General Note

For the ease of common readers the following formula has been used for Arabic words and names.

Various transliteration symbols which are commonly used have not been used in this book as not everyone is familiar with exactly what they stand for. For a few words where there has been no other way but to use an apostrophe, it has been used such as Ka‘b and Mu‘adh.

Other than the omission of transliteration symbols, all other rules of transliteration have been applied.

The Arabic form of names has been used rather than the European ones such as Ibrahim and not Abraham.