassan ibn Ja’far ibn Ubaydillah ibn Al-Husayn quoted on the authority of Musa ibn Salamat, “I was in the province of Khorasan with Muhammad ibn Ja’far. Then I heard that one day Thul-Riasatayn Al-Fadhl ibn Sahl5 came out and said, ‘I have dreamt something amazing. Ask me what I saw.’ They asked, ‘May God maintain your health! What did you dream?’ He said, ‘I dreamt that the Commander of the Faithful tell Ali ibn Musa Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.), ‘I am planning to turn over the affairs of the Muslims to you, dismiss myself from the post of the Caliphate and put it on your shoulders.’ I saw that Ali ibn Musa (a.s.) replied, ‘By God! I do not have the power to do this, nor do I have the strength.’ Fadhl added, ‘I had never seen the Caliphate more belittled than that. The Commander of the Faithful resigns and hands it over to Ali ibn Musa (a.s.) , and Ali ibn Musa (a.s.) turns him down and rejects it.’

40-7 Al-Hakim Abu Ali Al-Husayn ibn Ahmad al-Bayhaqi narrated that Muhammad ibn Yahya al-Sowli quoted on the authority of Ahmad ibn Isma’il ibn al-Khaseeb, “When Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) was appointed as the successor to the throne, Ibrahim ibn Al-Abbas and De’bel ibn Ali went to see him. They did not separate from each other. Razin ibn Ali - De’bel’s brother - was also with them. They were robbed on the way and the thieves took all their property. They took refuge with some of the people who pick various herbs and rode their animals. Ibrahim said,

4 - حَدَّثَنا عَلِىِّ بْنِ أَحْمَدِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِمْران الدَّقَّاق رَضِىَ اللهُ عَنْهُ قالَ: حَدَّثَنا مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ أَبي‏الكُوفِي عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ إِسْمَاعِيل البرمكي، عَن مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عرفة قالَ قُلْتُ لِلرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ يَا ابْنَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ مَا حَمَلَكَ عَلَى الدُّخُولِ فِي وِلايَةِ الْعَهْدِ فَقَالَ مَا حَمَلَ جَدِّي أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ عَلَى الدُّخُولِ فِي الشُّورَى.

5 - حَدَّثَنا عَلِىِّ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّه الوَرَّاقُ رَضِىَ اللهُ عَنْهُ قالَ: حَدَّثَنا عَلِىِّ بْنِ إِبراهِيمِ بْنِ هاشِم، عَن أَبيهِ، عَن عَبْد السَّلامُ بْنِ صالِح الهَرَوِيِّ قالَ وَاللَّهِ مَا دَخَلَ الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ فِي هَذَا الأَمْرِ طَائِعاً وَقَدْ حُمِلَ إِلَى الْكُوفَةِ مُكْرَهاً ثُمَّ أُشْخِصَ مِنْهَا عَلَى طَرِيقِ الْبَصْرَةِ وَفَارِسَ إِلَى مَرْوَ.

6 - حَدَّثَنا أَبُو مُحَمَّد الحَسَن بْنِ يَحْيَى العَلَوِي الحُسَيْنِيِّ رَضِىَ اللهُ عَنْهُ بِمَدِينَة السَّلامُ قالَ أَخْبَرنِي جَدِّي يَحْيَى بْنِ الحَسَن بْنِ جَعْفَرِ بْنِ عُبِيْد اللَّه بْنِ الحُسَيْن قالَ حَدَّثَني مُوسَى بْنِ سلمة كُنْتُ بِخُرَاسَانَ مَعَ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ جَعْفَرٍ فَسَمِعْتُ أَنَّ ذَا الرِّئَاسَتَيْنِ الْفَضْلَ بْنَ سَهْلٍ خَرَجَ ذَاتَ يَوْمٍ وَهُوَ يَقُولُ وَا عَجَبَا لَقَدْ رَأَيْتُ عَجَباً سَلُونِي مَا رَأَيْتُ فَقَالُوا مَا رَأَيْتَ أَصْلَحَكَ اللَّهُ قَالَ رَأَيْتُ أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ يَقُولُ لِعَلِيِّ بْنِ مُوسَى‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ قَدْ رَأَيْتُ أَنْ أُقَلِّدَكَ أَمْرَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ وَأَفْسَخَ مَا فِي رَقَبَتِي وَأَجْعَلَهُ فِي رَقَبَتِكَ وَرَأَيْتُ عَلِيَّ بْنَ مُوسَى‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ يَقُولُ لَهُ اللَّهَ اللَّهَ لا طَاقَةَ لِي بِذَلِكَ وَلا قُوَّةَ فَمَا رَأَيْتُ خِلافَةً قَطُّ كَانَتْ أَضْيَعَ مِنْهَا أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ يَتَفَصَّى مِنْهَا وَيَعْرِضُهَا عَلَى عَلِيِّ بْنِ مُوسَى وَعَلِيُّ بْنُ مُوسَى يَرْفُضُهَا وَيَأْبَى.

7 - حَدَّثَنا الْحاكِم أَبُو عَلِي الحُسَيْنِ بْنِ أحْمَد الْبِيْهَقِيُّ قالَ حَدَّثَني مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ يَحْيَى الصُّوليُّ قالَ حَدَّثَني أَحْمَدِ بْنِ إِسْمَاعِيل بْنِ الخصيب قالَ: لَمَّا وُلِّيَ الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ الْعَهْدَ خَرَجَ إِلَيْهِ إِبْرَاهِيمُ بْنُ الْعَبَّاسِ وَدِعْبِلُ بْنُ عَلِيٍّ وَكَانَا لا يَفْتَرِقَانِ وَرَزِينُ بْنُ عَلِيٍّ أَخُو دِعْبِلٍ فَقُطِعَ عَلَيْهِمُ الطَّرِيقُ فَالْتَجَئُوا إِلَى أَنْ رَكِبُوا إِلَى بَعْضِ الْمَنَازِلِ حَمِيراً كَانَتْ تَحْمِلُ الشَّوْكَ فَقَالَ إِبْرَاهِيمُ:

“These animals who were carrying herbs are now carrying earthenware6.
Now we are going unconscious
but not due to being drunk.
Rather it is due to being extremely weak.”

Then he told Razin ibn Ali, “Finish this line up.” He added,

“If you were in your previous state of festivity
Your state would have been equal and you would not remain in disgrace.”

Then Ibrahim told De’bel, “O Aba Ali! Finish it.” He said,

“Now we have lost what we had.
Therefore be patient and take it easy
Let us spend the day.
I will even sell my shoes for our expenses.”

40-8 Al-Hakim Abu Ali Al-Husayn ibn Ahmad al-Bayhaqi narrated that Muhammad ibn Yahya al-Sowli quoted on the authority of Harun ibn Abdullah al-Mohallabi, “When Ibrahim ibn Al-Abbas and De’bel al-Khoza’ee reached Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) after the people had pledged allegiance to him, De’bel said,

‘The schools for the Qur’anic verses are void of reciting now
and the landing site of revelations is left like a barren desert!’
And Ibrahim ibn Al-Abbas recited the following,
‘After enduring calamities, they will remove the weariness of the hearts:
The shrines of the children of the Prophet Muhammad.’

Then Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) granted them twenty-thousand Dirhams which were coined in his name. De’bel went towards Qum with his share of ten-thousand Dirhams and exchanged each Dirham with ten other Dirhams. Thus he got one-hundred thousand Dirhams. Ibrahim had most of the money except for some which he had donated to some people or his family until he died - may God forgive him. The expenses for his shrouding and burial were paid for by using that money.

أُعِيدَتْ بَعْدَ حَمْلِ الشَّوْ

كِ أَحْمَالاً مِنَ الْخَزَفِ‏

نَشَاوَى لا مِنَ الْخَمْرَ

ةِ بَلْ مِنْ شِدَّةِ الضَّعْفِ‏

ثُمَّ قَالَ لِرَزِينِ بْنِ عَلِيٍّ أَجِزْهَا فَقَالَ:

فَلَوْ كُنْتُمْ عَلَى ذَاكَ

تَصِيرُونَ إِلَى الْقَصْفِ‏

تَسَاوَتْ حَالُكُمْ فِيهِ

وَلا تَبْقَوْا عَلَى الْخَسْفِ‏

ثُمَّ قَالَ لِدِعْبِلٍ أَجِزْ يَا أَبَا عَلِيٍّ فَقَالَ:

إِذَا فَاتَ الَّذِي فَاتَ

فَكُونُوا مِنْ ذَوِي الظَّرْفِ‏

وَخُفُّوا نَقْصِفُ الْيَوْمَ

فَإِنِّي بَائِعُ خُفِّي‏

8 - حَدَّثَنا الْحاكِم أَبُو عَلِي الحُسَيْنِ بْنِ أحْمَد الْبِيْهَقِيُّ قالَ حَدَّثَني مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ يَحْيَى الصُّوليُّ قالَ حَدَّثَني هارُون بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّه المهلبي قالَ لَمَّا وَصَلَ إِبْرَاهِيمُ بْنُ الْعَبَّاسِ وَدِعْبِلُ بْنُ عَلِيٍّ إِلَى الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ وَقَدْ بُويِعَ لَهُ بِالْعَهْدِ أَنْشَدَهُ دِعْبِلٌ:

مَدَارِسُ آيَاتٍ خَلَتْ مِنْ تِلاوَةٍ

وَمَنْزِلُ وَحْيٍ مُقْفِرُ الْعَرَصَاتِ‏

وَأَنْشَدَهُ إِبْرَاهِيمُ بْنُ الْعَبَّاسِ:

أَزَالَ عَزَاءَ الْقَلْبِ بَعْدَ التَّجَلُّدِ

مَصَارِعُ أَوْلادِ النَّبِيِّ مُحَمَّدٍ

فَوَهَبَ لَهُمَا عِشْرِينَ أَلْفَ دِرْهَمٍ مِنَ الدَّرَاهِمِ الَّتِي عَلَيْهَا اسْمُهُ كَانَ الْمَأْمُونُ أَمَرَ بِضَرْبِهَا فِي ذَلِكَ الْوَقْتِ قَالَ فَأَمَّا دِعْبِلٌ فَصَارَ بِالْعَشَرَةِ آلافٍ الَّتِي حِصَّتُهُ إِلَى قُمَّ فَبَاعَ كُلَّ دِرْهَمٍ بِعَشَرَةِ دَرَاهِمَ فَتَخَلَّصَتْ لَهُ مِائَةُ أَلْفِ دِرْهَمٍ وَأَمَّا إِبْرَاهِيمُ فَلَمْ تَزَلْ عِنْدَهُ بَعْدَ أَنْ أَهْدَى بَعْضَهَا وَفَرَّقَ بَعْضَهَا عَلَى أَهْلِهِ إِلَى أَنْ تُوُفِّيَ رَحِمَهُ اللَّهُ فَكَانَ كَفَنُهُ وَجَهَازُهُ مِنْهَا.

40-9 Ahmad ibn Yahya al-Mokattib narrated that Abul Tayyeb Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Warraq quoted on the authority of Ali ibn Harun al-Hemayri, on the authority of Ali ibn Muhammad ibn Soleiman al-Nowafali, “When Al-Ma’mun established Ali ibn Musa (a.s.) as his successor to the throne, the poets came to Al-Ma’mun and praised Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.). Al-Ma’mun gave them rewards since the poems that they uttered were in line with Al-Ma’mun’s viewpoints. All the famous poets came except Abu Nuwas. He did not come and did not praise Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.). When he visited Al-Ma’mun, Al-Ma’mun said, ‘O Abu Nuwas! You know the position that Ali ibn Musa Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) has in my sight, and how much I respect him. Then why did you procrastinate in praising him for this position while you are the best poet of the time?’ Then Abu Nuwas said,

It was said to me that mine was the best rhyme,
Articulate in arts of brilliant speech and chime,
That I have pearls of beautiful speech
Bearing fruits in the hands that can reach;
‘So why did you refuse to praise the son
Of Musa, and equal to his merits is none?’
I said how could I possibly praise and be fair
To one whose father Gabriel did serve and care?’

Al-Ma’mun said, “Very well said.” He granted him as much reward as he had granted the other poets altogether and considered him to be high above them all.

40-10 Al-Husayn ibn Ibrahim ibn Ahmad ibn Hisham al-Mokattib - may God have Mercy upon him - narrated that Ali ibn Ibrahim ibn Hashem quoted on the authority of his father, on the authority of Abul Hassan Muhammad ibn Yahya al-Farsi, “One day Abu Nuwas looked at Abil Hassan Ali ibn Musa Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) riding on a mule, after he had left Al-Ma’mun. He stepped forward, greeted him (a.s.) and said, ‘O son of the Prophet! I have composed a few verses about you and would like you to hear them.’ Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) said, ‘Let us hear them,’ so he said,

9 - حَدَّثَنا أَحْمَدِ بْنِ يَحْيَى المكتب قالَ: حَدَّثَنا أَبُو الطَّيِّبِ أَحْمَدِ بْنِ مُحَمَّد الوَرَّاقُ قالَ‏عَلِىِّ بْنِ هارُونَ الحِمْيَريُّ قالَ: حَدَّثَنا عَلِىِّ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ سُلَيْمان النُّوفَلِيِّ قالَ إِنَّ الْمَأْمُونَ لَمَّا جَعَلَ عَلِيَّ بْنَ مُوسَى الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ وَلِيَّ عَهْدِهِ وَإِنَّ الشُّعَرَاءَ قَصَدُوا الْمَأْمُونَ وَوَصَلَهُمْ بِأَمْوَالٍ جَمَّةٍ حِينَ مَدَحُوا الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ وَصَوَّبُوا رَأْيَ الْمَأْمُونِ فِي الأَشْعَارِ دُونَ أَبِي نُوَاسٍ فَإِنَّهُ لَمْ يَقْصِدْهُ وَلَمْ يَمْدَحْهُ وَدَخَلَ إِلَى الْمَأْمُونِ فَقَالَ لَهُ يَا أَبَا نُوَاسٍ قَدْ عَلِمْتَ مَكَانَ عَلِيِّ بْنِ مُوسَى الرِّضَا مِنِّي وَمَا أَكْرَمْتُهُ بِهِ فَلِمَاذَا أَخَّرْتَ مَدْحَهُ وَأَنْتَ شَاعِرُ زَمَانِكَ وَقَرِيعُ دَهْرِكَ فَأَنْشَأَ يَقُولُ:

قِيلَ لِي أَنْتَ أَوْحَدُ النَّاسِ طُرّاً

لَكَ مِنْ جَوْهَرِ الْكَلامِ بَدِيعٌ

فَعَلَى مَا تَرَكْتَ مَدْحَ ابْنِ مُوسَى

قُلْتُ لا أَهْتَدِي لِمَدْحِ إمَامٍ

فِي فُنُونٍ مِنَ الْكَلامِ النَّبِيهِ

يُثْمِرَ الدُّرَّ فِي يَدَيْ مُجْتَنِيهِ

وَالخِصَالَ الَّتِي تَجَمَّعْنَ فِيهِ

كَانَ جِبْرِيلُ خَادِماً لأَبِيهِ

فَقَالَ لَهُ الْمَأْمُونُ أَحْسَنْتَ وَوَصَلَهُ مِنَ الْمَالِ بِمِثْلِ الَّذِي وَصَلَ بِهِ كَافَّةَ الشُّعَرَاءِ وَفَضَّلَهُ عَلَيْهِمْ.

10 - حَدَّثَنا الحُسَيْنِ بْنِ إِبْراهيمِ بْنِ أَحْمَدِ بْنِ هِشامِ المكتب رَحْمَةُ اللَّه قالَ: حَدَّثَناإِبْراهيمِ بْنِ هاشِم، عَن أَبيهِ قالَ: حَدَّثَنا أَبُو الحَسَن مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ يَحْيَى الفارْسِيِّ قالَ نَظَرَ أَبُو نُوَاسٍ إِلَى أَبِي الْحَسَنِ عَلِيِّ بْنِ مُوسَى الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ ذَاتَ يَوْمٍ وَقَدْ خَرَجَ مِنْ عِنْدِ الْمَأْمُونِ عَلَى بَغْلَةٍ لَهُ فَدَنَا مِنْهُ أَبُو نُوَاسٍ فَسَلَّمَ عَلَيْهِ وَقَالَ يَا ابْنَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ قَدْ قُلْتُ فِيكَ أَبْيَاتاً فَأُحِبُّ أَنْ تَسْمَعَهَا مِنِّي قَالَ هَاتِ فَأَنْشَأَ يَقُولُ:

Cleansed and Purified are they,
When mentioned, they are sanctified,
Wherever they may be, near or far;
When roots and lines are identified,
If not Alawides, they indeed are
With nothing to boast or pride
In their lineage, in their deed;
For when God created man and eyed
You He selected and favoured indeed
And raised above the rest and all
With the knowledge of His Qur'an
And its verses hold your head high!’

Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) said, ‘You have composed poetry that nobody else has been able to do so far.’ Then Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) asked his servant, ‘O young man! Is any of our spending money left?’ He replied, ‘Yes. Three hundred Dinars is left.’ The Imam (a.s.) said, ‘Give it all to him (the poet).’ Then the Imam (a.s.) said, ‘O young man! He may consider that not to be enough. Thus give him the mule, too.’ When the year 201 A.H. (816 A.D.) arrived, Ishaq ibn Musa ibn Isa ibn Musa became the head of the pilgrimage caravan to Hajj. He prayed for Al-Ma’mun and for Ali ibn Musa Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) to succeed him as the successor to the throne (in his sermon). Then Hamdooyeh ibn Ali ibn Isa ibn Mahan objected. Ishaq asked (his servant) for his own official black clothing. Since he did not find it, he grabbed a black flag, wrapped it around himself and told the people, ‘O people! I informed you of what I was ordered to. Now I only acknowledge the Commander of the Faithful - Al-Ma’mun and Al-Fadhl ibn Sahl.’ Then he stepped down (from the pulpit).

40-11 In Ilaq, Abu Nasr Muhammad ibn Al-Hassan ibn Ibrahim al-Karkhi al-Katib narrated that Abul Hassan Muhammad ibn Saqr al-Ghassani quoted on the authority of Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Yahya al-Sowli saying that he had heard Abal Abbas Muhammad ibn Yazid al-Mobarrid state, “One day when Abu Nuwas left his house, he saw someone riding on an animal. He did not see his face. He asked who he was. They told him he was Ali ibn Musa Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.). Then Abu Nuwas recited the following poem:

مُطَهَّرُونَ نَقِيّاتٌ ثِيَابُهُمُ

مَنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ عَلَوِيّاً حِينَ تَنْسِبُهُ

فَاللهُ لَمَّا بَرَا خَلْقاً فَأَتْقَنَهُ

فَأَنْتُمُ المَلأُ الأَعْلَى وَعِنْدَكُمُ

تَجْرِي الصَّلاةُ عَلَيْهِمْ أَيْنَمَا ذُكِرُوا

فَمَا لَهُ مِنْ قَدِيمِ الدَّهْرِ مُفْتَخَرُ

صَفَاكُمُ وَاصْطَفَاكُمْ أَيُّهاَ البَشَرُ

عِلْمُ الْكِتَابِ وَمَا جَاءَتْ بِهِ السِّوَرُ

فَقَالَ الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ قَدْ جِئْتَنَا بِأَبْيَاتٍ مَا سَبَقَكَ إِلَيْهَا أَحَدٌ ثُمَّ قَالَ: يَا غُلامُ هَلْ مَعَكَ مِنْ نَفَقَتِنَا شَيْ‏ءٌ فَقَالَ ثَلاثُمِائَةِ دِينَارٍ فَقَالَ أَعْطِهَا إِيَّاهُ ثُمَّ قَالَ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ: لَعَلَّهُ اسْتَقَلَّهَا يَا غُلامُ سُقْ إِلَيْهِ الْبَغْلَةَ وَلَمَّا كَانَتْ سَنَةُ إِحْدَى وَمِائَتَيْنِ حَجَّ بِالنَّاسِ إِسْحَاقُ بْنُ مُوسَى بْنِ عِيسَى بْنِ مُوسَى وَدَعَا لِلْمَأْمُونِ وَلِعَلِيِّ بْنِ مُوسَى‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ مِنْ بَعْدِهِ بِوِلايَةِ الْعَهْدِ فَوَثَبَ إِلَيْهِ حَمْدَوَيْهِ بْنُ عَلِيِّ بْنِ عِيسَى بْنِ مُوسَى بْنِ عِيسَى بْنِ مَاهَانَ فَدَعَا إِسْحَاقُ بِسَوَادٍ لِيَلْبَسَهُ فَلَمْ يَجِدْهُ فَأَخَذَ عَلَماً أَسْوَدَ فَالْتَحَفَ بِهِ وَقَالَ أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنِّي قَدْ بَلَّغْتُكُمْ مَا أُمِرْتُ بِهِ وَلَسْتُ أَعْرِفُ إِلا أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ الْمَأْمُونَ وَالْفَضْلَ بْنَ سَهْلٍ ثُمَّ نَزَلَ وَدَخَلَ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ مُطَرِّفِ بْنِ مَاهَانَ عَلَى الْمَأْمُونِ يَوْماً وَعِنْدَهُ عَلِيُّ بْنُ مُوسَى الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ فَقَالَ لَهُ الْمَأْمُونُ مَا تَقُولُ فِي أَهْلِ الْبَيْتِ فَقَالَ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ مَا قَوْلِي فِي طِينَةٍ عُجِنَتْ بِمَاءِ الرِّسَالَةِ وَغُرِسَتْ بِمَاءِ الْوَحْيِ هَلْ يُنْفَحُ مِنْهَا إِلا مِسْكُ الْهُدَى وَعَنْبَرُ التُّقَى قَالَ فَدَعَا الْمَأْمُونُ بِحُقَّةٍ فِيهَا لُؤْلُؤٌ فَحَشَا فَاهُ‏

11 - حَدَّثَنا أَبُو نَصْرِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الحَسَن بْنِ إِبْراهيم الكرخي الكاتب بإيلاق قالَ: حَدَّثَناالحَسَن مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ صقر الغسانِي قالَ: حَدَّثَنا أَبُو بَكْرِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ يَحْيَى الصُّوليُّ قالَ سَمِعْتُ أَبَا العَبَّاس مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ يَزِيد المبرد يَقُولُ: خَرَجَ أَبُو نُوَاسٍ ذَاتَ يَوْمٍ مِنْ دَارِهِ فَبَصُرَ بِرَاكِبٍ قَدْ حَاذَاهُ فَسَأَلَ عَنْهُ وَلَمْ يَرَ وَجْهَهُ فَقِيلَ إِنَّهُ عَلِيُّ بْنُ مُوسَى الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ فَأَنْشَأَ يَقُولُ:

Had the eyes sought you for a goal,
And the mind doubted you and the soul,
The heart would surely you recognize
Even when not seen by the eyes.
If people wish to see you, but do not know,
Your fragrance will tell them where to go.

40-12 Al-Hakim Abu Ali Al-Husayn ibn Ahmad al-Bayhaqi narrated that Muhammad ibn Yazid al-Mobarrid quoted on the authority of al-Jahiz, on the authority of Thumama ibn Ashras that one day Al-Ma’mun told Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) that he had made Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) the successor to the throne with an air of indebtedness. The Imam (a.s.) told him, “Whoever has joined the Prophet of God (a.s.) should be this way. We also have words from Ali ibn Al-Husayn (a.s.) with a similar content.”

Al-Hakim Abu Ali Al-Husayn ibn Ahmad al-Bayhaqi narrated that Muhammad ibn Yahya al-Sowli quoted on the authority of Muhammad ibn Zakariyya al-Gholami, on the authority of Ahmad ibn Isa ibn Zayd ibn Ali - who was a refugee in hiding for sixty years - quoted on the authority of his uncle, on the authority of Ja’far ibn Muhammad As-Sadiq (a.s.), “Ali ibn Al-Husayn (a.s.) never traveled with anyone unless they did not know him. He also used to set a condition for them being that he should take care of all their needs. Once he (Ali ibn Al-Husayn (a.s.)) was traveling with such a group of people. However, one of the men recognized him and told the others, “Do you realize who this man is?” They said, “No.” He said, “This is Ali ibn Al-Husayn (a.s.).” The people fell to his feet, kissed his hands and feet and said, “O son of the Prophet of God! Do you want us to burn in the Fire of Hell? Will we not be ruined for as long as the world lasts, if we should ever insult you?” He said, “I am worried about being treated as before. Once I was traveling with some people who knew me. They treated me the way that I did not deserve to be treated - due to their respect for God’s Prophet (S). That is why I prefer to not disclose my identity.”

40-13 Al-Hakim Abu Ali Al-Husayn ibn Ahmad al-Bayhaqi narrated that Muhammad ibn Yahya al-Sowli quoted on the authority of Al-Mogheera ibn Muhammad, on the authority of Harun Al-Farawi, “When the news of

إِذَا أَبْصَرَتْكَ الْعَيْنُ مِنْ بَعْدِ غَايَةٍ

وَلَوْ أَنَّ قَوْماً أَمَّمُوكَ لَقَادَهُمْ

وَعَارَضَ فِيكَ الشَّكُّ أَثْبَتَكَ الْقَلْبُ

نَسِيمُكَ حَتّى يَسْتَدِلَّ بِكَ الرَّكْبُ

12 - حَدَّثَنا الْحاكِم أَبُو عَلِي الحُسَيْنِ بْنِ أحْمَد الْبِيْهَقِيُّ قالَ: حَدَّثَنا مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ يَحْيَى الصُّوليُّ قالَ: حَدَّثَنا مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ يَزِيد المبرد قالَ حَدَّثَني الحافِظُ، عَن ثمامة بْنِ أشرس قالَ: عَرَضَ الْمَأْمُونُ يَوْماً لِلرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ بِالامْتِنَانِ عَلَيْهِ بِأَنْ وَلاهُ الْعَهْدَ فَقَالَ لَهُ إِنَّ مَنْ أَخَذَ بِرَسُولِ اللَّهِ لَخَلِيقٌ أَنْ يُعْطِيَ بِهِ.

وَلِعَلِيِّ بْنِ الحُسَيْن‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ كلام فِي هذا النحو.

حَدَّثَنا الْحاكِم أَبُو عَلِي الحُسَيْنِ بْنِ أحْمَد الْبِيْهَقِيُّ قالَ حَدَّثَني مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ يَحْيَى الصُّوليُّ قالَ‏مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ زَكَرِيَّا الغلانِي قالَ: حَدَّثَنا أَحْمَدِ بْنِ عِيسَى بْنِ زِيْد بْنِ عَلِى وَكانَ مستترا ستين سِنَةَ قالَ: حَدَّثَنا عَمِّي قالَ: حَدَّثَنا جَعْفَرِ بْنِ مُحَمَّد الصَّادِق‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ قالَ كانَ عَلِيُّ بْنُ الْحُسَيْنِ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ لا يُسَافِرُ إِلا مَعَ رِفْقَةٍ لا يَعْرِفُونَهُ وَيَشْتَرِطُ عَلَيْهِمْ أَنْ يَكُونَ مِنْ خَدَمِ الرِّفْقَةِ فِيَما يَحْتَاجُونَ إِلَيْهِ فَسَافَرَ مَرَّةً مَعَ قَوْمٍ فَرَآهُ رَجُلٌ فَعَرَفَهُ فَقَالَ لَهُمْ أَتَدْرُونَ مَنْ هَذَا فَقَالُوا لا قَالَ هَذَا عَلِيُّ بْنُ الْحُسَيْنِ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ فَوَثَبُوا إِلَيْهِ فَقَبَّلُوا يَدَهُ وَرِجْلَهُ وَقَالُوا يَا ابْنَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ أَرَدْتَ أَنْ تُصْلِيَنَا نَارَ جَهَنَّمَ لَوْ بَدَرَتْ مِنَّا إِلَيْكَ يَدٌ أَوْ لِسَانٌ أَمَا كُنَّا قَدْ هَلَكْنَا إِلَى آخِرِ الدَّهْرِ فَمَا الَّذِي يَحْمِلُكَ عَلَى هَذَا فَقَالَ إِنِّي كُنْتُ سَافَرْتُ مَرَّةً مَعَ قَوْمٍ يَعْرِفُونَنِي فَأَعْطَوْنِي بِرَسُولِ اللَّهِ‏ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ مَا لا أَسْتَحِقُّ فَإِنِّي أَخَافُ أَنْ تُعْطُونِي مِثْلَ ذَلِكَ فَصَارَ كِتَْمانُ أَمْرِي أَحَبَّ إِلَيَّ.

13 - حَدَّثَنا الْحاكِم أَبُو عَلِي الحُسَيْنِ بْنِ أحْمَد الْبِيْهَقِيُّ قالَ حَدَّثَني مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ يَحْيَى الصُّوليُّ قالَ: حَدَّثَنا المغيرة بْنِ مُحَمَّد قالَ: حَدَّثَنا هـارُون الفروي قالَ لَمَّـا جَـاءَتْنَا بَيْعَةُ

Ar-Ridha’’s (a.s.) successorship to the Throne of Al-Ma’mun reached us in Medina, Abdul Jab’bar ibn Sa’eed ibn Soleiman al-Mosahaqi declared it to the people at the end of his sermon. He said, “Do you realize who the successor to the throne is? They said, “No.” He said, “It is Ali ibn Musa ibn Ja’far ibn Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Al-Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (a.s.).

Seven forefathers - what ancestors7
who are the best to drink in the direction of the clouds.8

40-14 Al-Hakim Abu Ali Al-Husayn ibn Ahmad al-Bayhaqi narrated that Muhammad ibn Yahya al-Sowli quoted on the authority of Ahmad ibn Al-Qasim ibn Isma’il that he had heard Ibrahim ibn Al-Abbas say, “When Al-Ma’mun pledged allegiance to Ali ibn Musa Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.), the Imam (a.s.) told him, ‘O Commander of the Faithful! It is obligatory to be sincere with you. It is not proper for a believer to be tricky. The masses of the people do not like what you did to me. Especially, the elites do not like what you did with Al-Fadhl ibn Sahl. Now it is best for you to send both of us away from yourself until you can manage your own affairs.’” Ibrahim said, “By God! It was these words which resulted in what happened to him (death).”

40-15 Al-Hakim Abu Ali Al-Husayn ibn Ahmad al-Bayhaqi narrated that Muhammad ibn Yahya al-Sowli quoted on the authority of Muhammad ibn Yazid al-Nahvi, on the authority of Ibn Abi Abdoon, on the authority of his father, “When Al-Ma’mun pledged allegiance to Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.), Al-Ma’mun had him (a.s.) sit next to himself. Abbas - the orator - stood up, delivered a good speech and ended it with the following poem:

People can’t live without the sun and the moon
Now you are the sun and he is the moon.9

40-16 Al-Hakim Abu Ali Al-Husayn ibn Ahmad al-Bayhaqi narrated that Muhammad ibn Yahya al-Sowli quoted on the authority of Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Ishaq, on the authority of his father, “When they pledged allegiance to Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.), the people gathered around him and congratulated him. He made a gesture to them to become silent and after hearing their words, he said, ‘In the Name of God, the Beneficent, the Merciful. Praise be to God who does whatever He wills. No one can object to His Decrees. No one can reject His Destiny. He knows whatever

الْمَأْمُونِ لِلرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ بِالْعَهْدِ إِلَى الْمَدِينَةِ خَطَبَ بِهَا النَّاسَ عَبْدُ الْجَبَّارِ بْنُ سَعِيدِ بْنِ سُلَيَْمانَ الْمُسَاحِقِيُّ فَقَالَ فِي آخِرِ خُطْبَتِهِ أَتَدْرُونَ مَنْ وَلِيُّ عَهْدِكُمْ هَذَا عَلِيُّ بْنُ مُوسَى بْنِ جَعْفَرِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ عَلِيِّ بْنِ أَبِي طَالِبٍ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ:

سَبْعَةُ آبَاؤُهُمُ مَنْ هُمْ‏

أَخْيَرُ مَنْ يَشْرَبُ صَوْبَ الْغَمَام‏

14 - حَدَّثَنا الْحاكِم أَبُو عَلِي الحُسَيْنِ بْنِ أحْمَد الْبِيْهَقِيُّ قالَ حَدَّثَني مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ يَحْيَى الصُّوليُّ قالَ: حَدَّثَنا أَحْمَدِ بْنِ القاسِم بْنِ إِسْمَاعِيل قالَ سَمِعْتُ إِبْراهيمِ بْنِ العَبَّاسِ يَقُولُ: لَمَّا عَقَدَ الْمَأْمُونُ الْبَيْعَةَ لِعَلِيِّ بْنِ مُوسَى الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ قَالَ لَهُ الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ يَا أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ إِنَّ النُّصْحَ وَاجِبٌ لَكَ وَالْغِشَّ لا يَنْبَغِي لِمُؤْمِنٍ إِنَّ الْعَامَّةَ لَتَكْرَهُ مَا فَعَلْتَ بِي وَالْخَاصَّةَ تَكْرَهُ مَا فَعَلْتَ بِالْفَضْلِ بْنِ سَهْلٍ وَالرَّأْيُ لَكَ أَنْ تُبْعِدَنَا عَنْكَ حَتَّى يَصْلُحَ لَكَ أَمْرُكَ قَالَ إِبْرَاهِيمُ فَكَانَ وَاللَّهِ قَوْلُهُ هَذَا السَّبَبَ فِي الَّذِي آلَ الأَمْرُ إِلَيْهِ.

15 - حَدَّثَنا الْحاكِم أَبُو عَلِي الحُسَيْنِ بْنِ أحْمَد الْبِيْهَقِيُّ قالَ حَدَّثَني مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ يَحْيَى الصُّوليُّ قالَ: حَدَّثَنا مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ يَزِيد النحوي قالَ حَدَّثَني ابْنِ أَبي عَبْدون، عَن أَبيهِ قالَ لَمَّا بَايَعَ الْمَأْمُونُ الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ بِالْعَهْدِ أَجْلَسَهُ إِلَى جَانِبِهِ فَقَامَ الْعَبَّاسُ الْخَطِيبُ فَتَكَلَّمَ فَأَحْسَنَ ثُمَّ خَتَمَ ذَلِكَ بِأَنْ أَنْشَدَ:

لا بُدَّ لِلنَّاسِ مِنْ شَمْسٍ وَمِنْ قَمَرٍ

فَأَنْتَ شَمْسٌ وَهَذَا ذَلِــكَ الْقَمَر

16 - حَدَّثَنا الْحاكِم أَبُو عَلِي الحُسَيْنِ بْنِ أحْمَد الْبِيْهَقِيُّ قالَ حَدَّثَني مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ يَحْيَى الصُّوليُّ قالَ حَدَّثَني أَحْمَدِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ إِسْحاق قالَ: حَدَّثَنا أَبي قالَ لَمَّا بُويِعَ الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ بِالْعَهْدِ اجْتَمَعَ النَّاسُ إِلَيْهِ يُهَنِّئُونَهُ فَأَوْمَأَ إِلَيْهِمْ فَأَنْصَتُوا ثُمَّ قَالَ بَعْدَ أَنِ اسْتَمَعَ كَلامَهُمْ: بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ‏. الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ الْفَعَّالِ لِمَا يَشَاءُ، لا مُعَقِّبَ لِحُكْمِهِ، وَلا رَادَّ لِقَضَائِهِ، يَعْلَمُ خــائِنَةَ الأَعْيُنِ وَمــا تُخْفِي الصُّدُورُ، وَصَلَّى اللَّهُ عَـلَى مُحَمَّدٍ فِي الأَوَّلِينَ

treason that lies in one’s heart from the sight and whatever is hidden in the hearts. May God’s Blessings be upon Muhammad, upon the first and the last creatures, upon his good and pure Household.’ He then added, ‘I am Ali ibn Musa ibn Ja’far. Indeed the Commander of the Faithful (Al-Ma’mun) - may God assist him in righteousness and make him successful in being rational - has recognized one of our rights which others were ignorant about. He has established ties of kinship which others have broken. He has granted security to people who lived in fear. He even revived them and rescued them from destruction. He enriched them when they were in need. He was seeking the pleasure of the Lord of the Two Worlds in doing all this. He did not ask anyone but Him to reward him. God will reward the ones who are grateful. He will not let the reward of the good-doers be forgotten. He turned over the succession to the throne to me. He has entrusted his great rule to me after him. And whoever breaks a contract that God has ordered to be safeguarded, and loosens ties which God likes to be tightened has indeed underestimated God’s Bounds, and has allowed what God has forbidden. In this way, he has denied the leader of his right and has disobeyed his orders. He has thus disrespected Islam as was done in the past. The Trustee (Ali ibn Abi Talib (a.s.)) put up with all the instances of breaching of the covenants, and did not even object to those later when he was in power, fearing dispersion in the religion and turmoil in the ties which held the Muslims together. This was because the ideas of the Age of Ignorance were still in their minds and the hypocrites were on the watch to get a chance to create havoc. Now I do not know what is going to happen to me and you. Indeed there is no arbitrator but God. He is the only One who clarifies the truth. He is the best Separator.”

40-17 Abu Ali Al-Husayn ibn Ahmad al-Bayhaqi narrated that Muhammad ibn Yahya al-Sowli quoted on the authority of Al-Hassan ibn Al-Jahm, on the authority of his father, “When Al-Ma’mun pledged allegiance to Ali ibn Musa Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.), he climbed up the pulpit and said, ‘O people! You were informed of the news of the pledge of allegiance to Ali ibn Musa ibn Ja’far ibn Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Al-Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib. By God, if they read these names to the deaf and dumb, they will be healed by the permission of God the Honorable the Exalted.’”

وَالآْخِرِينَ وَعَلَى آلِهِ الطَّيِّبِينَ أَقُولُ وَأَنَا عَلِيُّ بْنُ مُوسَى بْنِ جَعْفَرٍ إِنَّ أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ عَضَّدَهُ اللَّهُ بِالسَّدَادِ وَوَفَّقَهُ لِلرَّشَادِ عَرَفَ مِنْ حَقَّنَا مَا جَهِلَهُ غَيْرُهُ فَوَصَلَ أَرْحَاماً قُطِعَتْ وَآمَنَ أَنْفُساً فُزِعَتْ بَلْ أَحْيَاهَا وَقَدْ تَلِفَتْ وَأَغْنَاهَا إِذَا افْتَقَرَتْ مُبْتَغِياً رِضَا رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ لا يُرِيدُ جَزَاءً مِنْ غَيْرِهِ وَسَيَجْزِي اللَّهُ الشَّاكِرِينَ وَلا يُضِيعُ أَجْرَ الُْمحْسِنِينَ وَإِنَّهُ جَعَلَ إِلَيَّ عَهْدَهُ وَالإِمْرَةَ الْكُبْرَى إِنْ بَقِيتُ بَعْدَهُ فَمَنْ حَلَّ عُقْدَةً أَمَرَ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى بِشَدِّهَا وَفَصَمَ عُرْوَةً أَحَبَّ اللَّهُ إِيثَاقَهَا فَقَدْ أَبَاحَ حَرِيمَهُ وَأَحَلَّ حُرَمَهُ إِذْ كَانَ بِذَلِكَ زَارِياً عَلَى الإِمَامِ مُنْهَتِكاً حُرْمَةَ الإِسْلامِ بِذَلِكَ جَرَى السَّالِفُ فَصَبَرَ مِنْهُ عَلَى الْفَلَتَاتِ وَلَمْ يَتَعَرَّضْ بَعْدَهَا عَلَى الْعَزْمَاتِ خَوْفاً مِنْ شَتَاتِ الدِّينِ وَاضْطِرَابِ حَمْلِ الْمُسْلِمِينَ وَلِقُرْبِ أَمْرِ الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ وَرَصَدِ الْمُنَافِقِينَ فُرْصَةً تَنْتَهِزُ وَبَائِقَةً تَبْتَدِرُ وَما أَدْرِي ما يُفْعَلُ بِي وَلا بِكُمْ إِنِ الْحُكْمُ إِلا لِلَّهِ يَقُصُّ الْحَقَّ وَهُوَ خَيْرُ الْفاصِلِينَ.

17 - حَدَّثَنا أَبُو عَلِي الحُسَيْنِ بْنِ أحْمَد الْبِيْهَقِيُّ الْحاكِم قالَ حَدَّثَني مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ يَحْيَى الصُّوليُّ قالَ: حَدَّثَنا الحَسَن بْنِ الجَهْمِ قالَ حَدَّثَني أَبي قالَ صعد الْمَأمُون المِنْبَر لَمّا بايِع عَلاىِّ بْنِ‏ِلرِّضا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ فَقالَ: أَيُّهَا النَّاسِ جاءَتكم بيعة عَلِىِّ بْنِ مُوسَى بْنِ جَعْفَرِ بْنِ عَلِىِّ بْنِ الحُسَيْن بْنِ عَلِىِّ بْنِ أَبي طالِب‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ وَاللَّه لَوْ قُرأَت هذِهِ الأسماء عَلَى الصُّم البُكم لبرءوا بإذن اللَّه عَزَّ وَجَلَّ.

40-18 Al-Hakim Abu Ali Al-Husayn ibn Ahmad al-Bayhaqi narrated that Muhammad ibn Yahya al-Sowli quoted on the authority of Ubaydillah ibn Abdullah ibn Tahir, “Al-Fadhl ibn Sahl advised Al-Ma’mun to seek nearness to God the Honorable the Exalted and His Prophet (S) by visiting the relations of kin, pledging allegiance to Ali ibn Musa Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) and returning to them the rule which Ar-Rashid had taken away from them. This was not possible to do. Therefore, from Khorasan Al-Ma’mun sent Abi ad-Dhahhaq and Yasir - the servant10 to bring Muhammad ibn Ja’far ibn Muhammad (one of Imam As-Sadiq’s (a.s.) offspring) and Ali ibn Musa ibn Ja’far (a.s.) to him. This happened in the year 200 A.H. (815 A.D.). When they brought Ali ibn Musa (a.s.) to Al-Ma’mun in Marv, he appointed Ali ibn Musa (a.s.) as the successor to the throne after himself. He also ordered that the troops be granted one full year’s salary. He declared this issue to all Muslim lands. He called him Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) and had silver coins coined in Ar-Ridha’’s (a.s.) name. He ordered the people to put aside their black clothing that was a sign of the Abbasids, and asked them all to wear green clothing. Then he married off his daughter Umm Habib to Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.), and married off his other daughter Ummul Fadhl to Ar-Ridha’’s son, Muhammad ibn Ali (a.s.). He himself married Pooran - the daughter of Al-Hassan ibn al-Sahl. This was because of her uncle Fadhl and all of this happened in one day. However, Al-Ma’mun did not really like that the Caliphate (the rule) be turned over to Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) after him.

Al-Sowli added, “What Ubaydillah ibn Abdullah narrated for me was correct from several points of view. Oun ibn Muhammad narrated on the authority of Al-Fadhl ibn Abi Sahl Al-Nowbakhti - or from his brother - that when Al-Ma’mun decided to establish Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) as the successor to the throne, I told myself, ‘By God, I will test Al-Ma’mun to see if he sincerely wants to do this or not.’ Then I wrote a letter as follows and handed it to his servant who was the one who reported Al-Ma’mun’s secrets to me in writing, “Thul-Riasatayn has decided to draw up the contract for succession to the throne. The horoscope is in position of Cancer, the fourth sign of the Zodiac (the fourth month). Jupiter and Cancer11 are in it. Even though Jupiter is in the upright position it is a month of turmoil. Whatever contract is established in that month will have no good ending. Additionally, Mars is in Libra. That is in the seventh house which indicates that any contracts established in it are unfortunate. I am reporting this to the Commander of the Faithful so that

18 - حَدَّثَنا الْحاكِم أَبُو عَلِي الحُسَيْنِ بْنِ أحْمَد الْبِيْهَقِيُّ قالَ حَدَّثَني مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ يَحْيَى الصُّوليُّ قالَ حَدَّثَني عُبِيْد اللَّه بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّه بْنِ طاهِرَ قالَ أَشَارَ الْفَضْلُ بْنُ سَهْلٍ عَلَى الْمَأْمُونِ أَنْ يَتَقَرَّبَ إِلَى اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ وَإِلَى رَسُولِهِ‏ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ بِصِلَةِ رَحِمِهِ بِالْبَيْعَةِ لِعَلِيِّ بْنِ مُوسَى‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ لَِيمْحُوَبِذَلِكَ مَا كَانَ مِنْ أَمْرِ الرَّشِيدِ فِيهِمْ وَمَا كَانَ يَقْدِرُ عَلَى خِلافِهِ فِي شَيْ‏ءٍ فَوَجَّهَ مِنْ خُرَاسَانَ بِرَجَاءِ بْنِ أَبِي الضَّحَّاكِ وَيَاسِرٍ الْخَادِمِ لِيُشْخِصَا إِلَيْهِ مُحَمَّدَ بْنَ جَعْفَرِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ وَعَلِيَّ بْنَ مُوسَى بْنِ جَعْفَرٍ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ وَذَلِكَ فِي سَنَةِ مِائَتَيْنِ فَلَمَّا وَصَلَ عَلِيُّ بْنُ مُوسَى‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ إِلَى الْمَأْمُونِ وَهُوَ بِمَرْوَ وَلاهُ الْعَهْدَ مِنْ بَعْدِهِ وَأَمَرَ لِلْجُنْدِ بِرِزْقِ سَنَةٍ وَكَتَبَ إِلَى الآْفَاقِ بِذَلِكَ وَسَمَّاهُ الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ وَضَرَبَ الدَّرَاهِمَ بِاسْمِهِ وَأَمَرَ النَّاسَ بِلُبْسِ الْخُضْرَةِ وَتَرْكِ السَّوَادِ وَزَوَّجَهُ ابْنَتَهُ أُمَّ حَبِيبَةَ وَزَوَّجَ ابْنَهُ مُحَمَّدَ بْنَ عَلِيٍ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ ابْنَتَهُ أُمَّ الْفَضْلِ بِنْتَ الْمَأْمُونِ وَتَزَوَّجَ هُوَ بِتُورَانَ بِنْتِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ سَهْلٍ زَوَّجَهُ بِهَا عَمُّهُ الْفَضْلُ وَكُلُّ هَذَا فِي يَوْمٍ وَاحِدٍ وَمَا كَانَ يُحِبُّ أَنْ يُتِمَّ الْعَهْدَ لِلرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ بَعْدَهُ قَالَ الصُّولِيُّ وَقَدْ صَحَّ عِنْدِي مَا حَدَّثَنِي بِهِ عُبَيْدُ اللَّهِ مِنْ جِهَاتٍ مِنْهَا أَنَّ عَوْنَ بْنَ مُحَمَّدٍ حَدَّثَنِي، عَن الْفَضْلِ بْنِ أَبِي سَهْلٍ النَّوْبَخْتِيِّ أَوْ عَنْ أَخٍ لَهُ قَالَ لَمَّا عَزَمَ الْمَأْمُونُ عَلَى الْعَقْدِ لِلرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ بِالْعَهْدِ قُلْتُ وَاللَّهِ لاعْتَبِرَنَّ مَا فِي نَفْسِ الْمَأْمُونِ مِنْ هَذَا الأَمْرِ أَيُحِبُّ تَمَامَهُ أَوْ هُوَ يَتَصَنَّعُ بِهِ فَكَتَبْتُ إِلَيْهِ عَلَى يَدِ خَادِمٍ لَهُ كَانَ يُكَاتِبُنِي بِأَسْرَارِهِ عَلَى يَدِهِ قَدْ عَزَمَ ذُو الرِّئَاسَتَيْنِ عَلَى عَقْدِ الْعَهْدِ وَالطَّالِعُ السَّرَطَانُ وَفِيهِ الْمُشْتَرِي وَالسَّرَطَانُ وَإِنْ كَانَ شَرَفُ الْمُشْتَرِي فَهُوَ بُرْجٌ مُنْقَلِبٌ لا يَتِمُّ أَمْرٌ يُعْقَدُ فِيهِ وَمَعَ هَذَا فَإِنَّ الْمِرِّيخَ فِي الْمِيزَانِ فِي بَيْتِ الْعَاقِبَةِ وَهَذَا يَدُلُّ عَلَى نَكْبَةِ الْمَعْقُودِ لَهُ وَعَرَّفْتُ

you do not blame me for not doing so, if anyone else reports it to you.’ Al-Ma’mun replied, ‘Return this letter by the same messenger who delivered it to you as soon as you read its contents. Take care that no one finds out about what you wrote to me, since that might result in Thul-Riasatayn changing his mind. Beware that if anyone finds out, I will consider you to be blameworthy for negligence.’ As soon as I read the reply, the world became too small for me and I wished that I had never written him that letter. However, Thul-Riasatayn Al-Fadhl ibn Sahl himself feared this bad horoscope and changed his mind since he had sufficient knowledge of astrology. However, I swear by God that I feared for my life. I rode towards where he was and asked him, ‘Do you know of any star in the sky that is more prosperous than Jupiter?’ He said, ‘No?’ I asked, ‘Do you know of any stars in the sky that are more prosperous than Jupiter in the upright position?’ He said, ‘No.’ Then I said, ‘Then do not change your mind about drawing up the contract for the succession to the throne. Do not change your mind while the sky star of prosperity being Jupiter is in its most prosperous position being the upright position.’ Thul-Riasatayn then decided to continue on with what he had decided to do, and drew up the contract. However, I feared Al-Ma’mun and did not know whether I would be dead or alive until the succession to the throne took place.”

40-19 Al-Hakim Abu Ali Al-Husayn ibn Ahmad al-Bayhaqi narrated that Muhammad ibn Yahya al-Sowli quoted on the authority of Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn al-Forat Abul Abbas and Al-Husayn ibn Ali al-Baqta’ee, “Ibrahim ibn Al-Abbas was friends with Ishaq ibn Ibrahim - the brother of Zaydan who was known as “Zaman.” Ibrahim had composed some poems about Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) when he was departing from Khorasan. Some of the poems were written in his own handwriting. The manuscript of these poems was in the possession of Ibrahim’s friend - Ishaq until Ibrahim ibn Abbas became in charge of the Lands Office for Al-Mutawakkil. Various problems had for some reason made him distant from Zaydan’s brother. When Al-Mutawakkil dismissed Ibrahim from the office that he was in charge of, Ibrahim was stern with Ishaq and demanded some property from him. Ishaq asked someone that he trusted to go to Ibrahim ibn Abbas, and tell him that the poems he had composed in praise of Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) which were partly written in his own handwriting and some had been written in other people’s handwriting, were with him. Ishaq threatened

أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ذَلِكَ لِئَلا يُعَتِّبَ عَلَيَّ إِذَا وَقَفَ عَلَى هَذَا مِنْ غَيْرِي فَكَتَبَ إِلَيَّ إِذَا قَرَأْتَ جَوَابِي إِلَيْكَ فَارْدُدْهُ إِلَيَّ مَعَ الْخَادِمِ وَنَفْسِكَ أَنْ يَقِفَ أَحَدٌ عَلَى مَا عَرَّفْتَنِيهِ وَأَنْ يَرْجِعَ ذُو الرِّئَاسَتَيْنِ عَنْ عَزْمِهِ لانَّهُ إِنْ فَعَلَ ذَلِكَ أَلْحَقْتُ الذَّنْبَ بِكَ وَعَلِمْتُ أَنَّكَ سَبَبُهُ قَالَ فَضَاقَتْ عَلَيَّ الدُّنْيَا وَتَمَنَّيْتُ أَنِّي مَا كُنْتُ كَتَبْتُ إِلَيْهِ ثُمَّ بَلَغَنِي أَنَّ الْفَضْلَ بْنَ سَهْلٍ ذَا الرِّئَاسَتَيْنِ قَدْ تَنَبَّهَ عَلَى الأَمْرِ وَرَجَعَ عَنْ عَزْمِهِ وَكَانَ حَسَنَ الْعِلْمِ بِالنُّجُومِ فَخِفْتُ وَاللَّهِ عَلَى نَفْسِي وَرَكِبْتُ إِلَيْهِ فَقُلْتُ لَهُ أَتَعْلَمُ فِي السَّمَاءِ نَجْماً أَسْعَدَ مِنَ الْمُشْتَرِي قَالَ لا قُلْتُ أَفَتَعْلَمُ أَنَّ فِي الْكَوَاكِبِ نَجْماً يَكُونُ فِي حَالٍ أَسْعَدَ مِنْهَا فِي شَرَفِهَا قَالَ لا فَقُلْتُ فَأَمْضِ الْعَزْمَ عَلَى رَأْيِكَ إِذْ كُنْتَ تَعْقِدُهُ وَسَعْدُ الْفَلَكِ فِي أَسْعَدِ حَالاتِهِ فَأَمْضَى الأَمْرَ عَلَى ذَلِكَ فَمَا عَلِمْتُ أَنِّي مِنْ أَهْلِ الدُّنْيَا حَتَّى وَقَعَ الْعِقْدُ فَزِعاً مِنَ الْمَأْمُونِ.

19 - حَدَّثَنا الْحاكِم أَبُو عَلِي الحُسَيْنِ بْنِ أحْمَد الْبِيْهَقِيُّ قالَ حَدَّثَني مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ يَحْيَى الصُّوليُّ قالَ حَدَّثَني أَحْمَدِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الفُراتِ أَبُو العَبَّاسِ وَالحُسَيْنِ بْنِ عَلِى الباقطائي قالا كَانَ إِبْرَاهِيمُ بْنُ الْعَبَّاسِ صِدِّيقاً لاسْحَاقَ بْنِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ أَخِي زَيْدَانَ الْكَاتِبِ الْمَعْرُوفِ بِالزَّمِنِ فَنَسَخَ لَهُ شِعْرَهُ فِي الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ وَقْتَ مُنْصَرَفِهِ مِنْ خُرَاسَانَ وَفِيهِ شَيْ‏ءٌ بِخَطِّهِ وَكَانَتِ النُّسْخَةُ عِنْدَهُ إِلَى أَنْ وُلِّيَ إِبْرَاهِيمُ بْنُ الْعَبَّاسِ دِيوَانَ الضِّيَاعِ لِلْمُتَوَكِّلِ وَكَانَ قَدْ تَبَاعَدَ مَا بَيْنَهُ وَبَيْنَ أَخِي زَيْدَانَ الْكَاتِبِ فَعَزَلَهُ عَنْ ضِيَاعٍ كَانَتْ فِي يَدِهِ وَطَالَبَهُ بِمَالٍ وَشَدَّدَ عَلَيْهِ فَدَعَا إِسْحَاقُ بَعْضَ مَنْ يَثِقُ بِهِ وَقَالَ لَهُ امْضِ إِلَى إِبْرَاهِيمَ بْنِ الْعَبَّاسِ فَأَعْلِمْهُ أَنَّ شِعْرَهُ فِي الرِّضَـا بِخَطِّـهِ عِنْدِي وَغَيَّرَ خَطَّهُ وَلَئِنْ لَمْ يُزِلِ الْمُطَـالَبَةَ عَنِّي لأوْصَـلْتُهُ إِلَى

that if Ibrahim did not stop his demands, he would send all the poems to al-Mutawakkil. The man delivered Ishaq’s message to Ibrahim. This was hard on Ibrahim, but he stopped his claims in return for the manuscript of his poems. They pledged not to make any reports on this to al-Mutawakkil. Al-Sowli added, “Yahya ibn al-Monajjim said, ‘I intervened between the two until I got a hold of the manuscript and Ibrahim ibn Al-Abbas burnt them in front of me.’ Al-Sowli added, ‘Ahmad ibn Malhan narrated that Ibrahim ibn Abbas had two sons named Al-Hassan and Al-Husayn. Their nicknames were Abi Muhammad and Abi Abdullah. When al-Mutawakkil became the Caliph, Ibrahim changed the name of his older son to Ishaq, and changed his nickname to Abi Muhammad. He also named his younger son Abbas and changed his nickname to Abil Fadhl due to fear.’ Al-Sowli added, ‘Ahmad ibn Isma’il ibn al-Khateeb told me that Ibrahim ibn Abbas and Musa ibn Abdul Malik never drank wine until the rule of Al-Mutawakkil came. During his rule they both drank and purposefully gave parties with bad men and sissies; and drank with them three times each day so that the news of this spread around. There are also other traditions about this, but there is no room to mention them here.’

40-20 Ahmad ibn Ziyad ibn Ja’far al-Hamadani, Husayn ibn Ibrahim ibn Ahmad ibn Hisham al-Mokttib and Ali ibn Abdullah al-Warraq - may God be pleased with them - narrated that Ali ibn Ibrahim ibn Hashem quoted that when Yasir - the servant - returned from Khorasan after the martyrdom of Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) in Toos, he told me all the news about the events which had happened. Ali ibn Ibrahim narrated that Rayyan ibn al-Salt, who was one of Al-Hassan ibn Sahl’s men and my father quoted on the authority of Muhammad ibn Arafat and Salh ibn Sa’eed Al-Rashidi that all quoted the (following) news about Abil Hassan Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.), “When the time of the dismissed Caliph (al-Amin) was finished and Al-Ma’mun took over the Caliphate, he wrote a letter to Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) and invited him to Khorasan. However, Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) refused for several reasons. However, Al-Ma’mun did not stop here and kept on insisting until Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) got convinced that he was not going to stop. Then Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) left for Marv when his son Abu Ja’far (a.s.) was only seven years old. Al-Ma’mun wrote to him instructing not to come by way of Kufa and Qum. Rather, he (a.s.) was taken to Marv by way of Basra, Ahwaz and Fars. When he arrived in Marv, Al-Ma’mun told him to accept the ranks

الْمُتَوَكِّلِ فَصَارَ الرَّجُلُ إِلَى إِبْرَاهِيمَ بِرِسَالَتِهِ فَضَاقَتْ بِهِ الدُّنْيَا حَتَّى أَسْقَطَ عَنْهُ الْمُطَالَبَةَ وَأَخَذَ جَمِيعَ مَا عِنْدَهُ مِنْ شِعْرِهِ بَعْدَ أَنْ حَلَفَ كُلُّ وَاحِدٍ مِنْهُمَا لِصَاحِبِهِ قَالَ الصُّولِيُّ فَحَدَّثَنِي يَحْيَى بْنُ عَلِيٍّ الْمُنَجِّمُ قالَ: قالَ لِي أَنَا كُنْتُ السَّفِيرَ بَيْنَهُمَا حَتَّى أَخَذْتُ الشِّعْرَ فَأَحْرَقَهُ إِبْرَاهِيمُ بْنُ الْعَبَّاسِ بِحَضْرَتِي قَالَ الصُّولِيُّ وَحَدَّثَنِي أَحْمَدُ بْنُ مِلْحَانَ قَالَ كَانَ لابْرَاهِيمَ بْنِ الْعَبَّاسِ ابْنَانِ اسْمُهُمَا الْحَسَنُ وَالْحُسَيْنُ يُكْنَيَانِ بِأَبِي مُحَمَّدٍ وَأَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ فَلَمَّا وُلِّيَ الْمُتَوَكِّلُ سَمَّى الأَكْبَرَ إِسْحَاقَ وَكَنَاهُ بِأَبِي مُحَمَّدٍ وَسَمَّى الأَصْغَرَ عَبَّاساً وَكَنَاهُ بِأَبِي الْفَضْلِ فَزِعاً قَالَ الصُّولِيُّ حَدَّثَنِي أَحْمَدُ بْنُ إِسْمَاعِيلَ بْنِ الْخَصِيبِ قَالَ مَا شَرِبَ إِبْرَاهِيمُ بْنُ الْعَبَّاسِ وَلا مُوسَى بْنُ عَبْدِ الْمَلِكِ النَّبِيذَ قَطُّ حَتَّى وُلِّيَ الْمُتَوَكِّلُ فَشَرِبَاهُ وَكَانَا يَتَعَمَّدَانِ أَنْ يَجْمَعَا الْكُرَاعَاتِ وَالُْمخَنَّثِينَ وَيَشْرَبَا بَيْنَ أَيْدِيهِمْ فِي كُلِّ يَوْمٍ ثَلاثاً لِتَشِيعَ الْخَبَرُ بِشُرْبِهِمَا وَلَهُ أَخْبَارٌ كَثِيرَةٌ فِي تَوَقِّيهِ لَيْسَ هَذَا مَوْضِعَ ذِكْرِهَا.

20 - حَدَّثَنا أَحْمَدِ بْنِ زِيادِ بْنِ جَعْفَر الْهَمَذانيّ وَالحُسَيْنِ بْنِ إِبْراهيمِ بْنِ أَحْمَدِ بْنِ هِشامِ المكتب وَعَلِىِّ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّه الوَرَّاقُ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمْ قالُوا حَدَّثَنا عَلِىِّ بْنِ إِبراهِيمِ بْنِ هاشِم حَدَّثَني ياسر الخادِم لَمّا رَجَعَ الْمَأمُون من خُراسان بَعْد وَفاة أَبي الحَسَن الرِّضا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ بِطُوسِ بأخباره كُلِّها قالَ عَلِىِّ بْنِ ِِبْراهيم وَحَدَّثَني الرَّيانِ بْنِ الصَّلْتِ وَكانَ من رجال الحَسَن بْنِ سَهْل وَحَدَّثَني أَبي عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عرفة وَصالِح بْنِ سَعِيدُ الكاتب الراشدي كُلِّ هؤُلاء حدثوا بأخبار أَبي الحَسَن الرِّضا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ وَقالُوا لَمَّا انْقَضَى أَمْرُ الَْمخْلُوعِ وَاسْتَوَى أَمْرُ الْمَأْمُونِ كَتَبَ إِلَى الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ يَسْتَقْدِمُهُ إِلَى خُرَاسَانَ فَاعْتَلَّ عَلَيْهِ الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ بِعِلَلٍ كَثِيرَةٍ فَمَا زَالَ الْمَأْمُونُ يُكَاتِبُهُ وَيَسْأَلُهُ حَتَّى عَلِمَ الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ أَنَّهُ لا يَكُفُّ عَنْهُ فَخَرَجَ وَأَبُو جَعْفَرٍ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ لَهُ سَبْعُ سِنِينَ فَكَتَبَ إِلَيْهِ الْمَأْمُونُ لا تَأْخُذْ عَلَى طَرِيقِ الْكُوفَةِ وَقُمْ فَحَمَلَ عَلَى طَرِيقِ الْبَصْرَةِ وَالأَهْوَازِ وَفَـارِسَ

of Divine Leadership and Caliphate. However, Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) refused this. However, Al-Ma’mun insisted on it a lot. This kept going on for two months, until after a lot of discussions Al-Ma’mun suggested Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) accept the post of the successor to the throne. He (a.s.) accepted this and told him, ‘(I will only accept this) upon conditions that I will state.’ Then Al-Ma’mun said, ‘State your conditions.’ Then Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) wrote, ‘I will accept the succession to the throne upon the conditions that I neither issue any orders, nor do I admonish against anything; I neither judge, nor change anything; that I be excused from all such affairs.’ Then Al-Ma’mun accepted this. He accepted all his conditions and invited the governors, the judges, the army heads, the office workers and all the Abbasids to come and pledge allegiance to him. He spent a lot of money and granted rewards to the army heads and satisfied them all except for three of the army heads named Isa al-Joloodi, Ali ibn Imran and Abu Yunus who did not accept to pledge allegiance to Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.). Then he imprisoned them. The people pledged allegiance to Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.). This was declared in writing to all the towns. Coins were issued in Ar-Ridha’’s (a.s.) name and sermons were delivered in his name on the pulpits. Al-Ma’mun made a lot of donations. When the holidays came, Al-Ma’mun sent someone after Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) and asked him to ride to the congregation, and deliver the ‘Eid prayer and sermon to reassure the people, so that they would recognize his nobility and wholeheartedly attract them to this blessed government. Then Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) sent someone to him who said, ‘You are aware of the conditions set between you and I in accepting this affair.’ Then Al-Ma’mun said, ‘I only want the public, the army and the office workers to feel sure about this affair, feel secure in their hearts and recognize the nobility that God has granted you.’ This discussion kept going on back and forth until the Imam realized that Al-Ma’mun was insisting. Then Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) said, ‘O Commander of the Faithful! I prefer that you excuse me from doing this. However, if you insist, I must perform the prayer just like God’s Prophet (S) and the Commander of the Faithful Ali ibn Abi Talib (a.s.) did.’ He said, ‘Fine. Do it as you wish.’ Then Al-Ma’mun ordered the troops and the people to be at Abil Hassan Ar-Ridha’’s (a.s.) residence in the morning. All the people gathered around the house of Abil Hassan Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.). All the lanes and the streets were filled with men, women and children. All the troops gathered around the door of Ar-Ridha’’s (a.s.) house. Then when the sun rose, Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) stood up, made ablutions, put on a white cotton turban letting one side of it fall

حَتَّى وَافَى مَرْوَ فَلَمَّا وَافَى مَرْوَ عَرَضَ عَلَيْهِ الْمَأْمُونُ أَنْ يَتَقَلَّدَ الإِمْرَةَ وَالْخِلافَةَ فَأَبَى الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ فِي ذَلِكَ وَجَرَتْ فِي هَذَا مُخَاطَبَاتٌ كَثِيرَةٌ وَبَقُوا فِي ذَلِكَ نَحْواً مِنْ شَهْرَيْنِ كُلُّ ذَلِكَ يَأْبَى عَلَيْهِ أَبُو الْحَسَنِ عَلِيُّ بْنُ مُوسَى‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ أَنْ يَقْبَلَ مَا يَعْرِضَ عَلَيْهِ فَلَمَّا أَكْثَرَ الْكَلامَ وَالْخِطَابَ فِي هَذَا قَالَ الْمَأْمُونُ فَوِلايَةُ الْعَهْدِ فَأَجَابَهُ إِلَى ذَلِكَ وَقَالَ لَهُ عَلَى شُرُوطٍ أَسْأَلُكَهَا فَقَالَ الْمَأْمُونُ سَلْ مَا شِئْتَ قَالُوا فَكَتَبَ الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ إِنِّي أُدْخِلَ فِي وِلايَةِ الْعَهْدِ عَلَى أَنْ لا آمُرَ وَلا أَنْهَى وَلا أَقْضِيَ وَلا أُغَيِّرَ شَيْئاً مِمَّا هُوَ قَائِمٌ وَتُعْفِيَنِي عَنْ ذَلِكَ كُلِّهِ فَأَجَابَهُ الْمَأْمُونُ إِلَى ذَلِكَ وَقَبِلَهَا عَلَى كُلِّ هَذِهِ الشُّرُوطِ وَدَعَا الْمَأْمُونُ الْقُوَّادَ وَالْقُضَاةَ وَالشَّاكِرِيَّةِ وَوُلْدَ الْعَبَّاسِ إِلَى ذَلِكَ فَاضْطَرَبُوا عَلَيْهِ فَأَخْرَجَ أَمْوَالاً كَثِيرَةً وَأَعْطَى الْقُوَّادَ وَأَرْضَاهُمْ إِلا ثَلاثَةَ نَفَرٍ مِنْ قُوَّادِهِ أَبَوْا ذَلِكَ أَحَدُهُمُ الْجَلُودِيُّ وَعَلِيُّ بْنُ عِمْرَانَ وَابْنُ مويس فَإِنَّهُمْ أَبَوْا أَنْ يَدْخُلُوا فِي بَيْعَةِ الرِّضَافَحَبَسَهُمْ وَبُويِعَ لِلرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ وَكَتَبَ بِذَلِكَ إِلَى الْبُلْدَانِ وَضُرِبَتِ الدَّنَانِيرُ وَالدَّرَاهِمُ بِاسْمِهِ وَخُطِبَ لَهُ عَلَى الْمَنَابِرِ وَأَنْفَقَ الْمَأْمُونُ عَلَى ذَلِكَ أَمْوَالاً كَثِيرَةً فَلَمَّا حَضَرَ الْعِيدُ بَعَثَ الْمَأْمُونُ إِلَى الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ يَسْأَلُهُ أَنْ يَرْكَبَ وَيَحْضُرَ الْعِيدَ وَيَخْطُبَ لِتَطْمَئِنَّ قُلُوبُ النَّاسِ وَيَعْرِفُوا فَضْلَهُ وَتَقِرَّ قُلُوبُهُمْ عَلَى هَذِهِ الدَّوْلَةِ الْمُبَارَكَةِ فَبَعَثَ إِلَيْهِ الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ وَقَالَ قَدْ عَلِمْتَ مَا كَانَ بَيْنِي وَبَيْنَكَ مِنَ الشُّرُوطِ فِي دُخُولِي فِي هَذَا الأَمْرِ فَقَالَ الْمَأْمُونُ إِنَّمَا أُرِيدُ بِهَذَا أَنْ يَرْسُخَ فِي قُلُوبِ الْعَامَّةِ وَالْجُنْدِ وَالشَّاكِرِيَّةِ هَذَا الأَمْرُ فَتَطْمَئِنَّ قُلُوبُهُمْ وَيُقِرُّوا بِمَا فَضَّلَكَ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى بِهِ فَلَمْ يَزَلْ يُرَادُّهُ الْكَلامَ فِي ذَلِكَ فَلَمَّا أَلَحَّ عَلَيْهِ قَالَ يَا أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ إِنْ أَعْفَيْتَنِي مِنْ ذَلِكَ فَهُوَ أَحَبُّ إِلَيَّ وَإِنْ لَمْ تُعْفِنِي خَرَجْتُ كَمَا كَانَ يَخْرُجُ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ‏ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ وَكَمَا خَرَجَ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ عَلِيُّ بْنُ أَبِي طَالِبٍ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ قَالَ الْمَأْمُونُ اخْرُجْ كَمَا تُحِبُّ وَأَمَرَ الْمَأْمُونُ الْقُوَّادَ وَالنَّاسَ أَنْ يُبَكِّرُوا إِلَى بَابِ أَبِي الْحَسَنِ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ فَقَعَدَ النَّاسُ لابِي الْحَسَنِ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ فِي الطُّرُقَاتِ وَالسُّطُوحِ مِنَ الرِّجَالِ وَالنِّسَاءِ وَالصِّبْيَانِ وَاجْتَمَعَ الْقُوَّادُ عَلَى بَابِ الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ فَلَمَّا طَلَعَتِ الشَّمْسُ قَامَ الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ فَاغْتَسَلَ وَتَعَمَّمَ بِعِمَامَةٍ بَيْضَاءَ مِنْ قُطْنٍ وَأَلْقَى طَرَفـاً مِنْهَـا عَلَى صَدْرِهِ وَطَرَفاً بَيْنَ كَتِفَيْهِ

down upon his chest and the other side fall behind his head. He took off his socks and slippers and told all his friends to do the same. He held a cane in his hand and left the house. We gathered around him. He was in bare feet and had rolled up his pants half-way to the knees. He had rolled up the outer robe he was wearing half-way up. When he came among us, we were walking ahead of him. He raised his head up to the sky and shouted God is the Greatest four times. We all felt that the heavens and the buildings were all shouting the same. The troops and the people at the door were all standing there in an orderly fashion. The troops had their weapons and were really majestic. When we appeared to them in this (above-mentioned) form with bare feet and having wrapped up our outer robes, and Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) had appeared among the people, he stopped at the door and said, Allahu Akbar! Allahu Akbar! Allahu Akbar Ala ma Hadana! Allahu Akbar Al ma Razaqana Min Bahimatel An’am! walhamdullilah-e-Ala ma Ablana! He raised his voice, and so did we. We kept on saying the Festival’s glorifications. At once, the whole city of Marv broke out in tears and cried out. He said the above three times. The soldiers got off their horses, took off their boots and left them when they saw Abil Hassan (a.s.). All of Marv broke out in tears and mourning. The people could not stop crying. Abul Hassan (a.s.) took ten steps, stopped and repeated the glorifications four times. It was just as if the heavens and all the buildings responded to him. Al-Ma’mun was informed about this. Thul-Riasatayn Al-Fadhl ibn Sahl told him, ‘O Commander of the Faithful! Should Ar-Ridha’ reach the place for the prayer in this way, it will cause sedition among the people. Consider asking him to return.’ Then Al-Ma’mun sent someone to Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) and asked him (a.s.) to return home. He (a.s.) asked for his slippers and returned home.

40-21 Ahmad ibn Ziyad ibn Ja’far al-Hamadani - may God be pleased with him - narrated that Ali ibn Ibrahim ibn Hashem quoted on the authority of Al-Rayyan ibn al-Salt, “Those of the people from the public or the soldiers who pledged allegiance to Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.), but were not, pleased to do so said, ‘This is one of the plans of Thul-Riasatayn Al-Fadhl ibn Sahl.’ This was told to Al-Ma’mun. Then he sent for me at midnight. I went to him. He said to me, ‘O Rayyan! I have been informed that the people say that the pledge of allegiance to Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) was one of the plans of Al-Fadhl ibn Sahl.’ I told him, ‘O Commander of the Faithful! So they say.’ He said, ‘O Rayyan! Woe be to you! Does anyone

وَتَشَمَّرَ ثُمَّ قَالَ: لِجَمِيعِ مَوَالِيهِ افْعَلُوا مِثْلَ مَا فَعَلْتُ ثُمَّ أَخَذَ بِيَدِهِ عُكَّازَةً وَخَرَجَ وَنَحْنُ بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ وَهُوَ حَافٍ قَدْ شَمَّرَ سَرَاوِيلَهُ إِلَى نِصْفِ السَّاقِ وَعَلَيْهِ ثِيَابٌ مُشَمَّرَةٌ فَلَمَّا قَامَ وَمَشَيْنَا بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ رَفَعَ رَأْسَهُ إِلَى السَّمَاءِ وَكَبَّرَ أَرْبَعَ تَكْبِيرَاتٍ فَخُيِّلَ إِلَيْنَا أَنَّ الْهَوَاءَ وَالْحِيطَانَ تُجَاوِبُهُ وَالْقُوَّادُ وَالنَّاسُ عَلَى الْبَابِ قَدْ تَزَيَّنُوا وَلَبِسُوا السِّلاحَ وَتَهَيَّئُوا بِأَحْسَنِ هَيْئَةٍ فَلَمَّا طَلَعْنَا عَلَيْهِمْ بِهَذِهِ الصُّورَةِ حُفَاةً قَدْ تَشَمَّرْنَا وَطَلَعَ الرِّضَا وَقَفَ وَقْفَةً عَلَى الْبَابِ وَقَالَ اللَّهُ أَكْبَرُ اللَّهُ أَكْبَرُ اللَّهُ أَكْبَرُ عَلَى مَا هَدَانَا اللَّهُ أَكْبَرُ عَلَى مَا رَزَقَنَا مِنْ بَهِيمَةِ الأَنْعَامِ وَالْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ عَلَى مَا أَبْلانَا وَرَفَعَ بِذَلِكَ صَوْتَهُ وَرَفَعْنَا أَصْوَاتَنَا فَتَزَعْزَعَتْ مَرْوُ مِنَ الْبُكَاءِ وَالصِّيَاحِ فَقَالَهَا ثَلاثَ مَرَّاتٍ فَسَقَطَ الْقُوَّادُ عَنْ دَوَابِّهِمْ وَرَمَوْا بِخِفَافِهِمْ لَمَّا نَظَرُوا إِلَى أَبِي الْحَسَنِ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ وَصَارَتْ مَرْوُ ضَجَّةً وَاحِدَةً وَلَمْ يَتََمالَكِ النَّاسُ مِنَ الْبُكَاءِ وَالضَّجَّةِ فَكَانَ أَبُو الْحَسَنِ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ يَمْشِي وَيَقِفُ فِي كُلِّ عَشَرَةِ خُطُوَاتٍ وَقْفَةً يُكَبِّرُ اللَّهَ أَرْبَعَ مَرَّاتٍ فَيُتَخَيَّلُ إِلَيْنَا أَنَّ السَّمَاءَ وَالأَرْضَ وَالْحِيطَانَ تُجَاوِبُهُ وَبَلَغَ الْمَأْمُونَ ذَلِكَ فَقَالَ لَهُ الْفَضْلُ بْنُ سَهْلٍ ذُو الرِّئَاسَتَيْنِ يَا أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ إِنْ بَلَغَ الرِّضَا الْمُصَلَّى عَلَى هَذَا السَّبِيلِ افْتَتَنَ بِهِ النَّاسُ فَالرَّأْيُ أَنْ تَسْأَلَهُ أَنْ يَرْجِعَ فَبَعَثَ إِلَيْهِ الْمَأْمُونُ فَسَأَلَهُ الرُّجُوعَ فَدَعَا أَبُو الْحَسَنِ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ بِخُفِّهِ فَلَبِسَهُ وَرَجَعَ.

21 - حَدَّثَنا أَحْمَدِ بْنِ زِيادِ بْنِ جَعْفَر الْهَمَذانيّ رَضِىَ اللهُ عَنْهُ قالَ حَدَّثَني عَلِىِّ بْنِ إِبراهِيمِ بْنِ هاشِم عَنْ الرَّيانِ بْنِ الصَّلْتِ قالَ أَكْثَرَ النَّاسُ فِي بَيْعَةِ الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ مِنَ الْقُوَّادِ وَالْعَامَّةِ وَمَنْ لا يُحِبُّ ذَلِكَ وَقَالُوا إِنَّ هَذَا مِنْ تَدْبِيرِ الْفَضْلِ بْنِ سَهْلٍ ذِي الرِّئَاسَتَيْنِ فَبَلَغَ الْمَأْمُونَ ذَلِكَ فَبَعَثَ إِلَيَّ فِي جَوْفِ اللَّيْلِ فَصِرْتُ إِلَيْهِ فَقَالَ يَا رَيَّانُ بَلَغَنِي أَنَّ النَّاسَ يَقُولُونَ إِنَّ بَيْعَةَ الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ كَانَتْ مِنْ تَدْبِيرِ الْفَضْلِ بْنِ سَهْلٍ فَقُلْتُ يَا أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ يَقُولُونَ هَذَا قَالَ وَيْحَكَ يَا رَيَّانُ أَيَجْسُرُ أَحَدٌ أَنْ يَجِي‏ءَ إِلَى خَلِيفَةٍ قَدِ اسْتَقَـامَتْ

dare to suggest to a Caliph - born of a Caliph - who possesses the rule (to whom all the people and the troops are obedient), to turn his rule over to someone else with his own hands? Does the intellect allow this?’ I said, ‘O Commander of the Faithful! By God! No one dares to do that.’ Al-Ma’mun said, ‘No, it is not as they say, however, I will tell you the reason. When my brother Muhammad ordered me to go to him, I refused to do so. He issued an order to Ali ibn Isa ibn Mahan to arrest me and place a yoke around my neck. I was informed about this order. I dispatched Harthama ibn A’yan12 to Sejistan, Kerman and its suburbs. He did not properly manage this affair and was defeated. The governor of Sarir13 rebelled and captured one of the regions of Khorasan. All this happened within one week. When this happened, I did not have the power to resist. I did not have any wealth either to get some power. I saw nothing but fear and cowardliness in my troops. I decided to seek refuge with the king of Kabul (in Afghanistan) who was a pagan. But then It occurred to me that if my brother Muhammad sends some money for him in return for me, the King might turn me over to him since he is an atheist. I found no better way than to repent to God the Highest of my sins, seek His assistance regarding these affairs, and seek refuge with God the Highest. Then I ordered that they clean this house - (as he pointed to a room). They cleaned it. I made ablutions with water, put on white pants and a smock and said four units of prayers in which I recited whatever of the Qur’an I knew. I prayed to God the Highest, sought refuge in Him, and sincerely made a strong covenant with Him to return the right to its true place and to turn over the Divine Leadership to its proper owner whom God has set - if He helps me overcome these difficulties. Then I calmed down. I sent Tahir towards Ali ibn Isa ibn Mahan. With him things went on as I mentioned before. Again I sent Harthama ibn A’yan to defeat Rafi’. He defeated him and killed him. I invited the governor of Sarir to make peace and sent him gifts. I treated him with kindness until he quit opposing me. I got stronger and stronger until what happened to (my brother) Muhammad happened. And God the Highest turned all the affairs over to me and I was in power. Since God the Highest had fulfilled what I had asked Him for, and I wanted to honor my covenant with God, I saw that no one but Abil Hassan Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) deserved the right to be in charge. That is why I offered the rule to him, but he refused. Then he accepted it in the way that you know of. This was the reason.’ Then I (Rayyan) said, ‘May God make the

لَهُ الرَّعِيَّةُ وَالْقُوَّادُ وَاسْتَوَتْ لَهُ الْخِلافَةُ فَيَقُولَ لَهُ: ادْفَعِ الْخِلافَةَ مِنْ يَدِكَ إِلَى غَيْرِكَ أَيَجُوزُ هَذَا فِي الْعَقْلِ قُلْتُ لَهُ لا وَاللَّهِ يَا أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ مَا يَجْسُرُ عَلَى هَذَا أَحَدٌ قَالَ لا وَاللَّهِ مَا كَانَ كَمَا: يَقُولُونَ وَلَكِنْ سَأُخْبِرُكَ بِسَبَبِ ذَلِكَ أَنَّهُ لَمَّا كَتَبَ إِلَيَّ مُحَمَّدٌ أَخِي يَأْمُرُنِي بِالْقَدُومِ عَلَيْهِ فَأَبَيْتُ عَلَيْهِ عَقَدَ لِعَلِيِّ بْنِ عِيسَى بْنِ مَاهَانَ وَأَمَرَهُ أَنْ يُقَيِّدَنِي بِقَيْدٍ وَيَجْعَلَ الْجَامِعَةَ فِي عُنُقِي فَوَرَدَ عَلَيَّ بِذَلِكَ الْخَبَرِ وَبَعَثْتُ هَرْثَمَةَ بْنَ أَعْيَنَ إِلَى سِجِسْتَانَ وَكِرْمَانَ وَمَا وَالاهُمَا فَأَفْسَدَ عَلَيَّ أَمْرِي وَانْهَزَمَ هَرْثَمَةُ وَخَرَجَ صَاحِبُ السَّرِيرِ وَغَلَبَ عَلَى كُوَرِ خُرَاسَانَ مِنْ نَاحِيَتِهِ فَوَرَدَ عَلَيَّ هَذَا كُلُّهُ فِي أُسْبُوعٍ فَلَمَّا وَرَدَ ذَلِكَ عَلَيَّ لَمْ يَكُنْ لِي قُوَّةٌ بِذَلِكَ وَلا كَانَ لِي مَالٌ أَتَقَوَّى بِهِ وَرَأَيْتُ مِنْ قُوَّادِي وَرِجَالِيَ الْفَشَلَ وَالْجُبْنَ أَرَدْتُ أَنْ أَلْحَقَ بِمَلِكِ كَابُلَ فَقُلْتُ فِي نَفْسِي مَلِكُ كَابُلَ رجُلٌ كَافِرٌ وَيَبْذُلُ مُحَمَّدٌ لَهُ الأَمْوَالَ فَيَدْفَعُنِي إِلَى يَدِهِ فَلَمْ أَجِدْ وَجْهاً أَفْضَلَ مِنْ أَنْ أَتُوبَ إِلَى اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ مِنْ ذُنُوبِي وَأَسْتَعِينَ بِهِ عَلَى هَذِهِ الأُمُورِ وَأَسْتَجِيرَ بِاللَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ فَأَمَرْتُ بِهَذَا الْبَيْتِ وَأَشَارَ إِلَى بَيْتٍ تُكْنَسُ وَصَبَبْتُ عَلَيَّ الْمَاءَ وَلَبِسْتُ ثَوْبَيْنِ أَبْيَضَيْنِ وَصَلَّيْتُ أَرْبَعَ رَكَعَاتٍ قَرَأْتُ فِيهَا مِنَ الْقُرْآنِ مَا حَضَرَنِي وَدَعَوْتُ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ وَاسْتَجَرْتُ بِهِ وَعَاهَدْتُهُ عَهْداً وَثِيقاً بِنِيَّةٍ صَادِقَةٍ إِنْ أَفْضَى اللَّهُ بِهَذَا الأَمْرِ إِلَيَّ وَكَفَانِي عَادِيَتَهُ وَهَذِهِ الأُمُورَ الْغَلِيظَةَ أَنْ أَضَعَ هَذَا الأَمْرَ فِي مَوْضِعِهِ الَّذِي وَضَعَهُ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ فِيهِ ثُمَّ قَوِيَ فِيهِ قَلْبِي فَبَعَثْتُ طَاهِراً إِلَى عَلِيِّ بْنِ عِيسَى بْنِ هامان [مَاهَانَ‏] فَكَانَ مِنْ أَمْرِهِ مَا كَانَ وَرَدَدْتُ هَرْثَمَةَ إِلَى رَافِعِ بْنِ أَعْيَنَ فَظَفِرَ بِهِ وَقَتَلَهُ وَبَعَثْتُ إِلَى صَاحِبِ السَّرِيرِ فَهَادَنْتُهُ وَبَذَلْتُ لَهُ شَيْئاً حَتَّى رَجَعَ فَلَمْ يَزَلْ أَمْرِي يَقْوَى حَتَّى كَانَ مِنْ أَمْرِ مُحَمَّدٍ مَا كَانَ وَأَفْضَى اللَّهُ إِلَيَّ بِهَذَا الأَمْرِ وَاسْتَوَى لِي فَلَمَّا وَافَى اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ لِي بِمَا عَاهَدْتُهُ عَلَيْهِ أَحْبَبْتُ أَنْ أَفِيَ لِلَّهِ تَعَالَى بِمَا عَاهَدْتُهُ فَلَمْ أَرَ أَحَداً أَحَقَّ بِهَذَا الأَمْرِ مِنْ أَبِي الْحَسَنِ الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ فَوَضَعْتُهَا فِيهِ فَلَمْ يَقْبَلْهَا إِلاّ عَلَى مَـا قَدْ عَلِمْتَ

Commander of the Faithful successful!’ He said, ‘O Ray’yan! When the morning comes and the people come out, go among the army heads and tell them about the nobilities of the Commander of the Faithful - Ali ibn Abi Talib (a.s.).’ I told him, ‘I know nothing about him except for what I have heard from you. Should I just restate that?’ He said, “Glory be to God! I find no one to help me in this affair. I considered the people of Qum to be trustworthy.’ I said, ‘O Commander of the Faithful! Should I tell them the traditions that I have heard from you?’ He said, ‘Yes. Tell them about the nobilities of Ali (a.s.) that you have heard from me.’ When the morning came, I went amongst the army heads and said, ‘The Commander of the Faithful has narrated that his father quoted on the authority of his forefathers, on the authority of God’s Prophet (S): ‘Whoever I am the master of, Ali is the master of.’ The Commander of the Faithful has narrated that his father quoted (the following) on the authority of his forefathers, on the authority of God’s Prophet (S): ‘The position of Ali relative to me is similar to that of Aaron to Moses.’ I did not remember the traditions exactly and made some mistakes. I narrated the tradition about Khaybar and other well-known traditions.’” Then Abdullah ibn Malik al-Khoza’ee said, “May God have Mercy upon Ali. He was a good man.” Al-Ma’mun had sent a servant to our meeting to hear what we said and report it to him. Then he sent someone after me. When I went there and he saw me, he said, “O Rayyan! You know many traditions by heart. I was informed about what that Jew, Abdullah ibn Malik, said, ‘May God have Mercy upon Ali. He was a good man.’ By God! I will kill him - God willing.”

Hisham ibn Ibrahim al-Rashedi al-Hamadani was one of Ar-Ridha’’s (a.s.) especial people before Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) was brought (to Khorasan). He was an intelligent and well-versed scholar. He was in charge of the affairs of Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.). Whatever was brought in from the different areas was first handed to him, before the taking of Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) to Khorasan. Then, after they brought Abul Hassan (a.s.) to Khorasan, Ibrahim joined Thul-Riasatayn. Thul-Riasatayn established him as one of his closest workers. He used to report the news about Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) to Thul-Riasatayn and Al-Ma’mun. That is how he got closer to them, and nothing was hidden from them. Al-Ma’mun made him the main guard for Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.). He did not let anyone visit Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.), if he himself did not approve of it. He made things terribly difficult for Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) in his house. No one could talk to

فَهَذَا كَانَ سَبَبَهَا فَقُلْتُ وَفَّقَ اللَّهُ أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ فَقَالَ يَا رَيَّانُ إِذَا كَانَ غَداً وَحَضَرَ النَّاسُ فَاقْعُدْ بَيْنَ هَؤُلاءِ الْقُوَّادِ وَحَدِّثْهُمْ بِفَضْلِ أَمِيرِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ عَلِيِّ بْنِ أَبِي طَالِبٍ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ فَقُلْتُ يَا أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ مَا أُحْسِنُ مِنَ الْحَدِيثِ شَيْئاً إِلا مَا سَمِعْتُهُ مِنْكَ فَقَالَ سُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ مَا أَجِدُ أَحَداً يُعِينُنِي عَلَى هَذَا الأَمْرِ لَقَدْ هَمَمْتُ أَنْ أَجْعَلَ أَهْلَ قُمَّ شِعَارِي وَدِثَارِي فَقُلْتُ يَا أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ أَنَا أُحَدِّثُ عَنْكَ بِمَا سَمِعْتُهُ مِنْكَ مِنَ الأَخْبَارِ فَقَالَ نَعَمْ حَدِّثْ عَنِّي بِمَا سَمِعْتَهُ مِنِّي مِنَ الْفَضَائِلِ فَلَمَّا كَانَ مِنَ الْغَدِ قَعَدْتُ بَيْنَ الْقُوَّادِ فِي الدَّارِ فَقُلْتُ حَدَّثَنِي أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ آبَائِهِ أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ‏ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ قَالَ مَنْ كُنْتُ مَوْلاهُ فَعَلِيٌّ مَوْلاهُ حَدَّثَنِي أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ، عَن أَبِيهِ، عَن آبَائِهِ قالَ: قالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ‏ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ عَلِيٌّ مِنِّي بِمَنْزِلَةِ هَارُونَ مِنْ مُوسَى وَكُنْتُ أُخَلِّطُ الْحَدِيثَ بَعْضَهُ بِبَعْضٍ لا أَحْفَظُهُ عَلَى وَجْهِهِ وَحَدَّثْتُ بِحَدِيثِ خَيْبَرَ وَبِهَذِهِ الأَحَادِيثِ الْمَشْهُورَةِ فَقَالَ لِي عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ مَالِكٍ الْخُزَاعِيُّ رَحِمَ اللَّهُ عَلِيّاً كَانَ رَجُلاً صَالِحاً وَكَانَ الْمَأْمُونُ قَدْ بَعَثَ غُلاماً إِلَى الَْمجْلِسِ يَسْمَعُ الْكَلامَ فَيُؤَدِّيهِ إِلَيْهِ قَالَ الرَّيَّانُ فَبَعَثَ إِلَيَّ الْمَأْمُونُ فَدَخَلْتُ إِلَيْهِ فَلَمَّا رَآنِي قَالَ يَا رَيَّانُ مَا أَرْوَاكَ لِلأَحَادِيثِ وَأَحْفَظَكَ لَهَا ثُمَّ قَالَ: قَدْ بَلَغَنِي مَا قَالَ الْيَهُودِيُّ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ مَالِكٍ فِي قَوْلِهِ رَحِمَ اللَّهُ عَلِيّاً كَانَ رَجُلاً صَالِحاً وَاللَّهِ لاقْتُلَنَّهُ إِنْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ وَكَانَ هِشَامُ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ الرَّاشِدِيُّ الْهَمْدَانِيُّ مِنْ أَخَصِّ النَّاسِ عِنْدَ الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ مِنْ قَبْلِ أَنْ يُحْمَلَ وَكَانَ عَالِماً أَدِيباً لَبِيباً وَكَانَتْ أُمُورُ الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ تَجْرِي مِنْ عِنْدِهِ وَعَلَى يَدِهِ وَيَصِيرُ الأَمْوَالُ مِنَ النَّوَاحِي كُلِّهَا إِلَيْهِ قَبْلَ حَمْلِ أَبِي الْحَسَنِ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ فَلَمَّا حُمِلَ أَبُو الْحَسَنِ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ اتَّصَلَ هِشَامُ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ بِذِي الرِّئَاسَتَيْنِ فَقَرَّبَهُ ذُو الرِّئَاسَتَيْنِ وَأَدْنَاهُ فَكَانَ يَنْقُلُ أَخْبَارَ الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ إِلَى ذِي الرِّئَاسَتَيْنِ وَالْمَأْمُونِ فَحَظِيَ بِذَلِكَ عِنْدَهُمَا وَكَانَ لا يُخْفِي عَلَيْهِمَا مِنْ أَخْبَارِهِ شَيْئاً فَوَلاهُ الْمَأْمُونُ حِجَابَةَ الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ وَكَانَ لا يَصِلُ إِلَى الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ إِلا مَنْ أَحَبَّ وَضَيَّقَ عَلَى الرِّضَــا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ فَكَانَ مَنْ يَقْصِدُهُ

him without the consent of Thul-Riasatayn and Al-Ma’mun. Al-Ma’mun entrusted his son - Al-Abbas to Hisham to train. That is why he was called Abbasid Hisham. Thul-Riasatayn made his real animosity with Abil Hassan Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) apparent, because Al-Ma’mun respected the Imam (a.s.) more than him.

Al-Ma’mun had a nephew whom he loved, and she also loved him. They had thus opened a door from her house to Al-Ma’mun’s court. That nephew was more inclined towards Abil Hassan (a.s.), and used to gossip about Thul-Riasatayn with Al-Ma’mun. Thul-Riasatayn was informed about this. He went to Al-Ma’mun and said, “It is not proper for the Caliph that a door be opened to his court from the lady’s quarter. Al-Ma’mun had that door closed. It was a current practice for Al-Ma’mun to visit Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) one day, and the next day Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) went to see Al-Ma’mun. Abil Hassan’s residence was next to Al-Ma’mun’s. Once, when Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) entered Al-Ma’mun’s house and saw the shut door, he (a.s.) said, “O Commander of the Faithful! Why is this door shut?” He said, “This was Al-Fadhl’s idea. He did not like it (to be open).” Then Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) said, “To God We belong and to Him is our return.” What does Al-Fadhl have to do with the Commander of the Faithful and his family?” He asked, “What do you think?” He (a.s.) replied, “Open it and let your nephew visit you. Do not accept what Al-Fadhl forbids or allows.” Then Al-Ma’mun ordered that the door be re-opened and let his nephew enter. Al-Fadhl heard this and became sad.

40-22 In some of the manuscripts of the book Al-Hiba wal-Shart, I found some traditions regarding Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.), the government officials, Al-Fadhl ibn Sahl and his brother. No one, however, granted me permission to quote directly from that book. However, in the following I will present what I have read in that book:

And next, praise be to God - the Initiator; the Innovator; the Able; the Subduer; the Watcher of His servants; the Nourisher of all His creatures; to whose Kingdom all things humble themselves; to whose Glory all things yield; to whose Power all things submit; to whose Sovereignty and Greatness all things humble themselves; whose Knowledge encompasses all things and cannot be enumerated; to whom no great person can present himself; and from whose Sight no small person is missed; the One whom the eyes of the viewers cannot see; and the One who cannot

مِنْ مَوَالِيهِ لا يَصِلُ إِلَيْهِ وَكَانَ لا يَتَكَلَّمُ الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ فِي دَارِهِ بِشَيْ‏ءٍ إِلا أَوْرَدَهُ هِشَامٌ عَلَى الْمَأْمُونِ وَذِي الرِّئَاسَتَيْنِ وَجَعَلَ الْمَأْمُونُ الْعَبَّاسَ ابْنَهُ فِي حَجْرِ هِشَامٍ وَقَالَ أَدِّبْهُ فَسُمِّيَ هِشَامَ الْعَبَّاسِيِّ لِذَلِكَ قَالَ وَأَظْهَرَ ذُو الرِّئَاسَتَيْنِ عَدَاوَةً شَدِيدَةً لابِي الْحَسَنِ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ وَحَسَدَهُ عَلَى مَا كَانَ الْمَأْمُونُ يُفَضِّلُهُ بِهِ فَأَوَّلُ مَا ظَهَرَ لِذِي الرِّئَاسَتَيْنِ مِنْ أَبِي الْحَسَنِ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ أَنَّ ابْنَةَ عَمِّ الْمَأْمُونِ كَانَتْ تُحِبُّهُ وَكَانَ يُحِبُّهَا وَكَانَ مَفْتَحُ بَابِ حُجْرَتِهَا إِلَى مَجْلِسِ الْمَأْمُونِ وَكَانَتْ تَمِيلُ إِلَى أَبِي الْحَسَنِ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ وَتُحِبُّهُ وَتَذْكُرُ ذَا الرِّئَاسَتَيْنِ وَتَقَعُ فِيهِ فَقَالَ ذُو الرِّئَاسَتَيْنِ حِينَ بَلَغَهُ ذِكْرُهَا لَهُ لا يَنْبَغِي أَنْ يَكُونَ بَابُ دَارِ النِّسَاءِ مُشْرَعاً إِلَى مَجْلِسِكَ فَأَمَرَ الْمَأْمُونُ بِسَدِّهِ وَكَانَ الْمَأْمُونُ يَأْتِي الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ يَوْماً وَالرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ يَأْتِي الْمَأْمُونَ يَوْماً وَكَانَ مَنْزِلُ أَبِي الْحَسَنِ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ بِجَنْبِ مَنْزِلِ الْمَأْمُونِ فَلَمَّا دَخَلَ أَبُو الْحَسَنِ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ إِلَى الْمَأْمُونِ وَنَظَرَ إِلَى الْبَابِ مَسْدُوداً قَالَ يَا أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ مَا هَذَا الْبَابُ الَّذِي سَدَدْتَهُ فَقَالَ رَأَى الْفَضْلُ ذَلِكَ وَكَرِهَهُ فَقَالَ الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ إِنَّا لِلَّهِ وَإِنَّا إِلَيْهِ راجِعُونَ مَا لِلْفَضْلِ وَالدُّخُولِ بَيْنَ أَمِيرِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَحَرَمِهِ قَالَ فَمَا تَرَى قَالَ فَتْحَهُ وَالدُّخُولَ عَلَى ابْنَةِ عَمِّكَ وَلا تَقْبَلْ قَوْلَ الْفَضْلِ فِيَما لا يَحِلُّ وَلا يَسَعُ فَأَمَرَ الْمَأْمُونُ بِهَدْمِهِ وَدَخَلَ عَلَى ابْنَةِ عَمِّهِ فَبَلَغَ الْفَضْلَ ذَلِكَ فَغَمَّهُ.

22 - وَوَجَدْتُ فِي بَعْضِ الْكُتُبِ نُسْخَةَ كِتَابِ الْحِبَاءِ وَالشَّرْطِ مِنَ الرِّضَا عَلِيِّ بْنِ مُوسَى‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ إِلَى الْعُمَّالِ فِي شَأْنِ الْفَضْلِ بْنِ سَهْلٍ وَأَخِيهِ وَلَمْ أَرْوَذَلِكَ عَنْ أَحَدٍ أَمَّا بَعْدُ فَالْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ الْبَدِي‏ءِ الْبَدِيعِ الْقَادِرِ الْقَاهِرِ الرَّقِيبِ عَلَى عِبَادِهِ الْمُقِيتِ عَلَى خَلْقِهِ الَّذِي خَضَعَ كُلُّ شَيْ‏ءٍ لِمُلْكِهِ وَذَلَّ كُلُّ شَيْ‏ءٍ لِعِزَّتِهِ وَاسْتَسْلَمَ كُلُّ شَيْ‏ءٍ لِقُدْرَتِهِ وَتَوَاضَعَ كُلُّ شَيْ‏ءٍ لِسُلْطَانِهِ وَعَظَمَتِهِ وَأَحَاطَ بِكُلِّ شَيْ‏ءٍ عِلْمُهُ وَأَحْصَاهُ عَدَدُهُ فَلا يَئُودُهُ كَبِيرٌ وَلا يَعْزُبُ عَنْهُ صَـغِيرٌ الَّذِي لا تُدْرِكُهُ أَبْصَـارُ النَّـاظِرِينَ وَلا تُحِيطُ بِهِ صِفَةُ الْوَاصِـفِينَ لَهُ الْخَلْقُ وَالأَمْرُ

be described by the ones who describe; to Him belongs creating and the rule; and He is the Most Exalted example in the heavens and the Earth. He is Honorable and Wise.

And praise be to God who established Islam as our religion. Then He made it noble, great, honored, and respected. He established it as a stable religion that cannot be changed, and as a straight path that directs whoever trots on it not going astray, and whoever abandons it will not be guided. He established light, reasoning, healing and form in it. He sent it down by means of His chosen angels to whomever He chose for Prophethood from the nations which have now gone and made room for others until the Prophethood ended with the appointment of Muhammad al-Mustafa (a.s.). He ended the Prophethood’s mission with Muhammad and with him ended the messages of the Prophets. And He appointed him due to His Mercy encompassing the people of the Two Worlds; and as one to give glad tidings to the honest believers; and to admonish the lying pagans. This He did to perfect His Proof for the people so that whoever is to be ruined after Truth has become apparent is ruined, and whoever is to survive after Truth has become apparent survives. Indeed God Sees and Knows. And praise be to God who granted the inheritance of the Prophets to the members of his (i.e. Muhammad’s) Holy Household, entrusted them with knowledge and wisdom, established them as the treasury of Divine Leadership and Rule, and made it incumbent (upon all) to love them and hold high their ranks. Then He ordered His Prophet (S) to ask his nation to love them when he said, ‘No reward do I ask of you for this except the love of those near of kin’14 And the way they were described as being pure and immaculate (a.s.potless) can be seen in His words, ‘And God only wishes to remove all abomination from you, ye members of the Family, and to make you pure and spotless.’15

And next, Al-Ma’mun treated the ‘Itra of God’s Prophet (S) with reverence. Al-Ma’mun established the ties of kinship of his Holy Household which had been broken. He returned the family’s affection for each other, and ended their disunion. He bridged the gap that had developed amongst them. Thus, God totally eliminated their animosities and fostered co-existence instead. And now due to his blessedness, care, freedom, and re-establishing family relationships all the hands have become united into one hand. All the various ways of the people have

وَالْمَثَلُ الأَعْلى‏ فِي السَّماواتِ وَالأَرْضِ وَهُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ وَالْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ الَّذِي شَرَعَ الإِسْلامَ دِيناً فَفَضَّلَهُ وَعَظَّمَهُ وَشَرَّفَهُ وَكَرَّمَهُ وَجَعَلَهُ الدِّينَ الْقَيِّمَ الَّذِي لا يَقْبَلُ غَيْرَهُ وَالصِّرَاطَ الْمُسْتَقِيمَ الَّذِي لا يَضِلُّ مَنْ لَزِمَهُ وَلا يَهْتَدِي مَنْ صَدَفَ عَنْهُ وَجَعَلَ فِيهِ النُّورَ وَالْبُرْهَانَ وَالشِّفَاءَ وَالْبَيَانَ وَبَعَثَ بِهِ مَنِ اصْطَفَى مِنْ مَلائِكَتِهِ إِلَى مَنِ اجْتَبَى مِنْ رُسُلِهِ فِي الأُمَمِ الْخَالِيَةِ وَالْقُرُونِ الْمَاضِيَةِ حَتَّى انْتَهَتْ رِسَالَتُهُ إِلَى مُحَمَّدٍ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ فَخَتَمَ بِهِ النَّبِيِّينَ وَقَفَّى بِهِ عَلَى آثَارِ الْمُرْسَلِينَ وَبَعَثَهُ رَحْمَةً لِلْعَالَمِينَ وَبَشِيراً لِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ الْمُصَدِّقِينَ وَنَذِيراً لِلْكَافِرِينَ الْمُكَذِّبِينَ لِتَكُونَ لَهُ الْحُجَّةُ الْبَالِغَةُ وَلِيَهْلِكَ مَنْ هَلَكَ عَنْ بَيِّنَةٍ وَيَحْيى‏ مَنْ حَيَّ عَنْ بَيِّنَةٍ وَإِنَّ اللَّهَ لَسَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ وَالْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ الَّذِي أَوْرَثَ أَهْلَ بَيْتِهِ مَوَارِيثَ النُّبُوَّةِ وَاسْتَوْدَعَهُمُ الْعِلْمَ وَالْحِكْمَةَ وَجَعَلَهُمْ مَعْدِنَ الإِمَامَةِ وَالْخِلافَةِ وَأَوْجَبَ وَلايَتَهُمْ وَشَرَّفَ مَنْزِلَتَهُمْ فَأَمَرَ رَسُولَهُ بِمَسْأَلَةِ أُمَّتِهِ مَوَدَّتَهُمْ إِذْ يَقُولُ: قُلْ لا أَسْئَلُكُمْ عَلَيْهِ أَجْراً إِلا الْمَوَدَّةَ فِي الْقُرْبى‏ وَمَا وَصَفَهُمْ بِهِ مِنْ إِذْهَابِ الرِّجْسِ عَنْهُمْ وَتَطْهِيرِهِ إِيَّاهُمْ فِي قَوْلِهِ إِنَّما يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ لِيُذْهِبَ عَنْكُمُ الرِّجْسَ أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ وَيُطَهِّرَكُمْ تَطْهِيراً ثُمَّ إِنَّ الْمَأْمُونَ بَرَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ‏ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ فِي عِتْرَتِهِ وَوَصَلَ أَرْحَامَ أَهْلِ بَيْتِهِ فَرَدَّ أُلْفَتَهُمْ وَجَمَعَ فِرْقَتَهُمْ وَرَأَبَ صَدْعَهُمْ وَرَتَقَ فَتْقَهُمْ وَأَذْهَبَ اللَّهُ بِهِ الضَّغَائِنَ وَالإِحَنَ بَيْنَهُمْ وَأَسْكَنَ التَّنَاصُرَ وَالتَّوَاصُلَ وَالَْمحَبَّةَ وَالْمَوَدَّةَ قُلُوبَهُمْ فَـأَصْبَحَتْ بِيُمْنِهِ وَحِـفْظِهِ وَبَرَكَتِهِ وَبِرِّهِ وَصِـلَتِهِ أَيْدِيهُمْ وَاحِـدَةً

become one way, and their words have become the same word. Then all the various thoughts emerged into one. Everyone’s rights were honored and everyone’s inheritance was given to him. He rewarded the good deeds of the good-doers. He honored those who had successfully passed their tests. He established the various ranks of the people in the government according to their religiousness. Then he treated with honor the one who had made progress due to his efforts. He raised his rank and rewarded him. The person we are talking about is just Thul-Riasatayn Al-Fadhl ibn Sahl. Al-Ma’mun noted that Al-Fadhl ibn Sahl is a sincere aid who is steadfast in guarding Al-Ma’mun’s rights, and in expressing Al-Ma’mun’s reasons. Al-Ma’mun noted that Al-Fadhl ibn Sahl is a good teacher for the government officials and is a good leader for the troops. Al-Ma’mun noted that Al-Fadhl ibn Sahl is wise at war; is a good leader for the people; invites the people to Al-Ma’mun’s way and rewards those who honor Al-Ma’mun’s orders. Al-Ma’mun noted that Al-Fadhl ibn Sahl avoids those who do not honor the orders of the Caliph, evade Al-Ma’mun’s orders or disobey him. Al-Ma’mun noted that Al-Fadhl ibn Sahl is the only one to assist Al-Ma’mun. Al-Ma’mun noted that Al-Fadhl ibn Sahl is the healer of those who are ill in their hearts or minds. Not having enough money or not finding a friend to assist him in these affairs will not prevent him from doing so. He does not go astray from the right path due to greed. Fear will not lead him towards others. Rather, he becomes more determined, more steadfast, stronger and wiser when others make trouble and try to spread fear like lightning and thunder. He seriously defends Al-Ma’mun’s rights and invites the people towards him until Thul-Riasatayn defeats the perverse; dulls their swords; cuts off their nails; totally eradicates their majesty from the root; and presses the backs of the atheists to the ground - those who broke their covenants, did not adhere to their covenants with Al-Ma’mun, looked down upon his rights and who were secure from his warnings before. In addition to all of that, as you have been told and heard when recited on the pulpits, the results of the efforts of Thul-Riasatayn in the classes of the pagan nations have been impressive, and God increased the extent of the Muslim lands due to him. Also, what the people of the world have taken from you and delivered to others is clear.

Then the gratitude of Thul-Riasatayn for the gallantry of Commander of the Faithful (Al-Ma’mun), and his rising to fulfill his rights, the sacrifices

وَكَلِمَتُهُمْ جَامِعَةً وَأَهْوَاؤُهُمْ مُتَّفِقَةً وَرَعَى الْحُقُوقَ لاهْلِهَا وَوَضَعَ الْمَوَارِيثَ مَوَاضِعَهَا وَكَافَأَ إِحْسَانَ الُْمحْسِنِينَ وَحَفِظَ بَلاءَ الْمُبْلَيْنَ وَقَرَّبَ وَبَاعَدَ عَلَى الدِّينِ ثُمَّ اخْتَصَّ بِالتَّفْضِيلِ وَالتَّقْدِيمِ وَالتَّشْرِيفِ مَنْ قَدَّمَتْهُ مَسَاعِيهِ فَكَانَ ذَلِكَ ذَا الرِّئَاسَتَيْنِ الْفَضْلَ بْنَ سَهْلٍ إِذْ رَآهُ لَهُ مُؤَازِراً وَبِحَقِّهِ قَائِماً وَبِحُجَّتِهِ نَاطِقاً وَلِنُقَبَائِهِ نَقِيباً وَلِخُيُولِهِ قَائِداً وَلِحُرُوبِهِ مُدَبِّراً وَلِرَعِيَّتِهِ سَائِساً وَإِلَيْهِ دَاعِياً وَلِمَنْ أَجَابَ إِلَى طَاعَتِهِ مُكَافِئاً وَلِمَنْ عَنَدَ عَنْهَا مُبَايِناً وَبِنُصْرَتِهِ مُنْفَرِداً وَلِمَرَضِ الْقُلُوبِ وَالنِّيَّاتِ مُدَاوِياً لَمْ يَنْهَهُ عَنْ ذَلِكَ قِلَّةُ مَالٍ وَلا عَوَزُ رِجَالٍ وَلَمْ يَمِلْ بِهِ طَمَعٌ وَلَمْ يَلْفِتْهُ عَنْ نِيَّتِهِ وَبَصِيرَتِهِ وَجَلٌ بَلْ عِنْدَ مَا يُهَوِّلُهُ الْمُهَوِّلُونَ وَيُرْعِدُ وَيُبْرِقُ بِهِ الْمُبْرِقُونَ الْمُرْعِدُونَ وَكَثْرَةُ الُْمخَالِفِينَ وَالْمُعَانِدِينَ مِنَ الُْمجَاهِدِينَ وَالُْمخَاتِلِينَ أَثْبَتُ مَا يَكُونُ عَزِيمَةً وَأَجْرَأُ جِنَاناً وَأَنْفَذُ مَكِيدَةً وَأَحْسَنُ تَدْبِيراً وَأَقْوَى تَثَبُّتاً فِي حَقِّ الْمَأْمُونِ وَالدُّعَاءِ إِلَيْهِ حَتَّى قَصَمَ أَنْيَابَ الضَّلالَةِ وَفَلَّ حَدَّهُمْ وَقَلَّمَ أَظْفَارَهُمْ وَحَصَدَ شَوْكَتَهُمْ وَصَرَعَهُمْ مَصَارِعَ الْمُلْحِدِينَ فِي دِينِهِ النَّاكِثِينَ لِعَهْدِهِ الْوَانِينَ فِي أَمْرِهِ الْمُسْتَخِفِّينَ بِحَقِّهِ الآْمِنِينَ لِمَا حَذَّرَ مِنْ سَطْوَتِهِ وَبَأْسِهِ مَعَ آثَارِ ذِي الرِّئَاسَتَيْنِ فِي صُنُوفِ الأُمَمِ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ وَمَا زَادَ اللَّهُ بِهِ فِي حُدُودِ دَارِ الْمُسْلِمِينَ مِمَّا قَدْ وَرَدَتْ أَنْبَاؤُهُ عَلَيْكُمْ وَقُرِئَتْ بِهِ الْكُتُبُ عَلَى مَنَابِرِكُمْ وَحَمَلَتْ أَهْلُ الآْفَاقِ عَنْكُمْ إِلَى غَيْرِكُمْ فَانْتَهَى شُكْرُ ذِي الرِّئَاسَتَيْنِ بَلاءَ أَمِيـرِ الْمُؤْمِنِيـنَ عِنْدَهُ وَقِيَامَـهُ بِحَقِّهِ وَابْتِذَالَهُ مُهْجَتَهُ وَمُهْجَةَ أَخِيهِ أَبِي مُحَمَّدٍ الْحَسَنِ

of himself and his brother Abi Muhammad ibn Sahl who was blessed, and Thul-Riasatayn’s praiseworthy politics reached a point which led him ahead of others and he became the most successful. Thus the Commander of the Faithful (Al-Ma’mun) rewarded him with much wealth, property and ornaments, although these could not even equal just one day of his efforts and did not suffice for even one position from the positions he held. However, he abandoned all this due to his abstinence; great determination; his efforts to increase the Muslim’s wealth; abstaining from worldly wealth and looking down on the world; preferring the Hereafter and his extended inclination to the Hereafter. He often asked the Commander of the Faithful (Al-Ma’mun) to accept his resignation and expressed his lack of interest in being the prime minister. This resignation raised his rank near Al-Ma’mun and us (i.e. Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.)) as God the Honorable the Exalted had made us informed of his viewpoints on the glory of the Muslims and the ruler, and his increased effort to improve the Muslims’ affairs and fight the pagans; plus other things which God had manifested for us (i.e. Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.)) such as: his sincere intentions; sincerity; wisdom; good management; strong will; high intellect; assisting the Right; guidance; freedom and piety.

Then since the Commander of the Faithful (Al-Ma’mun) trusted him and we (i.e. Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.)) trusted him considering his religiousness, and choosing that in which there lied his good, then we fulfilled his request according to his rank and wrote the book Al-Hiba wal-Shart (the manuscript of which is included later on in this book) for him. We took God and those present there - including members of our household; the army heads; the staff of the court; the judges; the jurists; the jurisprudents; the elite and the masses as witnesses thereto. And the Commander of the Faithful (Al-Ma’mun) deemed it proper to distribute this book (Al-Hiba wal-Shart) in all towns, so that it would be spread (all over) everywhere; all the people would get to know it; it would be read from the pulpits; and a copy of it would be in the possession of every governor and judge. He has asked me to write it, explain its meaning, and it has three chapters as follows:

Chapter 1: It describes everything done by Thul-Riasatayn due to which the Most Exalted God has made it incumbent upon us and all the Muslims to honor his rights.

بْنِ سَهْلٍ الْمَيْمُونِ النَّقِيبَةِ الَْمحْمُودِ السِّيَاسَةِ إِلَى غَايَةٍ تَجَاوَزَ فِيهَا الْمَاضِينَ وَفَاقَ بِهَا الْفَائِزِينَ وَانْتَهَتْ مُكَافَاةُ أَمِيرِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ إِيَّاهُ إِلَى مَا جَعَلَ لَهُ مِنَ الأَمْوَالِ وَالْقَطَائِعِ وَالْجَوَاهِرِ وَإِنْ كَانَ ذَلِكَ لا يَفِي بِيَوْمٍ مِنْ أَيَّامِهِ وَلا مَقَامٍ مِنْ مَقَامَاتِهِ فَتَرَكَهُ زُهْداً فِيهِ وَارْتِفَاعاً مِنْ هِمَّتِهِ عَنْهُ وَتَوْفِيراً لَهُ عَلَى الْمُسْلِمِينَ وَاطِّرَاحاً لِلدُّنْيَا وَاسْتِصْغَاراً لَهَا وَإِيثَاراً لِلآْخِرَةِ وَمُنَافَسَةً فِيهَا وَسَأَلَ أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ مَا لَمْ يَزَلْ لَهُ سَائِلاً وَإِلَيْهِ رَاغِباً مِنَ التَّخَلِّي وَالتَّزَهُّدِ فَعَظُمَ ذَلِكَ عِنْدَهُ وَعِنْدَنَا لِمَعْرِفَتِنَا بِمَا جَعَلَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ فِي مَكَانِهِ الَّذِي هُوَ بِهِ مِنَ الْعِزِّ لِلدِّينِ وَالسُّلْطَانِ وَالْقُوَّةِ عَلَى صَلاحِ الْمُسْلِمِينَ وَجِهَادِ الْمُشْرِكِينَ وَمَا أَرَى اللَّهَ بِهِ مِنْ تَصْدِيقِ نِيَّتِهِ وَيُمْنِ نَقِيبَتِهِ وَصِحَّةِ تَدْبِيرِهِ وَقُوَّةِ رَأْيِهِ وَنُجْحِ طَلِبَتِهِ وَمُعَاوَنَتِهِ عَلَى الْحَقِّ وَالْهُدَى وَالْبِرِّ وَالتَّقْوَى فَلَمَّا وَثِقَ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَثِقْنَا مِنْهُ بِالنَّظَرِ لِلدِّينِ وَإِيْثَارِ مَا فِيهِ صَلاحُهُ وَأَعْطَيْنَاهُ سُؤْلَهُ الَّذِي يُشْبِهُ قَدْرَهُ وَكَتَبْنَا لَهُ كِتَابَ حِبَاءٍ وَشَرْطٍ قَدْ نَسَخَ فِي أَسْفَلِ كِتَابِي هَذَا وَأَشْهَدْنَا اللَّهَ عَلَيْهِ وَمَنْ حَضَرَنَا مِنْ أَهْلِ بَيْتِنَا وَالْقُوَّادِ وَالصَّحَابَةِ وَالْقُضَاةِ وَالْفُقَهَاءِ وَالْخَاصَّةِ وَالْعَامَّةِ وَرَأَى أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ الْكِتَابَ بِهِ إِلَى الآْفَاقِ لِيَذِيعَ وَيَشِيعَ فِي أَهْلِهَا وَيُقْرَأَ عَلَى مَنَابِرِهَا وَيَثْبُتَ عِنْدَ وُلاتِهَا وَقُضَاتِهَا فَسَأَلَنِي أَنْ أَكْتُبَ بِذَلِكَ وَأَشْرَحَ مَعَانِيهِ وَهِيَ عَلَى ثَلاثَةِ أَبْوَابٍ:

فَفِي الْبَابِ الأَوَّلِ الْبَيَانُ عَنْ كُلِّ آثَارِهِ الَّتِي أَوْجَبَ اللَّهُ بِهَا حَقَّهُ عَلَيْنَا وَعَلَى الْمُسْلِمِينَ.

Chapter 2: It describes the degree of his progress; the correctness of his deeds; and that no one is allowed to do whatever he wishes to make a stumbling-block for his efforts; and the reasons for that. This is because not anyone of the people who have pledged allegiance to the Commander of the Faithful (Al-Ma’mun) must pledge allegiance to him (Thul-Riasatayn) and his brother. They have the right to remove any obstacles that might get in their way or try to cause corruption against us, them or our friends. This is done so that no one even thinks about opposing them, disobeying them or think of tricks to separate us from each other.

Chapter 3: It describes the donations of the Commander of the Faithful (Al-Ma’mun) to Thul-Riasatayn; what he demanded due to his abstinence from this world; his adherence to abstinence; lack of interest in wealth and position being a reason that he has constantly made efforts for the Hereafter and demands enough reward just enough to eliminate any doubts in him. We honored him and granted to him whatever was incumbent upon us to bestow upon him and his brother, and for his abstaining from what we abstained from ourselves. This chapter includes everything that one who is cautious needs to be cautious about.

And this is the manuscript of the book:

In the Name of God the Beneficent, the Merciful. This is the writing and the conditions of the Commander of the Faithful Abdullah Al-Ma’mun and his successor to the throne Ali ibn Musa Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.)16 for Thul-Riasatayn Al-Fadhl ibn Sahl on Monday of the (Arabic) month of Ramadhan in the year 201 A.H. (816 A.D.). This is the day on which God perfected the affairs of the government of the Commander of the Faithful (Al-Ma’mun). He concluded the contract for the succession to the throne, had the people clothed in green attire, reached his goal of improving the affairs of the people and overcoming his enemies.

On that day we invited you to that in which there lies some reward for you (Thul-Riasatayn) since you have set out to honor the rights of God the Blessed the Sublime; the right of His Prophet (S); the right of the Commander of the Faithful (Al-Ma’mun) and the successor to his throne; the rights of the Hashemites from which it is hoped that the religion will improve and the relations between the Muslims will improve so much that the resulting blessings encompass us and the general public. The other reason is your assistance to me - the Commander of the Faithful

وَالْبَابُ الثَّانِي الْبَيَانُ عَنْ مَرْتَبَتِهِ فِي إِزَاحَةِ عِلَّتِهِ فِي كُلِّ مَا دَبَّرَ وَدَخَلَ فِيهِ وَلا سَبِيلَ عَلَيْهِ فِيَما تَرَكَ وَكَرِهَ وَذَلِكَ مَا لَيْسَ لِخَلْقٍ مِمَّنْ فِي عُنُقِهِ بَيْعَةٌ إِلا لَهُ وَحْدَهُ وَلاخِيهِ وَمِنْ إِزَاحَةِ الْعِلَّةِ تَحْكِيمُهُمَا فِي كُلِّ مَنْ بَغِيَ عَلَيْهِمَا وَسَعَى بِفَسَادٍ عَلَيْنَا وَعَلَيْهِمَا وَعَلَى أَوْلِيَائِنَا لِئَلا يَطْمَعَ طَامِعٌ فِي خِلافٍ عَلَيْهِمَا وَلا مَعْصِيَةٍ لَهُمَا وَلا احْتِيَالٍ فِي مَدْخَلٍ بَيْنَنَا وَبَيْنَهُمَا.

وَالْبَابُ الثَّالِثُ الْبَيَانُ فِي إِعْطَائِنَا إِيَّاهُ مَا أَحَبَّ مِنْ مِلْكِ التَّخَلِّي وَحِلْيَةِ الزُّهْدِ وَحُجَّةِ التَّحْقِيقِ لِمَا سَعَى فِيهِ مِنْ ثَوَابِ الآْخِرَةِ بِمَا يَتَقَرَّرُ فِي قَلْبِ مَنْ كَانَ فِي ذَلِكَ مِنْهُ وَمَا يَلْزَمُنَا لَهُ مِنَ الْكَرَامَةِ وَالْعِزِّ وَالْحِبَاءِ الَّذِي بَذَلْنَاهُ لَهُ وَلاخِيهِ مِنْ مَنْعِهِمَا مَا نَمْنَعُ مِنْهُ أَنْفُسَنَا وَذَلِكَ مُحِيطٌ بِكُلِّ مَا يَحْتَاطُ فِيهِ مُحْتَاطٌ فِي أَمْرِ دِينٍ وَدُنْيَا وَهَذِهِ نُسْخَةُ الْكِتَابِ:

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ‏

هَذَا كِتَابٌ وَشَرْطٌ مِنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ الْمَأْمُونِ أَمِيرِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَوَلِيِّ عَهْدِهِ عَلِيِّ بْنِ مُوسَى لِذِي الرِّئَاسَتَيْنِ الْفَضْلِ بْنِ سَهْلٍ فِي يَوْمِ الإِثْنَيْنِ لِسَبْعٍ خَلَوْنَ مِنْ شَهْرِ رَمَضَانَ مِنْ سَنَةِ إِحْدَى وَمِائَتَيْنِ وَهُوَ الْيَوْمُ الَّذِي تَمَّمَ اللَّهُ فِيهِ دَوْلَةَ أَمِيرِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَعَقَدَ لِوَلِيِّ عَهْدِهِ وَأَلْبَسَ النَّاسَ اللِّبَاسَ الأَخْضَرَ وَبَلَغَ أَمَلَهُ فِي صَلاحِ وَلِيِّهِ وَالظَّفَرِ بِعَدُوِّهِ إِنَّا دَعَوْنَاكَ إِلَى مَا فِيهِ بَعْضُ مُكَافَاتِكَ عَلَى مَا قُمْتَ بِهِ مِنْ حَقِّ اللَّهِ تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى وَحَقِّ رَسُولِهِ وَحَقِّ أَمِيرِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَوَلِيِّ عَهْدِهِ عَلِيِّ بْنِ مُوسَى وَحَقِّ هَاشِمٍ الَّتِي بِهَا يُرْجَى صَلاحُ الدِّينِ وَسَلامَةُ ذَاتِ الْبَيْنِ

(i.e. Al-Ma’mun) - in establishing the rules of the religion and the traditions of the Master of the Messengers (i.e. the Prophet Muhammad (S)); and invitation to both; choosing what is best and destroying the pagans; breaking the idols; and eliminating the rebellions. Also there are other known things that you have done in the town like dismissing the overthrown Caliph; what you did to the one called Asfar with the nickname Abul Saraya; and what you did to the other one who is called Mehdi being related to Muhammad ibn Ja’far ibn Muhammad Talebi and the Khalaji Turks; and what you did to the governors of Tabarestan including Hormoz ibn Shervin; the governor of Daylam; King Mahvars in Kabul; its other king - King Isfahboz; and what you did to Ibn al-Baram; and what you did in Mount Bidar Bandeh, Qarshistan, al-Qoor and its counties; and what you did to the Khaqan in Khorasan, and Maloon Sahib in Mount Tab’bat; and what you did in Kayman and at-taqreqar; and what you did in Erminiyet, Hijaz; and what you did to Sahib As-Sarir and Sahib al-Khazar, and the other battles in al-Maqrib.

The salary which we (i.e. Al-Ma’mun and Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.)) have established for you is an assistance with which we invited you - being one hundred million Dirhams - plus ten million Dirhams income in jewelry and whatever the Caliph has already bestowed upon you. Of course, we know that the worth of one hundred million Dirhams in jewelry is much less than what you deserve. You abandoned this much property when Amin bestowed it upon you, and chose God and His Religion over it. You were grateful to the Commander of the Faithful (Al-Ma’mun) and the successor to his throne. You gave up much property that was your reward and salary, and turned them over to the Muslims so that their treasury would become wealthier. You preferred others over yourself.

Now you have asked us for what you are naturally inclined to, and you deserve what is due to you fo your abstinence from this world and these people. This abstinence is so much that now it has left no room for doubt for anyone who doubted whether your efforts are for this world or the Hereafter. And everyone was assured that all your efforts are not for this world, but for the Hereafter. Therefore, we are never needless of people like you. The requests of people like you should never be rejected, even though your demands be such that many blessings are taken away from us. In fact, your requests bring forth a lot of blessings for us. They reduce a lot of our expenditures, and prove that you desire the Hereafter to those who think that you want this position due to your greed for this world, and not the Hereafter.

بَيْنِ الْمُسْلِمِينَ إِلَى أَنْ ثَبَتَتِ النِّعْمَةُ عَلَيْنَا وَعَلَى الْعَامَّةِ بِذَلِكَ وَبِمَا عَاوَنْتَ عَلَيْهِ أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ مِنْ إِقَامَةِ الدِّينِ وَالسُّنَّةِ وَإِظْهَارِ الدَّعْوَةِ الثَّانِيَةِ وَإِيْثَارِ الأَوْلَى مَعَ قَمْعِ الشِّرْكِ وَكَسْرِ الأَصْنَامِ وَقَتْلِ الْعُتَاةِ وَسَائِرِ آثَارِكَ الْمُمَثَّلَةِ لِلأَمْصَارِ فِي الَْمخْلُوعِ وَفِي الْمُتَسَمَّى بِالأَصْفَرِ الْمُكَنَّى بِأَبِي السَّرَايَا وَفِي الْمُتَسَمَّى بِالْمَهْدِيِّ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ جَعْفَرٍ الطَّالِبِيِّ وَالتُّرْكِ الخزلجية وَفِي طَبَرِسْتَانَ وَمُلُوكِهَا إِلَى بُنْدَارَ هُرْمُزَ بْنِ شروين وَفِي الدَّيْلَمِ وَمَلِكِهَا وَفِي كَابُلَ وَمَلِكِهَا المهوزين ثُمَّ مَلِكِهَا الأَصْفَهْبُدِ وَفِي ابْنِ الْمُبْرَمِ وَجِبَالِ بداربنده وَغرشستان وَالغور وَأَصْنَافِهَا وَفِي خُرَاسَانَ خَاقَانَ وَملون صَاحِبِ جَبَلِ التَّبَّتِ وَفِي كيمان وَالتغرغر وَفِي إِرْمِينِيَّةَ وَالْحِجَازِ وَصَاحِبِ السَّرِيرِ وَصَاحِبِ الْخَزَرِ وَفِي الْمَغْرِبِ وَحُرُوبِهِ وَتَفْسِيرُ ذَلِكَ فِي دِيوَانِ السِّيرَةِ وَكَانَ مَا دَعَوْنَاكَ إِلَيْهِ وَهُوَ مَعُونَةٌ لَكَ مِائَةَ أَلْفِ أَلْفِ دِرْهَمٍ وَغَلَّةَ عَشَرَةِ أَلْفِ أَلْفِ دِرْهَمٍ جَوْهَراً سِوَى مَا أَقْطَعَكَ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ قَبْلَ ذَلِكَ وَقِيمَةُ مِائَةِ أَلْفِ أَلْفِ دِرْهَمٍ جَوْهَراً يَسِيرُ عِنْدَ مَا أَنْتَ لَهُ مُسْتَحِقٌّ فَقَدْ تَرَكْتَ مِثْلَ ذَلِكَ حِينَ بَذَلَهُ لَكَ الَْمخْلُوعُ وَآثَرْتَ اللَّهَ وَدِينَهُ وَأَنَّكَ شَكَرْتَ أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَوَلِيَّ عَهْدِهِ وَآثَرْتَ تَوْفِيرَ ذَلِكَ كُلِّهِ عَلَى الْمُسْلِمِينَ وَجُدْتَ لَهُمْ بِهِ وَسَأَلْتَنَا أَنْ تَبْلُغَكَ الْخَصْلَةُ الَّتِي لَمْ تَزَلْ إِلَيْهَا تَائِقاً مِنَ الزُّهْدِ وَالتَّخَلِّي لِيَصِحَّ عِنْدَ مَنْ شَكَّ فِي سَعْيِكَ لِلآْخِرَةِ دُونَ الدُّنْيَا تَرْكُكَ الدُّنْيَا وَمَا عَنْ مِثْلِكَ يُسْتَغْنَى فِي حَالٍ وَلا مِثْلُكَ رُدَّ عَنْ طَلِبَتِهِ وَلَوْ أَخْرَجَتْنَا طَلِبَتُكَ عَنْ شَطْرِ النِّعَمِ عَلَيْنَا فَكَيْفَ بِأَمْرٍ رُفِعَتْ فِيهِ الْمَئُونَةُ وَأَوْجَبَتْ بِهِ الْحُجَّةُ عَلَى مَنْ كَانَ يَزْعُمُ أَنَّ دُعَاءَكَ إِلَيْنَا لِلدُّنْيَا لا لِلآْخِرَةِ.

Now I (Al-Ma’mun) will fulfill your request17, and assure it to you - strengthened by a covenant with God in which there is no change. I entrust you with the affairs without any hesitation, and appoint you to the rank (of prime minister). Do as you please. There is no one empowered to prevent what you decide to do, or enforce what you disapprove of. We will fend off from you what we would fend off from ourselves. Even if you get tired and rest for a while, you are still honored since your body needs comfort and honoring, too.

Then we (Al-Ma’mun and Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.)) will grant to you during your period of resting what we had given you before, but you donated to others. We will also establish the same amount of salary for your brother Hassan ibn Sahl plus half of his previous salary. This is for your sake, since he made a really good effort in fighting with the rebellious ones, and conquered Iraq twice. He dispersed the Satanic groups and thus religion was strengthened, and consecutive wars ended. He saved us, all the heads of the army and the politicians on the right by using himself.

And we (Al-Ma’mun and Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.)) call God, His angels, the best of the people and all of those who have pledged allegiance to us and promised to be loyal to us as witnesses to what is in this book today and for the future. We establish God as the guarantor. We consider it incumbent upon ourselves to be loyal to the conditions that we have set with no exceptions in public or private. Believers adhere to their covenants. A covenant is binding and we are responsible. The best of the people are those who honor their covenants even when in the position of power. God the Highest said, ‘Fulfill the Covenant of God when ye have entered into it, and break not your oaths after ye have confirmed them; indeed ye have made God your surety; for God knoweth all that ye do.’18

Al-Hassan ibn Sahl wrote the following down for Al-Ma’mun, “In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful. The Commander of the Faithful (Al-Ma’mun) has made all that is in this book incumbent upon himself and God the Highest is the witness thereto. He is the guarantor. The book is written in his own handwriting in the (Arabic) month of Safar of the year 202 A.H. (816 A.D.) to clearly state what he has granted and the conditions thereon.”

And Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) wrote in it, “In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful. Ali ibn Musa Ar-Ridha’ binds all that which is written in this book

وَقَدْ أَجَبْنَاكَ إِلَى مَا سَأَلْتَ وَجَعَلْنَا ذَلِكَ لَكَ مُؤَكَّداً بِعَهْدِ اللَّهِ وَمِيثَاقِهِ الَّذِي لا تَبْدِيلَ لَهُ وَلا تَغْيِيرَ وَفَوَّضْنَا الأَمْرَ فِي وَقْتِ ذَلِكَ إِلَيْكَ فَمَا أَقَمْتَ فَعَزِيزٌ مُزَاحُ الْعِلَّةِ مَدْفُوعٌ عَنْكَ الدُّخُولُ فِيَما تَكْرَهُ مِنَ الأَعْمَالِ كَائِناً مَا كَانَ نَمْنَعُكَ مِمَّا نَمْنَعُ مِنْهُ أَنْفُسَنَا فِي الْحَالاتِ كُلِّهَا وَأنا [إِذَا] أَرَدْتَ التَّخَلِّيَ فَمُكَرَّمٌ مِزَاحُ الْبَدَنِ وَحَقٌّ لِبَدَنِكَ الرَّاحَةُ وَالْكَرَامَةُ ثُمَّ نُعْطِيكَ مَا تَتَنَاوَلُهُ مِمَّا بَذَلْنَاهُ لَكَ فِي هَذَا الْكِتَابِ فَتَرَكْتُهُ الْيَوْمَ وَجَعَلْنَا لِلْحَسَنِ بْنِ سَهْلٍ مِثْلَ مَا جَعَلْنَاهُ لَكَ وَنِصْفَ مَا بَذَلْنَاهُ مِنَ الْعَطِيَّةِ وَأَهْلُ ذَلِكَ هُوَ لَكَ وَبِمَا بَذَلَ مِنْ نَفْسِهِ فِي جِهَادِ الْعُتَاةِ وَفَتْحِ الْعِرَاقِ مَرَّتَيْنِ وَتَفْرِيقِ جُمُوعِ الشَّيْطَانِ بِيَدَيْهِ حَتَّى قَوِيَ الدِّينُ وَخَاضَ نِيرَانَ الْحُرُوبِ وَفَاءً وَشُكْراً بِنَفْسِهِ وَأَهْلِ بَيْتِهِ وَمَنْ سَاسَ مِنْ أَوْلِيَاءِ الْحَقِّ وَأَشْهَدْنَا اللَّهَ وَمَلائِكَتَهُ وَخِيَارَ خَلْقِهِ وَكُلَّ مَنْ أَعْطَانَا بَيْعَتَهُ وَصَفْقَةَ يَمِينِهِ فِي هَذَا الْيَوْمِ وَبَعْدَهُ عَلَى مَا فِي هَذَا الْكِتَابِ وَجَعَلْنَا اللَّهَ عَلَيْنَا كَفِيلاً وَأَوْجَبْنَا عَلَى أَنْفُسِنَا الْوَفَاءَ بِمَا شَرَطْنَا مِنْ غَيْرِ اسْتِثْنَاءٍ بِشَيْ‏ءٍ يَنْقُضُهُ فِي سِرٍّ وَعَلانِيَةٍ وَالْمُؤْمِنُونَ عِنْدَ شُرُوطِهِمْ وَالْعَهْدُ فَرْضٌ مَسْئُولٌ وَأَوْلَى النَّاسِ بِالْوَفَاءِ مَنْ طَلَبَ مِنَ النَّاسِ الْوَفَاءَ وَكَانَ مَوْضِعاً لِلْقُدْرَةِ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى يَقُولُ: وَأَوْفُوا بِعَهْدِ اللَّهِ إِذا عاهَدْتُمْ وَلا تَنْقُضُوا الأَيْمانَ بَعْدَ تَوْكِيدِها وَقَدْ جَعَلْتُمُ اللَّهَ عَلَيْكُمْ كَفِيلاً إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَعْلَمُ ما تَفْعَلُونَ.

وَكَتَبَ الْحَسَنُ بْنُ سَهْلٍ تَوْقِيعَ الْمَأْمُونِ فِيهِ: بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ. قَدْ أَوْجَبَ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ عَلَى نَفْسِهِ جَمِيعَ مَا فِي هَذَا الْكِتَابِ وَأَشْهَدَ اللَّهَ تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى وَجَعَلَهُ عَلَيْهِ دَاعِياً وَكَفِيلاً وَكَتَبَ بِخَطِّهِ فِي صَفَرٍ سَنَةَ اثْنَتَيْنِ وَمِائَتَيْنِ تَشْرِيفاً لِلْحِبَاءِ وَتَوْكِيداً لِلشَّرِيطَةِ.

تَوْقِيعُ الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ: بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ. قَدْ أَلْزَمَ عَلِيُّ بْنُ مُوسَى نَفْسَهُ جَمِيعَ

upon himself as stressed here on this day, tomorrow and for as long as he lives. I establish God the Highest as a witness thereto and a guarantor. It suffices for God to be a witness.” And Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) wrote in his own handwriting, “In this month and this year. (And praise be to God - the Lord of the Two Worlds. And blessings be upon Muhammad (a.s.) and his Household, and greetings be upon them. God suffices for us and He is the best Trustee).”

40-23 Hamza ibn Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Ja’far ibn Muhammad ibn Zayd ibn Ali ibn Al-Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (a.s.) narrated in Qum in the month of Rajab of the year 339 A.H. (949 A.D.) that Ali ibn Ibrahim informed me on the following through a book in the year 307 A.H. (918 A.D.) in which he wrote on the authority of Yasir - the servant, “Whenever Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) had a private session, he gathered all his workers - whether young or old - and talked with them and was friendly with them. When Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) sat down to dine, he invited them all -whether young or old - to sit down at the same tablecloth. He did not leave anyone out. He even invited the horse caretaker and the phlebotomist. One day we were with the Imam (a.s.) and heard the door which connected Al-Ma’mun’s house to Abil Hassan’s house open. Then Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) told us, “Stand up and disperse.” We stood up. Al-Ma’mun came in with a long letter in his hand. Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) decided to get up, but Al-Ma’mun swore to him by the right of God’s Prophet (S) - not to stand up. Then he went to Abil Hassan (a.s.), kissed him and sat down in front of him leaning on the cushion, and read that letter for him. The letter said that we have opened the gates of such and such a castle, have conquered such and such towns, etc. When he finished reading, Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) asked him, “Does conquering one of the towns of the pagans make you happy?” Al-Ma’mun replied to him, “Is there not happiness in it?” He (a.s.) said, “O Commander of the Faithful! Fear God in the way you deal with the nation of Muhammad (a.s.) and the mission that God has given you, and made you especial in that. You have left the Muslims’ affairs unattended to, and have turned running their affairs over to others who rule over them in ways different from God’s Decrees. You have totally forgotten about these towns, have left the town of the Emigration (Medina) and the site of descension of the revelations where the Emigrants (Muhajerin) and their Helpers (Ansar) were oppressed there. There is no taking into consideration of the believers or the Divine Covenants. The oppressed

مَا فِي الْكِتَابِ عَلَى مَا وُكِّدَ فِيهِ مِنْ يَوْمِهِ وَغَدِهِ مَا دَامَ حَيّاً وَجَعَلَ اللَّهَ عَلَيْهِ رَاعِياً وَكَفِيلاً وَكَفى‏ بِاللَّهِ شَهِيداً وَكَتَبَ بِخَطِّهِ فِي هَذَا الشَّهْرِ مِنْ هَذِهِ السَّنَةِ وَالْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعالَمِينَ وَصَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ وَآلِهِ وَسَلَّمَ وَحَسْبُنَا اللَّهُ وَنِعْمَ الْوَكِيلُ.

23 - حَدَّثَنا حَمْزَة بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ أَحْمَدِ بْنِ جَعْفَرِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ زِيْد بْنِ عَلِىِّ بْنِ الحُسَيْن بْنِ‏أَبي طالِب‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ بقم فِي رَجَب سِنَةَ تِسْعَ وَثَلاثِينَ وَثَلاثِمائَةٍ قالَ أَخْبَرنِي عَلِىِّ بْنِ‏هاشِم فِيما كتب إِلى‏ سِنَةِ سبع وَثَلاثِمائَةٍ قالَ حَدَّثَني ياسر الخادِم قالَ كَانَ الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ إِذَا خَلا جَمَعَ حَشَمَهُ كُلَّهُمْ عِنْدَهُ الصَّغِيرَ وَالْكَبِيرَ فَيُحَدِّثُهُمْ وَيَأْنَسُ بِهِمْ وَيُؤْنِسُهُمْ وَكَانَ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ إِذَا جَلَسَ عَلَى الْمَائِدَةِ لا يَدَعُ صَغِيراً وَلا كَبِيراً حَتَّى السَّائِسَ وَالْحَجَّامَ إِلا أَقْعَدَهُ مَعَهُ عَلَى مَائِدَتِهِ قَالَ يَاسِرٌ فَبَيْنَا نَحْنُ عِنْدَهُ يَوْماً إِذْ سَمِعْنَا وَقْعَ الْقُفْلِ الَّذِي كَانَ عَلَى بَابِ الْمَأْمُونِ إِلَى دَارِ أَبِي الْحَسَنِ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ فَقَالَ لَنَا الرِّضَا أَبُو الْحَسَنِ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ قُومُوا تَفَرَّقُوا فَقُمْنَا عَنْهُ فَجَاءَ الْمَأْمُونُ وَمَعَهُ كِتَابٌ طَوِيلٌ فَأَرَادَ الرِّضَاأَنْ يَقُومَ فَأَقْسَمَ عَلَيْهِ الْمَأْمُونُ بِحَقِّ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ‏ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ أَنْ لا يَقُومَ إِلَيْهِ ثُمَّ جَاءَ حَتَّى انْكَبَّ عَلَى أَبِي الْحَسَنِ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ وَقَبَّلَ وَجْهَهُ وَقَعَدَ بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ عَلَى وِسَادَةٍ فَقَرَأَ ذَلِكَ الْكِتَابَ عَلَيْهِ فَإِذَا هُوَ فَتْحٌ لِبَعْضِ قُرَى كَابُلَ فِيهِ إِنَّا فَتَحْنَا قَرْيَةَ كَذَا وَكَذَا فَلَمَّا فَرَغَ قَالَ لَهُ الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ وَسَرَّكَ فَتْحُ قَرْيَةٍ مِنْ قُرَى الشِّرْكِ فَقَالَ لَهُ الْمَأْمُونُ: أَوَلَيْسَ فِي ذَلِكَ سُرُورٌ فَقَالَ يَا أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ اتَّقِ اللَّهَ فِي أُمَّةِ مُحَمَّدٍ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ وَمَا وَلاكَ اللَّهُ مِنْ هَذَا الأَمْرِ وَخَصَّكَ بِهِ فَإِنَّكَ قَدْ ضَيَّعْتَ أُمُورَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ وَفَوَّضْتَ ذَلِكَ إِلَى غَيْرِكَ يَحْكُمُ فِيهِمْ بِغَيْرِ حُكْمِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ وَقَعَدْتَ فِي هَذِهِ الْبِلادِ وَتَرَكْتَ بَيْتَ الْهِجْرَةِ وَمَهْبِطَ الْوَحْيِ وَإِنَّ الْمُهَاجِرِينَ وَالأَنْصَارَ يُظْلَمُونَ دُونَكَ وَلا يَرْقُبُونَ فِي مُؤْمِنٍ إِلّاً وَلا ذِمَّةً وَيَأْتِي عَلَى

people there are having hard times. They cannot provide for their basic expenses. They find no one to complain to regarding their conditions and they cannot reach you. O Commander of the Faithful! Fear God. Attend to the affairs of the Muslims. Return to the home of the Prophethood and the source of the Emigrants and the Helpers. O Commander of the Faithful! Beware that the ruler of the Muslims is like the main pillar of a tent. Whoever wants to attack the tent captures the main pillar.” Al-Ma’mun asked him (a.s.), “O my Master! What do you think now?” Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) replied, “I think that you should leave these towns and return to the place of your father and forefathers. Take care of the affairs of the Muslims. Do not leave them up to someone else. Indeed God the Highest will question you regarding your rule.” Al-Ma’mun stood up and said, “Yes, my Master! You are right!” He went out and ordered everyone to get prepared to go. The news of this reached Thul-Riasatayn. He became really depressed about this, since he was totally in charge of all the affairs; and Al-Ma’mun’s views were not important at all since he did not dare oppose. That is why Al-Ma’mun sought to strengthen himself through Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.). Then Thul-Riasatayn went to Al-Ma’mun and asked him, “O Commander of the Faithful! What is this order that you have issued?” Al-Ma’mun replied, “My Master Abul Hassan (Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.)) has ordered me to do so, and it is right.” Thul-Riasatayn said, “O Commander of the Faithful! This is not right. Yesterday you killed your brother and seized the Caliphate (the rule) from him. Your father’s children, all the people of Iraq, your family and all the Arabs are your enemies. Then there is a second issue being that you designated Abil Hassan (Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.)) as the successor to the throne and took the Caliphate from your own family. The public, the jurists, the scholars and the Abbasids were not in agreement with you. They hate you in their hearts. The best thing to do is to stay in Khorasan until the people’s hearts calm down about this issue, and they slowly get accustomed to you and forget what you did to your brother Muhammad. O Commander of the Faithful! There are elders with whom your father used to consult. You also must seek their advice on this issue. If they agree with this, then go ahead with it.” Al-Ma’mun asked, “Like who?” Thul-Riasatayn replied, “People like Ali ibn (Abi) Imran, Abu Yunus and Al-Joloodi (who had refused to pledge allegiance to Abil Hassan (Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.)), since they were not pleased with him and were prisoned by Al-Ma’mun for this).” Al-Ma’mun said, “Fine.”

الْمَظْلُومِ دَهْرٌ يُتْعِبُ فِيهِ نَفْسَهُ وَيَعْجِزُ عَنْ نَفَقَتِهِ فَلا يَجِدُ مَنْ يَشْكُو إِلَيْهِ حَالَهُ وَلا يَصِلُ إِلَيْكَ فَاتَّقِ اللَّهَ يَا أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ فِي أُمُورِ الْمُسْلِمِينَ وَارْجِعْ إِلَى بَيْتِ النُّبُوَّةِ وَمَعْدِنِ الْمُهَاجِرِينَ وَالأَنْصَارِ أَمَا عَلِمْتَ يَا أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ أَنَّ وَالِيَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ مِثْلُ الْعَمُودِ فِي وَسَطِ الْفُسْطَاطِ مَنْ أَرَادَهُ أَخَذَهُ قَالَ الْمَأْمُونُ يَا سَيِّدِي فَمَا تَرَى قَالَ أَرَى أَنْ تَخْرُجَ مِنْ هَذِهِ الْبِلادِ وَتَتَحَوَّلَ إِلَى مَوْضِعِ آبَائِكَ وَأَجْدَادِكَ وَتَنْظُرَ فِي أُمُورِ الْمُسْلِمِينَ وَلا تَكِلَهُمْ إِلَى غَيْرِكَ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ سَائِلُكَ عَمَّا وَلاكَ فَقَامَ الْمَأْمُونُ فَقَالَ نِعْمَ مَا قُلْتَ يَا سَيِّدِي هَذَا هُوَ الرَّأْيُ وَخَرَجَ وَأَمَرَ أَنْ تُقَدَّمَ النَّوَائِبُ وَبَلَغَ ذَلِكَ ذَا الرِّئَاسَتَيْنِ فَغَمَّهُ غَمّاً شَدِيداً وَقَدْ كَانَ غَلَبَ عَلَى الأَمْرِ وَلَمْ يَكُنْ لِلْمَأْمُونِ عِنْدَهُ رَأْيٌ فَلَمْ يَجْسُرْ أَنْ يُكَاشِفَهُ ثُمَّ قَوِيَ الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ جِدّاً فَجَاءَ ذُو الرِّئَاسَتَيْنِ إِلَى الْمَأْمُونِ فَقَالَ يَا أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ مَا هَذَا الرَّأْيُ الَّذِي أَمَرْتَ بِهِ فَقَالَ أَمَرَنِي سَيِّدِي أَبُو الْحَسَنِ بِذَلِكَ وَهُوَ الصَّوَابُ فَقَالَ يَا أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ مَا هَذَا بِصَوَابٍ قَتَلْتَ بِالأَمْسِ أَخَاكَ وَأَزَلْتَ الْخِلافَةَ عَنْهُ وَبَنُو أَبِيكَ مُعَادُونَ لَكَ وَجَمِيعُ أَهْلِ الْعِرَاقِ وَأَهْلِ بَيْتِكَ وَالْعَرَبِ ثُمَّ أَحْدَثْتَ هَذَا الْحَدَثَ الثَّانِيَ أَنَّكَ جَعَلْتَ وِلايَةَ الْعَهْدِ لابِي الْحَسَنِ وَأَخْرَجْتَهَا مِنْ بَنِي أَبِيكَ وَالْعَامَّةُ وَالْعُلَمَاءُ وَالْفُقَهَاءُ وَآلُ عَبَّاسٍ لا يَرْضَوْنَ بِذَلِكَ وَقُلُوبُهُمْ مُتَنَافِرَةٌ عَنْكَ وَالرَّأْيُ أَنْ تُقِيمَ بِخُرَاسَانَ حَتَّى تَسْكُنَ قُلُوبُ النَّاسِ عَلَى هَذَا وَيَتَنَاسَوْا مَا كَانَ مِنْ أَمْرِ مُحَمَّدٍ أَخِيكَ وَهَاهُنَا يَا أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ مَشَايِخُ قَدْ خَدَمُوا الرَّشِيدَ وَعَرَفُوا الأَمْرَ فَاسْتَشِرْهُمْ فِي ذَلِكَ فَإِنْ أَشَارُوا بِهِ فَامْضِهِ فَقَالَ الْمَأْمُونُ مِثْلُ مَنْ قَالَ مِثْلُ عَلِيِّ بْنِ أَبِي عِمْرَانَ وَابْنِ مُونِسَ وَالْجَلُودِيِّ وَهَؤُلاءِ هُمُ الَّذِينَ نَقَمُوا بَيْعَةَ أَبِي الْحَسَنِ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ وَلَمْ يَرْضَوْا بِهِ فَحَبَسَهُمُ الْمَأْمُونُ بِهَذَا السَّبَبِ فَقَالَ الْمَأْمُونُ نَعَمْ.

The next morning Abul Hassan Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) went to Al-Ma’mun and said, “O Commander of the Faithful! What did you do?” Al-Ma’mun informed Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) about what Thul-Riasatayn had said, and ordered that those three people be taken out of prison and brought to him. At first, Ali ibn (Abi) Imran entered. When he saw Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) sitting next to Al-Ma’mun, he said, “O Commander of the Faithful! I will entrust you to God. Don’t ever let this affair that God has established for you and has made you especial for it, be taken out and placed into the hands of your enemies who were ordered to be killed and were thrown out of their hometowns by your forefathers (referring to Imam Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) and his forefathers (a.s.)). Then Al-Ma’mun said, “O bastard! You still think this way? O guard! Behead him.” Then he was beheaded. Then Abu Yunus came in. When he saw Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) sitting next to Al-Ma’mun he said, “O Commander of the Faithful! This man at your side is an idol that they worship besides God.” Al-Ma’mun said, “O bastard! You still think this way, too? O guard! Behead him.” Then he was beheaded. Then al-Joloodi entered.19

(When Muhammad ibn Ja’far ibn Muhammad revolted in Medina during the rule of Al-Rashid, Al-Joloodi was sent there with orders to behead Muhammad if he overcame him. He was also ordered to loot the Talibites’ homes of the, to strip their women and take away all their clothing but one article. Al-Joloodi did that. That was the time when Abul Hassan Musa ibn Ja’far (a.s.) was killed20. Al-Joloodi reached Abul Hassan Ar-Ridha’’s (a.s.) house. He attacked his house with his troops. Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) took all the women into the house and stood at the door himself. Al-Joloodi told Abil Hassan (a.s.), “I must enter and take away in person everything that they possess, as the Commander of the Faithful has ordered this.” Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) told him, “I will take all of it myself and promise that I will not leave anything behind.” Al-Joloodi, however, did not agree to this and kept trying to do that himself. The Imam (a.s.) promised him and he finally agreed. Then Abal Hassan Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) went in and took away all their possessions including their earrings, anklets and other ornaments; and handed them over to Al-Joloodi. They took away everything else that was in the house, too.)21

When Al-Joloodi entered that day, Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) told Al-Ma’mun, “O Commander of the Faithful! Grant this old man to me. Al-Ma’mun said, “O my Master! This is the same man who did the same to the family of

فَلَمَّا كَانَ مِنَ الْغَدِ جَاءَ أَبُو الْحَسَنِ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ فَدَخَلَ عَلَى الْمَأْمُونِ فَقَالَ يَا أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ مَا صَنَعْتَ فَحَكَى لَهُ مَا قَالَ ذُو الرِّئَاسَتَيْنِ وَدَعَا الْمَأْمُونُ بِهَؤُلاءِ النَّفَرِ فَأَخْرَجَهُمْ مِنَ الْحَبْسِ فَأَوَّلُ مَنْ دَخَلَ عَلَيْهِ عَلِيُّ بْنُ أَبِي عِمْرَانَ فَنَظَرَ إِلَى الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ بِجَنْبِ الْمَأْمُونِ فَقَالَ أُعِيذُكَ بِاللَّهِ يَا أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ أَنْ تُخْرِجَ هَذَا الأَمْرَ الَّذِي جَعَلَهُ اللَّهُ لَكُمْ وَخَصَّكُمْ بِهِ وَتَجْعَلَهُ فِي أَيْدِي أَعْدَائِكُمْ وَمَنْ كَانَ آبَاؤُكَ يَقْتُلُونَهُمْ وَيُشَرِّدُونَهُمْ فِي الْبِلادِ قَالَ الْمَأْمُونُ لَهُ يَا ابْنَ الزَّانِيَةِ وَأَنْتَ بَعْدُ عَلَى هَذَا قَدِّمْهُ يَا حَرَسِيُّ وَاضْرِبْ عُنُقَهُ فَضُرِبَتْ عُنُقُهُ وَأُدْخِلَ ابْنُ مُونِسَ فَلَمَّا نَظَرَ إِلَى الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ بِجَنْبِ الْمَأْمُونِ قَالَ يَا أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ هَذَا الَّذِي بِجَنْبِكَ وَاللَّهِ صَنَمٌ يُعْبَدُ دُونَ اللَّهِ قَالَ لَهُ الْمَأْمُونُ يَا ابْنَ الزَّانِيَةِ وَأَنْتَ بَعْدُ عَلَى هَذَا يَا حَرَسِيُّ قَدِّمْهُ وَاضْرِبْ عُنُقَهُ فَضَرَبَ عُنُقَهُ ثُمَّ أُدْخِلَ الْجَلُودِيُّ وَكَانَ الْجَلُودِيُّ فِي خِلافَةِ الرَّشِيدِ لَمَّا خَرَجَ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ جَعْفَرِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ بِالْمَدِينَةِ بَعَثَهُ الرَّشِيدُ وَأَمَرَهُ إِنْ ظَفِرَ بِهِ أَنْ يَضْرِبَ عُنُقَهُ وَأَنْ يُغِيرَ عَلَى دُورِ آلِ أَبِي طَالِبٍ وَأَنْ يَسْلُبَ نِسَاءَهُمْ وَلا يَدَعَ عَلَى وَاحِدَةٍ مِنْهُنَّ إِلا ثَوْباً وَاحِداً فَفَعَلَ الْجَلُودِيُّ ذَلِكَ وَقَدْ كَانَ مَضَى أَبُو الْحَسَنِ مُوسَى‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ فَصَارَ الْجَلُودِيُّ إِلَى بَابِ أَبِي الْحَسَنِ الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ فَانْهَجَمَ عَلَى دَارِهِ مَعَ خَيْلِهِ فَلَمَّا نَظَرَ إِلَيْهِ الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ جَعَلَ النِّسَاءَ كُلَّهُن فِي بَيْتٍ وَوَقَفَ عَلَى بَابِ الْبَيْتِ فَقَالَ الْجَلُودِيُّ لابِي الْحَسَنِ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ لا بُدَّ مِنْ أَنْ أَدْخُلَ الْبَيْتَ فَأَسْلُبَهُنَّ كَمَا أَمَرَنِي أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ فَقَالَ الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ أَنَا أَسْلُبُهُنَّ لَكَ وَأَحْلِفُ أَنِّي لا أَدَعُ عَلَيْهِنَّ شَيْئاً إِلا أَخَذْتُهُ فَلَمْ يَزَلْ يَطْلُبُ إِلَيْهِ وَيَحْلِفُ لَهُ حَتَّى سَكَنَ فَدَخَلَ أَبُو الْحَسَنِ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ فَلَمْ يَدَعْ عَلَيْهِنَّ شَيْئاً حَتَّى أَقْرَاطِهِنَّ وَخَلاخِيلِهِنَّ وَإِزَارِهِنَّ إِلا أَخَذَهُ مِنْهُنَّ وَجَمِيعَ مَا كَانَ فِي الدَّارِ مِنْ قَلِيلٍ وَكَثِيرٍ فَلَمَّا كَانَ فِي هَذَا الْيَوْمِ وَأُدْخِلَ الْجَلُودِيُّ عَلَى الْمَأْمُونِ قَالَ الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ يَا أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ هَبْ لِي هَذَا الشَّيْخَ فَقَالَ الْمَأْمُونُ يَا سَيِّدِي هَذَا الَّذِي فَعَـلَ بِبَنَـاتِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ‏ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ مَـا فَعَلَ مِنْ سَلْبِهِنَّ. فَنَظَرَ

God’s Prophet (S) as he did when looting the goods of the women.” Al-Joloodi was looking at Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) who was talking to Al-Ma’mun and insisting that he be forgiven and be turned over to Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.). However, he imagined that Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) was talking against him knowing what he had done. Thus he told Al-Ma’mun, “O Commander of the Faithful! I ask you in the Name of God and due to the services that I have rendered to Al-Rashid that you do not accept what he says.” Then Al-Ma’mun said, “O Abal Hassan (Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.))! I forgive him but he is swearing that I reject your request.” Then he told Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.), “No, by God, I will not accept what he says about you. Let him join his friends.” He was taken away and beheaded, too.22 Then Thul-Riasatayn went to his father Sahl. Al-Ma’mun had already issued orders to ride. However Thul-Riasatayn had refused. Since Al-Ma’mun had killed those three men, Zul-Riasatasyn knew that he was determined to leave. Then Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) asked him, “O Commander of the Faithful! What did you do about getting ready to go?” Al-Ma’mun said, “O my Master! Please tell them yourself to do that.” Then Abul Hassan (a.s.) went out and loudly announced to the people, “Bring forth the animals.” It was as if he had spread fire amongst the people. The agents brought forth the riding animals. Thul-Riasatayn was still sitting at home. Al-Ma’mun sent someone and called him in and asked why he was sitting in the house. He replied, “O Commander of the Faithful! My sins are innumerable in the sight of the members of your household and the general public. The people blame me for killing your dethroned brother and for pledging allegiance to Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.). I am not secure from the bad wishers, the jealous ones, and the oppressors who may gossip behind my back before you. Please leave me here in Khorasan and let me run the affairs here.” Then Al-Ma’mun told him, “We are not yet not in need of you. And regarding what you said that they might make trouble for you, you have been tested by us and are known to be a sympathetic counselor. Write whatever form of letter of immunity that you wish to and I will sign it for you to be sure.” Then Thul-Riasatayn went and wrote a letter himself and had it signed by all the scholars. He then brought it to Al-Ma’mun and recited it. Al-Ma’mun granted whatever he had wanted and wrote it in his own handwriting and added to it that he would grant him whatever property, land or power that he desired in the world. Then Thul-Riasatayn said, “It is necessary for Abil Hassan’s (Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.)) handwriting to be in this letter of immunity. He should accept this as you

الْجَلُودِيُّ إِلَى الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ وَهُوَ يُكَلِّمُ الْمَأْمُونَ وَيَسْأَلُهُ عَنْ أَنْ يَعْفُوَعَنْهُ وَيَهَبَهُ لَهُ فَظَنَّ أَنَّهُ يُعِينُ عَلَيْهِ لِمَا كَانَ الْجَلُودِيُّ فَعَلَهُ فَقَالَ يَا أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ أَسْأَلُكَ بِاللَّهِ وَبِخِدْمَتِي لِلرَّشِيدِ أَنْ لا تَقْبَلَ قَوْلَ هَذَا فِيَّ فَقَالَ الْمَأْمُونُ يَا أَبَا الْحَسَنِ قَدِ اسْتَعْفَى وَنَحْنُ نُبِرُّ قَسَمَهُ ثُمَّ قَالَ: لا وَاللَّهِ لا أَقْبَلُ فِيكَ قَوْلَهُ أَلْحِقُوهُ بِصَاحِبَيْهِ فَقُدِّمَ وَضُرِبَ عُنُقُهُ وَرَجَعَ ذُو الرِّئَاسَتَيْنِ إِلَى أَبِيهِ سَهْلٍ وَقَدْ كَانَ الْمَأْمُونُ أَمَرَ أَنْ تُقَدَّمَ النَّوَائِبُ فَرَدَّهَا ذُو الرِّئَاسَتَيْنِ فَلَمَّا قَتَلَ الْمَأْمُونُ هَؤُلاءِ عَلِمَ ذُو الرِّئَاسَتَيْنِ أَنَّهُ قَدْ عَزَمَ عَلَى الْخُرُوجِ فَقَالَ الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ يَا أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ مَا صَنَعْتَ بِتَقْدِيمِ النَّوَائِبِ قَالَ الْمَأْمُونُ يَا سَيِّدِي مُرْهُمْ أَنْتَ بِذَلِكَ فَخَرَجَ أَبُو الْحَسَنِ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ وَصَاحَ بِالنَّاسِ قَدِّمُوا النَّوَائِبَ قَالَ فَكَأَنَّمَا وَقَعَتْ فِيهِمُ النِّيرَانُ وَأَقْبَلَتِ النَّوَائِبُ يَتَقَدَّمُ وَيَخْرُجُ وَقَعَدَ ذُو الرِّئَاسَتَيْنِ مَنْزِلَهُ فَبَعَثَ إِلَيْهِ الْمَأْمُونُ فَأَتَاهُ فَقَالَ لَهُ مَا لَكَ قَعَدْتَ فِي بَيْتِكَ فَقَالَ يَا أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ إِنَّ ذَنْبِي عَظِيمٌ عِنْدَ أَهْلِ بَيْتِكَ وَعِنْدَ الْعَامَّةِ وَالنَّاسُ يَلُومُونَنِي بِقَتْلِ أَخِيكَ الَْمخْلُوعِ وَبَيْعَةِ الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ وَلا آمُنُ السُّعَاةَ وَالْحُسَّادَ وَأَهْلَ الْبَغْيِ أَنْ يَسْعَوْا بِي فَدَعْنِي أَخْلُفُكَ بِخُرَاسَانَ فَقَالَ لَهُ الْمَأْمُونُ لا نَسْتَغْنِي عَنْكَ فَأَمَّا مَا قُلْتَ إِنَّهُ يُسْعَى بِكَ وَيُبْغَى لَكَ الْغَوَائِلُ فَلَيْسَ أَنْتَ عِنْدَنَا إِلا الثِّقَةَ الْمَأْمُونَ النَّاصِحَ الْمُشْفِقَ فَاكْتُبْ لِنَفْسِكَ مَا تَثِقُ بِهِ مِنَ الضَّمَانِ وَالأَمَانِ وَأَكِّدْ لِنَفْسِكَ مَا تَكُونُ بِهِ مُطْمَئِنّاً فَذَهَبَ وَكَتَبَ لِنَفْسِهِ كِتَاباً وَجَمَعَ عَلَيْهِ الْعُلَمَاءَ وَأَتَى بِهِ الْمَأْمُونَ فَقَرَأَهُ وَأَعْطَاهُ الْمَأْمُونُ كُلَّ مَا أَحَبَّ وَكَتَبَ لَهُ بِخَطِّهِ كِتَابَ الْحَبْوَةِ إِنِّي قَدْ حَبَوْتُكَ بِكَذَا وَكَذَا مِنَ الأَمْوَالِ وَالضِّيَاعِ وَالسُّلْطَانِ وَبَسَطَ لَهُ مِنَ الدُّنْيَا أَمَلَهُ فَقَالَ ذُو الرِّئَاسَتَيْنِ يَا أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ يَجِبُ أَنْ يَكُونَ خَطُّ أَبِي الْحَسَنِ فِي هَذَا الأَمَانِ يُعْطِينَا مَا أَعْطَيْتَ، فَإِنَّهُ وَلِيُّ عَهْدِكَ، فَقَالَ الْمَأْمُونُ

did since he is the successor to the throne.” Al-Ma’mun said, “You know that Abal Hassan (Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.)) made a condition not to interfere in any of our affairs, or say anything. We cannot ask him to do what he does not like to do. Ask him yourself. It is hoped that he does not turn you down.” Then he went and asked for permission to see Abil Hassan (Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.)). Yasir added, “Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) told us to go away and we did. Al-Fadhl came in and stood in front of Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.). After a while, Abul Hassan Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) raised his head and asked him, “O Al-Fadhl! What do you want?” He said, “O my Master! This is a letter of immunity that the Commander of the Faithful has written for me. It is also best if you could grant me the same as he did, since you are the successor to the throne for the Muslims.” Then Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) told him, “Read it.” He stood up and recited it, even though it was long. When he finished, Abul Hassan Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) told him, “O Fadhl! As long as you fear God the Honorable the Exalted, this holds true for you with me.” Yasir added, “The Imam (a.s.) restricted Thul-Riasatayn with what he (a.s.) said.” Then Thul-Riasatayn left. Al-Ma’mun set out and we left along with Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.). A few days passed. We were at one of the way-stations when Thul-Riasatayn received a letter from his brother Al-Hassan ibn Sahl saying, “I have taken a look at the astrology chart. You will experience the heat of the iron and fire on the Wednesday of such and such a month. I think that you, Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) and the Commander of the Faithful should go to the bath on that day and you should do a phlebotomy so that blood can flow out of your body and the bad omen that is in you on that day gets removed.” Then Al-Fadhl dispatched someone to Al-Ma’mun and reported this and asked that he accompany him to the bath and also ask Abal Hassan Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) to do the same. Then Al-Ma’mun wrote to Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) and asked him to do so. Abal Hassan (Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.)) wrote him back and said, “I will not go to the bath tomorrow, since just tonight I dreamt of God’s Prophet (S) who told me, ‘O Ali! Do not go to the bath tomorrow. Therefore I do not consider it wise for you or Al-Fadhl to go to the bath.” Al-Ma’mun wrote him (a.s.) back, “O my Master! You are right. God’s Prophet (S) is right. I will not go to the bath, but Al-Fadhl knows best for himself.”

Yasir added, “When the sun set and the night came Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) told us, ‘Say I seek refuge in God from the evil that will descend tonight.’ We started saying that until dawn when Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) said his prayers. He said, ‘Say I seek refuge in God from the evil that will descend today.’ Then

قَدْ عَلِمْتَ أَنَّ أَبَا الْحَسَنِ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ قَدْ شَرَطَ عَلَيْنَا أَنْ لا يَعْمَلَ مِنْ ذَلِكَ شَيْئاً وَلا يُحْدِثَ حَدَثاً فَلا نَسْأَلُهُ مَا يَكْرَهُهُ فَاسْأَلْهُ أَنْتَ فَإِنَّهُ لا يَأْبَى عَلَيْكَ فِي هَذَا فَجَاءَ وَاسْتَأْذَنَ عَلَى أَبِي الْحَسَنِ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ قَالَ يَاسِرٌ فَقَالَ لَنَا الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ قُومُوا فَتَنَحَّوْا فَتَنَحَّيْنَا فَدَخَلَ فَوَقَفَ بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ سَاعَةً فَرَفَعَ أَبُو الْحَسَنِ‏رَأْسَهُ إِلَيْهِ فَقَالَ لَهُ مَا حَاجَتُكَ يَا فَضْلُ قَالَ يَا سَيِّدِي هَذَا مَا كَتَبَهُ لِي أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَأَنْتَ أَوْلَى أَنْ تُعْطِيَنَا مِثْلَ مَا أَعْطَى أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ إِذْ كُنْتَ وَلِيَّ عَهْدِ الْمُسْلِمِينَ فَقَالَ لَهُ الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ اقْرَأْهُ وَكَانَ كِتَاباً فِي أَكْبَرِ جِلْدٍ فَلَمْ يَزَلْ قَائِماً حَتَّى قَرَأَهُ فَلَمَّا فَرَغَ قَالَ لَهُ أَبُو الْحَسَنِ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ يَا فَضْلُ لَكَ عَلَيْنَا هَذَا مَا اتَّقَيْتَ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ قَالَ يَاسِرٌ فَنَقَضَ عَلَيْهِ أَمْرَهُ فِي كَلِمَةٍ وَاحِدَةٍ فَخَرَجَ مِنْ عِنْدِهِ وَخَرَجَ الْمَأْمُونُ وَخَرَجْنَا مَعَ الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ فَلَمَّا كَانَ بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ بِأَيَّامٍ وَنَحْنُ فِي بَعْضِ الْمَنَازِلِ وَرَدَ عَلَى ذِي الرِّئَاسَتَيْنِ كِتَابٌ مِنْ أَخِيهِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ سَهْلٍ أَنِّي نَظَرْتُ فِي تَحْوِيلِ هَذِهِ السَّنَةِ فِي حِسَابِ النُّجُومِ وَوَجَدْتُ فِيهِ أَنَّكَ تَذُوقُ فِي شَهْرِ كَذَا يَوْمَ الأَرْبِعَاءِ حَرَّ الْحَدِيدِ وَحَرَّ النَّارِ وَأَرَى أَنْ تَدْخُلَ أَنْتَ وَالرِّضَا وَأَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ الْحَمَّامَ فِي هَذَا الْيَوْمِ فَتَحْتَجِمَ فِيهِ وَتَصُبَّ الدَّمَ عَلَى بَدَنِكَ لِيَزُولَ نَحْسُهُ عَنْكَ فَبَعَثَ الْفَضْلُ إِلَى الْمَأْمُونِ وَكَتَبَ إِلَيْهِ بِذَلِكَ وَسَأَلَهُ أَنْ يَدْخُلَ الْحَمَّامَ مَعَهُ وَيَسْأَلَ أَبَا الْحَسَنِ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ أَيْضاً ذَلِكَ فَكَتَبَ الْمَأْمُونُ إِلَى الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ رُقْعَةً فِي ذَلِكَ وَسَأَلَهُ فَكَتَبَ إِلَيْهِ أَبُو الْحَسَنِ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ لَسْتُ بِدَاخِل غَداً الْحَمَّامَ وَلا أَرَى لَكَ يَا أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ أَنْ تَدْخُلَ الْحَمَّامَ غَداً وَلا أَرَى لِلْفَضْلِ أَنْ يَدْخُلَ الْحَمَّامَ غَداً فَأَعَادَ إِلَيْهِ الرُّقْعَةَ مَرَّتَيْنِ فَكَتَبَ إِلَيْهِ أَبُو الْحَسَنِ‏لَسْتُ بِدَاخِلٍ غَداً الْحَمَّامَ فَإِنِّي رَأَيْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ‏فِي النَّوْمِ فِي هَذِهِ اللَّيْلَةِ يَقُولُ لِي: يَا عَلِيُّ لا تَدْخُلِ الْحَمَّامَ غَداً فَلا أَرَى لَكَ يَا أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَلا لِلْفَضْلِ أَنْ تَدْخُلا الْحَمَّامَ غَداً فَكَتَبَ إِلَيْهِ الْمَأْمُونُ صَدَقْتَ يَا سَيِّدِي وَصَدَقَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ لَسْتُ بِدَاخِلٍ غَداً الْحَمَّامَ وَالْفَضْلُ فَهُوَ أَعْلَمُ وَمَا يَفْعَلُهُ قَالَ يَاسِرٌ فَلَمَّا أَمْسَيْنَا وَغَابَتِ الشَّمْسُ فَقَالَ لَنَا الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ قُولُوا نَعُوذُ بِاللَّهِ مِنْ شَرِّ مَا يَنْزِلُ فِي هَذِهِ اللَّيْلَةِ فَأَقْبَلْنَا نَقُولُ كَذَلِكَ فَلَمَّا صَلَّى الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ الصُّبْحَ قَالَ لَنَا قُولُوا نَعُوذُ بِاللَّهِ مِنْ شَرِّ مَا يَنْزِلُ فِي هَذَا الْيَوْمِ فَمَا زِلْنَا نَقُولُ ذَلِكَ فَلَمَّا كَانَ

near dawn, Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) told me, ‘Go to the roof and see if you can hear anything.’ When I went on up onto the roof, I heard a lot of mourning and crying that was increasing. Then I saw that Al-Ma’mun entered the house through the gate from his house to Abil Hassan’s (a.s.) house and said, ‘O my Master! O Abal Hassan (Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.))! May God grant you rewards for the calamity that has happened to Al-Fadhl. He had entered the bath when some people attacked him with swords and killed him. They were three in number23. One of them was Al-Fadhl’s maternal cousin (his aunt’s son) called Thul-Qalamayn24.” Then the troops and the heads of the army who were under the control of Thul-Riasatayn gathered in front of Al-Ma’mun’s house and said, “Al-Ma’mun has tricked him and killed him. We will take revenge.” Then Al-Ma’mun told Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.), “O my Master! Please consider going out and dispersing them.” Then Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) got on the horse and told me to get on the horse, too. Then when we got out of the house, Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) saw that they had gathered there and had made a fire to put the door on fire and burn it. Then Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) yelled at them and pointed at them with his hand saying, “Disperse!” They all dispersed. The people ran away with such fear that they ran into each other and fell over one another. Whoever Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) pointed at ran away. Everyone left and no body was left.

40-24 Al-Hakim Abu Ali Al-Husayn ibn Ahmad al-Bayhaqi narrated that Muhammad ibn Yahya al-Sowli quoted on the authority of Muhammad al-Kendi, on the authority of Abul Husayn Muhammad ibn Abi Abbad, “When the case of Al-Fadhl ibn Sahl reached the point at which he was killed, Al-Ma’mun went to see Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) crying and told him, “O Abal Hassan (Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.))! This is the time in which I need you. Please take charge of the affairs and help me.” The Imam (a.s.) said, “O Commander of the Faithful (Al-Ma’mun)! You are in charge of running the affairs, and I am in charge of praying.” When Al-Ma’mun left, I (Abul Husayn) asked Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.), “May God honor you! Why didn’t you accept what he offered?” He (a.s.) replied, “O Aba Husayn! Woe be to you! Are you not at all affected by what has happened?” When the Imam (a.s.) noticed that I was upset about what had happened, he (a.s.) said, “Why are you thinking about this issue? If things happen the way that you think they should, and your position relative to me be the same as it is now, then your salary will be the same as it is now. You will be the same as other people who are near me.”

قَرِيباً مِنْ طُلُوعِ الشَّمْسِ قَالَ الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ اصْعَدِ السَّطْحَ فَاسْتَمِعْ هَلْ تَسْمَعُ شَيْئاً فَلَمَّا صَعِدْتُ سَمِعْتُ الضَّجَّةَ وَالنَّحِيبَ وَكَثُرَ ذَلِكَ فَإِذَا بِالْمَأْمُونِ قَدْ دَخَلَ مِنَ الْبَابِ الَّذِي كَانَ إِلَى دَارِهِ مِنْ دَارِ أَبِي الْحَسَنِ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ يَقُولُ: يَا سَيِّدِي يَا أَبَا الْحَسَنِ آجَرَكَ اللَّهُ فِي الْفَضْلِ وَكَانَ دَخَلَ الْحَمَّامَ فَدَخَلَ عَلَيْهِ قَوْمٌ بِالسُّيُوفِ فَقَتَلُوهُ وَأُخِذَ مَنْ دَخَلَ عَلَيْهِ فِي الْحَمَّامِ وَكَانُوا ثَلاثَةَ نَفَرٍ أَحَدُهُمْ ابْنُ خَالَةِ الْفَضْلِ ذُو الْقَلَمَيْنِ قَالَ وَاجْتَمَعَ الْقُوَّادُ وَالْجُنْدُ وَمَنْ كَانَ مِنْ رِجَالِ ذِي الرِّئَاسَتَيْنِ عَلَى بَابِ الْمَأْمُونِ فَقَالُوا اغْتَالَهُ وَقَتَلَهُ فَلَنَطْلُبَنَّ بِدَمِهِ فَقَالَ الْمَأْمُونُ لِلرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ يَا سَيِّدِي تَرَى أَنْ تَخْرُجَ إِلَيْهِمْ وَتُفَرِّقَهُمْ قَالَ يَاسِرٌ فَرَكِبَ الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ وَقَالَ لِيَ ارْكَبْ فَلَمَّا خَرَجْنَا مِنَ الْبَابِ نَظَرَ الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ إِلَيْهِمْ وَقَدِ اجْتَمَعُوا وَجَاءُوا بِالنِّيرَانِ لِيُحْرِقُوا الْبَابَ فَصَاحَ بِهِمْ وَأَوْمَأَ إِلَيْهِمْ بِيَدِهِ تَفَرَّقُوا فَتَفَرَّقُوا قَالَ يَاسِرٌ فَأَقْبَلَ النَّاسُ وَاللَّهِ يَقَعُ بَعْضُهُمْ عَلَى بَعْضٍ وَمَا أَشَارَ إِلَى أَحَدٍ إِلا رَكَضَ وَمَرَّ وَلَمْ يَقِفْ لَهُ أَحَدٌ.

24 - حَدَّثَنا الْحاكِم أَبُو عَلِي الحُسَيْنِ بْنِ أحْمَد الْبِيْهَقِيُّ قالَ حَدَّثَني مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ يَحْيَى الصُّوليُّ قالَ حَدَّثَني عَوْنُ بْنِ مُحَمَّد الْكِنْدِيُّ قالَ: حَدَّثَنا أَبُو الحُسَيْن مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ أَبي عباد قالَ لَمَّا كَانَ مِنْ أَمْرِ الْفَضْلِ بْنِ سَهْلٍ مَا كَانَ وَقُتِلَ دَخَلَ الْمَأْمُونُ إِلَى الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ يَبْكِي وَقَالَ لَهُ هَذَا وَقْتُ حَاجَتِي إِلَيْكَ يَا أَبَا الْحَسَنِ فَتَنْظُرُ فِي الأَمْرِ وَتُعِينُنِي قَالَ لَهُ عَلَيْكَ التَّدْبِيرُ يَا أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَعَلَيْنَا الدُّعَاءُ فَلَمَّا خَرَجَ الْمَأْمُونُ قُلْتُ لِلرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ لِمَ أَخَّرْتَ أَعَزَّكَ اللَّهُ مَا قَالَ لَكَ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَأَبَيْتَهُ فَقَالَ وَيْحَكَ يَا بَا حَسَنٍ لَسْتُ مِنْ هَذَا الأَمْرِ فِي شَيْ‏ءٍ قَالَ فَرَآنِي قَدِ اغْتَمَمْتُ فَقَالَ وَمَا لَكَ فِي هَذَا لَوْ آلَ الأَمْرُ إِلَى مَا تَقُولُ وَأَنْتَ مِنِّي كَمَا أَنْتَ مَا كَانَتْ نَفَقَتُكَ إِلا فِي كُمِّكَ وَكُنْتَ كَوَاحِدٍ مِنَ النَّاسِ.

40-25 Al-Hakim Abu Ali Al-Husayn ibn Ahmad al-Bayhaqi narrated that Muhammad ibn Yahya al-Sowli quoted on the authority of Muhammad ibn Abi al-Moaj ibn Al-Husayn al-Razi, on the authority of his father that he had heard someone quote Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) as having said, “Praise be to God who protected for us what the people had ruined, and promoted us no matter how much the people debased us. They cursed us while lecturing on the atheists’ pulpits for eighty years. They covered up our nobilities. They spent money and attributed it to us. However, God the Highest wished to increase our remembrance and elucidate our nobility. By God, what was done to us was not just aimed at us. It was truly aimed at God’s Prophet (S), and it was due to our closeness to him. That is why we were oppressed so much. However, our leadership and what we narrated about him will be the greatest signs and proofs of his Prophethood after us.”

40-26 Al-Hakim Abu Ali Al-Husayn ibn Ahmad al-Bayhaqi narrated that Muhammad ibn Yahya al-Sowli quoted on the authority of Al-Qalabi, on the authority of Ahmad ibn Isa ibn Zayd, “When Al-Ma’mun ordered a man to be killed, the man said, ‘Let me live since I have been grateful to you.’ He said, ‘Who are you to be grateful?’ Then Ali ibn Musa Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) said, ‘O Commander of the Faithful! I adjure you by God the Highest that you appreciate what the people do - even if it is very little - since God the Highest ordered His servants to thank Him. They thanked Him and He forgave them.’”

40-27 Some people have narrated that Fadhl ibn Sahl advised Al-Ma’mun to appoint Ali ibn Musa Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) as the successor to the throne. Among them we can mention Abu Ali Al-Husayn ibn Ahmad Al-Salami who has written about the events in Khorasan in his book. He wrote:

“Thul-Riasatayn Fadhl ibn Sahl was Al-Ma’mun’s minister and the master mind of his affairs. He was a Magus. He embraced Islam by means of Yahya ibn Khalid, and became one of his associates. It has been said that Sahl - the father of Al-Fadhl - embraced Islam by means of (the Abbasid) Al-Mahdi. The Barmakite25 Yahya ibn Khalid appointed Al-Fadhl to serve Al-Ma’mun. However, Al-Fadhl consolidated his position and prevailed over him, too. He carried out all the affairs according to his own opinion and was called Thul-Riasatayn meaning

25 - حَدَّثَنا الْحاكِم أَبُو عَلِي الحُسَيْنِ بْنِ أحْمَد الْبِيْهَقِيُّ قالَ حَدَّثَني مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ يَحْيَى الصُّوليُّ قالَ حَدَّثَني مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ أَبي الموج بْنِ الحُسَيْن الرَّازِيُّ قالَ سَمِعْتُ أَبي يَقُولُ: حَدَّثَني من سمع الرِّضا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ يَقُولُ: الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ الَّذِي حَفِظَ مِنَّا مَا ضَيَّعَ النَّاسُ وَرَفَعَ مِنَّا مَا وَضَعُوهُ حَتَّى قَدْ لُعِنَّا عَلَى مَنَابِرِ الْكُفْرِ ثَمَانِينَ عَاماً وَكُتِمَتْ فَضَائِلُنَا وَبُذِلَتِ الأَمْوَالُ فِي الْكَذِبِ عَلَيْنَا وَاللَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ يَأْبَى لَنَا إِلا أَنْ يُعْلِيَ ذِكْرَنَا وَيُبَيِّنَ فَضْلَنَا وَاللَّهِ مَا هَذَا بِنَا وَإِنَّمَا هُوَ بِرَسُولِ اللَّهِ‏ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ وَقَرَابَتِنَا مِنْهُ حَتَّى صَارَ أَمْرُنَا وَمَا نَرْوِي عَنْهُ أَنَّهُ سَيَكُونُ بَعْدَنَا مِنْ أَعْظَمِ آيَاتِهِ وَدَلالاتِ نُبُوَّتِهِ.

26 - حَدَّثَنا الْحاكِم أَبُو عَلِي الحُسَيْنِ بْنِ أحْمَد الْبِيْهَقِيُّ قالَ حَدَّثَني مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ يَحْيَى الصُّوليُّ قالَ: حَدَّثَنا الغلابي قالَ: حَدَّثَنا أَحْمَدِ بْنِ عِيسَى بْنِ زِيْد أَنَّ الْمَأْمُونَ أَمَرَنِي بِقَتْلِ رَجُلٍ فَقَالَ اسْتَبْقِنِي فَإِنَّ لِي شُكْراً فَقَالَ وَمَنْ أَنْتَ وَمَا شُكْرُكَ فَقَالَ عَلِيُّ بْنُ مُوسَى‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ يَا أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ أَنْشُدُكَ اللَّهَ أَنْ تَتَرَفَّعَ عَنْ شُكْرِ أَحَدٍ وَإِنْ قَلَّ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ أَمَرَ عِبَادَهُ بِشُكْرِهِ فَشَكَرُوهُ فَعَفَا عَنْهُمْ.

27 - وَقَدْ ذَكَرَ قَوْمٌ أَنَّ الْفَضْلَ بْنَ سَهْلٍ أَشَارَ عَلَى الْمَأْمُونِ بِأَنْ يَجْعَلَ عَلِيَّ بْنَ مُوسَى الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ وَلِيَّ عَهْدِهِ مِنْهُمْ أَبُو عَلِيٍّ الْحُسَيْنُ بْنُ أَحْمَدَ السَّلامِيُّ فَإِنَّهُ ذَكَرَ ذَلِكَ فِي كِتَابِهِ الَّذِي صَنَّفَهُ فِي أَخْبَارِ خُرَاسَانَ قَالَ فَكَانَ الْفَضْلُ بْنُ سَهْلٍ ذُو الرِّئَاسَتَيْنِ وَزِيرَ الْمَأْمُونِ وَمُدَبِّرَ أُمُورِهِ وَكَانَ مَجُوسِيّاً فَأَسْلَمَ عَلَى يَدَيْ يَحْيَى بْنِ خَالِدٍ الْبَرْمَكِيِّ وَصَحِبَهُ وَقِيلَ بَلْ أَسْلَمَ سَهْلٌ وَالِدُ الْفَضْلِ عَلَى يَدَيِ الْمَهْدِيِّ وَإِنَّ الْفَضْلَ اخْتَارَهُ يَحْيَى بْنُ خَالِدٍ الْبَـرْمَكِيُّ لِخِـدْمَةِ الْمَـأْمُونِ وَضَمَّهُ إِلَيْهِ فَتَغَلَّبَ عَلَـيْهِ وَاسْتَبَدَّ بِالأَمْرِ دُونَهُ وَإِنَّمَا لُقِّبَ بِذِي

one with two positions being the prime minister and the head of the army. One day when Al-Ma’mun took over the Caliphate, Al-Fadhl asked one of his companions, “How does what I have done compare with what Abi Muslim did?” He replied, “Abi Muslim turned the Caliphate over from one tribe to another, while what you did was turning it over from one brother to another. You know best what the difference is.” Then Al-Fadhl ibn Sahl said, “I will turn it over from one tribe to another one, too.” He then advised Al-Ma’mun to establish Ali ibn Musa Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) as the successor to the throne instead of his brother al-Mo’taman. Ali ibn Musa Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) was brought to Khorasan by Raja ibn Abi ad-Dhahhaq in the year 200 A.H. (814 A.D.) by way of Basra and Fars. Al-Ma’mun’s daughter was married off to Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.). When the news of this reached the Abbasids in Baghdad, it was harsh on them. Thus they pledged allegiance to Ibrahim ibn AL-Mahdi as the Caliph. De’bel ibn Khoza’ee said the following about him:

O troops! Do not despair
Take your gifts and do not dander
Soon will he grant you a beautiful maiden
Who has both pleased the beardless youth and the gray-haired
And the musical instruments of your pimps
They will not throw them in a bag and tie it up somewhere
Thus he provides his companions with the means of subsistence
The Caliph whose Book is the Barbat26

This was because Ibrahim ibn Al-Mahdi was very much interested in playing the lute27 and was an alcoholic. When the news reached Al-Ma’mun, he realized that Al-Fadhl ibn Sahl had misguided him, and given him bad advice. Therefore, he left Marv heading towards Iraq with a plot to kill Al-Fadhl. He was killed by Qalib - Al-Ma’mun’s maternal uncle - in a bath in Sarakhs in the (Arabic) month of Sha’ban of the year 203 A.H. (818 A.D.). Then Al-Ma’mun plotted to kill Ali ibn Musa Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.). Finally he poisoned him on an occasion when Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) had become ill. Then Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) died. Al-Ma’mun ordered that the Imam (a.s.) be buried in Sanabad next to the grave of Harun Al-Rashid. This happened in the (Arabic) month of Safar in the year 203 A.H. (818 A.D.)

الرِّئَاسَتَيْنِ لانَّهُ تَقَلَّدَ الْوِزَارَةَ وَرِئَاسَةَ الْجُنْدِ فَقَالَ الْفَضْلُ حِينَ اسْتَخْلَفَ الْمَأْمُونُ يَوْماً لِبَعْضِ مَنْ كَانَ يُعَاشِرُهُ أَيْنَ يَقَعُ فِعْلِي فِيَما أَتَيْتُهُ مِنْ فِعْلِ أَبِي مُسْلِمٍ فِيَما أَتَاهُ فَقَالَ إِنَّ أَبَا مُسْلِمٍ حَوَّلَهَا مِنْ قَبِيلَةٍ إِلَى قَبِيلَةٍ وَأَنْتَ حَوَّلْتَهَا مِنْ أَخٍ إِلَى أَخٍ وَبَيْنَ الْحَالَتَيْنِ مَا تَعْلَمُهُ قَالَ الْفَضْلُ فَإِنِّي أُحَوِّلُهَا مِنْ قَبِيلَةٍ إِلَى قَبِيلَةٍ ثُمَّ أَشَارَ عَلَى الْمَأْمُونِ بِأَنْ يَجْعَلَ عَلِيَّ بْنَ مُوسَى الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ وَلِيَّ عَهْدِهِ فَبَايَعَهُ وَأَسْقَطَ بَيْعَةَ الْمُؤْتَمَنِ أَخِيهِ وَكَانَ عَلِيُّ بْنُ مُوسَى الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ وَرَدَ عَلَى الْمَأْمُونِ وَهُوَ بِخُرَاسَانَ سَنَةَ مِائَتَيْنِ عَلَى طَرِيقِ الْبَصْرَةِ وَفَارِسَ مَعَ رَجَاءِ بْنِ أَبِي الضَّحَّاكِ وَكَانَ الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ مُتَزَوِّجاً بِابْنَةِ الْمَأْمُونِ فَلَمَّا بَلَغَ خَبَرُهُ الْعَبَّاسِيِّينَ بِبَغْدَادَ سَاءَهُمْ ذَلِكَ فَأَخْرَجُوا إِبْرَاهِيمَ بْنَ الْمَهْدِيِّ وَبَايَعُوهُ بِالْخِلافَةِ فَفِيهِ يَقُولُ دِعْبِلٌ الْخُزَاعِيُّ:

يَا مَعْشَرَ الأَجْنَادِ لا تَقْنَطُوا

خُذُوا عَطَايَاكُمْ وَلا تَسْخَطُوا

فَسَوْفَ يُعْطِيكُمْ حَنِينِيَّةً

يَلَذُّهَا الأَمْرَدُ وَالأَشْمَطُ

وَالْمَعْبَدِيَّاتِ لِقُوَّادِكُمْ‏

لا تَدْخُلُ الْكِيسَ وَلا تُرْبَطُ

وَهَكَذَا يَرْزُقُ أَصْحَابَهُ‏

خَلِيفَةٌ مُصْحَفُهُ الْبَرْبَطُ

وَذَلِكَ أَنَّ إِبْرَاهِيمَ الْمَهْدِيَّ كَانَ مُولَعاً بِضَرْبِ الْعُودِ مُنْهَمِكاً بِالشَّرَابِ فَلَمَّا بَلَغَ الْمَأْمُونَ خَبَرُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَلِمَ أَنَّ الْفَضْلَ بْنَ سَهْلٍ أَخْطَأَ عَلَيْهِ وَأَشَارَ بِغَيْرِ الصَّوَابِ فَخَرَجَ مِنْ مَرْوَ مُنْصَرِفاً إِلَى الْعِرَاقِ وَاحْتَالَ عَلَى الْفَضْلِ بْنِ سَهْلٍ حَتَّى قَتَلَهُ غَالِبٌ خَالُ الْمَأْمُونِ فِي الْحَمَّامِ بِسَرَخْسَ مُغَافَصَةً فِي شَعْبَانَ سَنَةَ ثَلاثٍ وَمِائَتَيْنِ وَاحْتَالَ عَلَى عَلِيِّ بْنِ مُوسَى الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ حَتَّى سُمَّ فِي عِلَّةٍ كَانَتْ أَصَابَتْهُ فَمَاتَ وَأَمَرَ بِدَفْنِهِ بِسَنَابَادَ مِنْ طُوسَ بِجَنْبِ قَبْرِ الرَّشِيدِ وَذَلِكَ فِي صَفَرِ ثَلاثٍ وَمِائَتَيْـنِ وَكَانَ ابْنَ اثْنَتَيْـنِ وَخَمْسِيـنَ سَنَةً وَقِيـلَ ابْنُ

when he was 52 years old. Some people have said that this happened to the Imam (a.s.) at the age of 55. This is what Abu Ali Al-Husayn ibn Ahmad al-Salami has narrated in his book. However, what seems right to me is that Al-Ma’mun appointed him as the successor to the throne due to a covenant he had made with God as was mentioned before.28 However, Al-Fadhl ibn Sahl did not ever stop his animosity. He despised Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) and did not like him (a.s.) to be the successor to the throne. This was because Al-Fadhl had been raised by the Barmakites. Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) was forty-nine and a half years old when he died in the year 203 A.H. (818 A.D.) as I have documented in this book.

40-28 (The author of the book narrated) my father - may God be pleased with him - narrated that Ahmad ibn Idris quoted on the authority of Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Yahya ibn Imran al-Ash’ari, on the authority of Mo’awiya ibn Hakeem, on the authority of Mo’ammar ibn Khallad that Abul Hassan Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) narrated that one day Al-Ma’mun told him, “O Abal Hassan (Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.))! See whom you trust and introduce them to me to appoint as the governor of a few of the towns in which there is rebellion against us.” The Imam (a.s.) told him, “Honor your covenant with me, and I will honor my covenant with you. My condition for accepting the succession to the throne was that I will not interfere in any of the affairs. I will neither issue any orders, nor will I admonish anyone. I will not remove anyone from office, neither will I appoint anyone. I will not dispatch anyone for any affair. This I will do until God takes me away before you. I swear by God that I have not made any plans for the Caliphate in my mind. I was in Medina where I went around on my own animals. The people there and other people just asked me for the fulfillment of their needs. I fulfilled whatever I possibly could. Thus to me they were just like my uncles. My letters to anyone anywhere were honored. You have not added any blessings to what God has already granted to me.” Then Al-Ma’mun said, “Fine. I will honor my covenant with you.”

40-29 It has been narrated that Al-Fadhl ibn Sahl and Hisham ibn Ibrahim decided to go to Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.). Upon entering (his home), they told him that they had come there regarding a private affair and asked to see him in private. Then Al-Fadhl brought out a letter in which there were pledges to emancipate and divorce which cannot be broken and there is no set expiation for breaking them. They said, “We have come to

خَمْسٍ وَخَمْسِينَ سَنَةً هَذَا مَا حَكَاهُ أَبُو عَلِيٍّ الْحُسَيْنُ بْنُ أَحْمَدَ السَّلامِيُّ فِي كِتَابِهِ وَالصَّحِيحُ عِنْدِي أَنَّ الْمَأْمُونَ إِنَّمَا وَلاهُ الْعَهْدَ وَبَايَعَ لَهُ لِلنَّذْرِ الَّذِي قَدْ تَقَدَّمَ ذِكْرُهُ وَأَنَّ الْفَضْلَ بْنَ سَهْلٍ لَمْ يَزَلْ مُعَادِياً وَمُبْغِضاً لَهُ وَكَارِهاً لامْرِهِ لانَّهُ كَانَ مِنْ صَنَائِعِ آلِ بَرْمَكَ وَمَبْلَغُ سِنِّ الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ تِسْعٌ وَأَرْبَعُونَ سَنَةً وَسِتَّةُ أَشْهُرٍ وَكَانَتْ وَفَاتُهُ فِي سَنَةِ ثَلاثٍ وَمِائَتَيْنِ كَمَا قَدْ أَسْنَدْتُهُ فِي هَذَا الْكِتَابِ.

28 - حَدَّثَنا أَبي رَضِىَ اللهُ عَنْهُ قالَ: حَدَّثَنا أَحْمَدِ بْنِ إِدْرِيس قالَ: حَدَّثَنا مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ أَحْمَدِ بْنِ يَحْيَى بْنِ عِمْران الأَشْعَرِيِّ قالَ: حَدَّثَنا مُعاوِيَةَ بْنِ حكيم عَنْ معمر بْنِ خلاد قالَ: قَالَ لِي أَبُو الْحَسَنِ الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ قَالَ لِيَ الْمَأْمُونُ يَا أَبَا الْحَسَنِ انْظُرْ بَعْضَ مَنْ تَثِقُ بِهِ تُوَلِّيهِ هَذِهِ الْبُلْدَانَ الَّتِي قَدْ فَسَدَتْ عَلَيْنَا فَقُلْتُ لَهُ تَفِي لِي وَأَفِي لَكَ فَإِنِّي إِنَّمَا دَخَلْتُ فِيَما دَخَلْتُ عَلَى أَنْ لا آمُرَ فِيهِ وَلا أَنْهَى وَلا أَعْزِلَ وَلا أُوَلِّيَ وَلا أَسِيرَ حَتَّى يُقَدِّمَنِيَ اللَّهُ قَبْلَكَ فَوَاللَّهِ إِنَّ الْخِلافَةَ لَشَيْ‏ءٌ مَا حَدَّثَتْ بِهِ نَفْسِي وَلَقَدْ كُنْتُ بِالْمَدِينَةِ أَتَرَدَّدُ فِي طُرُقِهَا عَلَى دَابَّتِي وَإِنَّ أَهْلَهَا وَغَيْرَهُمْ يَسْأَلُونِّيَ الْحَوَائِجَ فَأَقْضِيهَا لَهُمْ فَيَصِيرُونَ كَالأَعْمَامِ لِي وَإِنَّ كُتُبِي لَنَافِذَةٌ فِي الأَمْصَارِ وَمَا زِدْتَنِي فِي نِعْمَةٍ هِيَ عَلَيَّ مِنْ رَبِّي فَقَالَ أَفِي لَكَ.

29 - وَرَوى‏ أَنَّهُ قَصَدَ الْفَضْلُ بْنُ سَهْلٍ مَعَ هِشَامِ بْنِ عَمْرٍو الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ فَقَالَ لَهُ يَا ابْنَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ جِئْتُكَ فِي سِرٍّ فَأَخْلِ لِيَ الَْمجْلِسَ فَأَخْرَجَ الْفَضْلُ يَمِيناً مَكْتُوبَةً بِالْعِتْقِ وَالطَّلاقِ وَمَالاً كَفَّارَةً لَهُ وَقَالا لَهُ إِنَّا جِئْنَاكَ لِنَقُولَ كَلِمَةَ حَقٍّ وَصِدْقٍ وَقَدْ عَلِمْنَا أَنَّ الإِمْرَةَ

you to say what is right and is the truth. We know that the rule belongs to you. O son of the Prophet! We know that it is your right. We have in our minds the same things that we express in words. We swear by the emancipation of our slaves and divorcing of our wives - that which cannot be replaced by the payment of any expiation - and that we go on the Hajj pilgrimage thirty times in bare feet, that we are determined to kill Al-Ma’mun and turn over the rule to you so that you can get back what is rightfully yours.” However, Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) paid no attention to them, and even blamed them and cursed them. He (a.s.) told them, “You have not been grateful and have also endangered your life. I am not in agreement with you either.” When Al-Fadhl and Hisham heard this, they realized that they had made a big mistake. They decided to go see Al-Ma’mun after hearing what Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) had told them. They told Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.), “We said this in order to test you.” Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) told them, “You are lying. You have in your minds the same thing that you expressed in words. However, you did not find me in agreement with your wishes.” Then when they went to see Al-Ma’mun they said, “O Commander of the Faithful! We went to see Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) and we talked to him trying to find out what he thinks about you.” And Al-Ma’mun said, “You succeeded.” When they left Al-Ma’mun, Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) visited him in private and let him know what had been said and recommended that he protect himself against them. When he heard this from Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.), Al-Ma’mun realized that Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.) was honest.

  • 1. Meaning some of the followers of the Members of the Holy Household of the Prophet (S).
  • 2. Referring to his succession to the throne.
  • 3. Qur’an, 12:55
  • 4. Qur’an, 12:55
  • 5. Al-Ma’mun’s Prime Minister and Chief of the Armed Forces.
  • 6. He was referring to their own tired bodies.
  • 7. In some other references we read ‘six forefathers.’ See Fi Maqatil al-Talebin by Abul Faraj al-Isfahani, the chapter on “Ali ibn Musa ibn Ja’far.”
  • 8. They are the best of God’s creatures.
  • 9. Referring to Ali ibn Musa Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.)
  • 10. According to Maqatil Al-Talebeen it is not certain that Yasir – the servant was on this mission.
  • 11. This is one of the cardinal signs in astrology signifying enterprising. The other signs are Aries, Libra and Capricorn which signify initiating, ambitious and domineering, respectively.
  • 12. There is a shrine in the vicinity of Mashhad known as Khaj-i-Morad thought to be his tomb.
  • 13. A place in Bani Kananat with Christian residents who had made a peace treaty with the Muslims.
  • 14. Qur’an, 42:23
  • 15. Qur’an, 33:33
  • 16. Imam Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.)
  • 17. That is grant you the position which you have asked for
  • 18. Qur’an, 16:91
  • 19. Researchers say that it seems that what is recorded in parenthesis is not correct.
  • 20. In Baghdad with poison. He was the father of Imam Ar-Ridha’ (a.s.)
  • 21. The revolt of Muhammad ibn Ja’far happened in the year 200 A.H. (814 A.D.) during the rule of Al-Ma’mun. That is why researchers doubt the correctness of this paragraph.
  • 22. Researchers have said that Al-Joloodi became the governor of Egypt in the year 213 A.H. (827 A.D.)
  • 23. Some historians have recorded that they were four in number called Qalib, Qistanteen, Faraj and Movaf’faq who were led by Ali ibn Abi Sa’eed. Qalib was Al-Ma’mun’s maternal uncle.
  • 24. Or perhaps Thul-Alamayn
  • 25. The Barmakites were a family of Iranian origin who started with Barmak who was in charge of an Idol-House called Nobahar in the city of Balkh. Barmak’s son was called Khalid. He started to work in the court of Abdul Malik ibn Marvan, and was able to attain a high position there. He accepted Islam during the era of Hisham ibn Abdul Malik. Later he became one of the heads of the army of Abu Muslim Khorasani. After the downfall of the Umayads, he went to Abul Abbas Saf’fah and became a minister. His son Yahya who was very intelligent was Harun Ar-Rashid’s teacher. It has been said that the majesty of the Abbasids was due to the wisdom of Yahya and his son Ja’far who was a minister in the court of Harun Ar-Rashid.
  • 26. Barbat is the Persian lute, a kind of musical instrument. It also refers to the breast of a duck or goose.
  • 27. A stringed instrument having a large pear-shaped body, a vaulted back, a fretted (decorated with ornamental patterns) fingerboard, and a head with tuning pegs which is often angled backward from the neck.
  • 28. See Tradition No. 40-21 where Al-Ma’mun says, “I made ablutions with water, put on white pants and a smock and said four units of prayers in which I recited whatever of the Quran I knew. I prayed to the Highest God, sought refuge in Him, and sincerely made a strong covenant with Him to return the right to its true place and to turn over the Divine Leadership to its proper owner whom God has set - if He helps me overcome these difficulties.”