Glossary of Terms

Adhan: Call to the prayers.

Fajr: Morning time (before sunrise)

Ghusl: A ritual bath according to Islamic Law.

Haidh: Menstruation, period.

Halal: Allowed as per Islamic Law, permissible.

Haram: Things/actions that are prohibited as per Islamic Law.

Hijab: Islamic covering.

Iddat: Four months and 10 days waiting period for a woman after her husband dies. She can remarry someone else after this waiting period.

Ihtiyat-e-Mustahab: When a Mujtahid gives a general ruling along with a recommended option related to that ruling. His recommendation is basically a precautionary measure. The Muqallid (follower) can act either way i.e. act according to the general ruling or the recommendation. The follower must follow at the least the general ruling. The follower cannot follow any other Mujtahid on this issue.

Ihtiyat-e-Wajib: Ihtiyat-e-Wajib is not a fatwa (ruling) and the follower must follow the precautionary measure suggested by the Mujtahid he/she is following OR follow another Mujtahid (on this issue) to whom it is permissible to do Taqlid.

Istihadha: Blood seen by women, which is not blood of Haidh nor Nifas.

Janabat: After having sex a woman enters into the state of Janabat.

Jum`: Jum` means keeping haidh and istihadha both in mind. In the days of Jum`, a woman cannot do the things that are haram in haidh, but must do all the things that are wajib (obligatory) in istihadha. Since Salat is obligatory in Istihadha along with ghusl (Ritual bath) she must perform ghusl and Salat. Whereas sex is Haram (Prohibited) in Haidh, and as a result she should refrain from sex.

Junub: A woman who is in the state of janabat, that is after sexual intercourse, or after semen comes out in sleep or after sexual intercourse and before performing ghusl.

Katheera: Excessive flow of Istihadha blood.

Maghrib: The time after sunset.

Mahram: Someone with whom marriage is prohibited. Example: Father, Brother.

Marja`: A Mujtahid who is a source of emulation in Islamic practices for the Shia populous. Maraaji’ is the plural of Marja`.

Masjid ul Haram: Ka’aba and the mosque surrounding it (Except Safa and Marwa).

Masjid ul Nabi: Mosque of the Holy Prophet (SAWA) in Madina.

Mubtadiyah: Beginner, the one who sees the blood of Haidh for the first time.

Mudhtaribah: A woman who has neither specific dates nor a fixed duration as far as Haidh is concerned.

Mujtahid: An Islamic jurist capable of independent derivation of legal rulings from the Islamic sources of law.

Mutawassitah: Medium flow of Istihadha blood.

Nasiyah: Forgetful, the one who forgets the dates and the duration of her period.

Nifas: Blood seen by women after childbirth or after miscarriage.

Niyyah: Intention behind performing an act of worship.

Non-Mahram: Someone with whom marriage is allowed. One should observe Hijab (Islamic covering), in his presence. Example: Paternal and maternal cousins.

Non-Sayyid: A woman who is not from the Holy Prophet’s family.

Qadha: A prayer or a duty that one makes up after not performing it within its prescribed time.

Qaleelah: Little flow of Istihadha blood.

Ramadhan: The 9th holy month in the Islamic calendar in which Muslims fast during the day.

Sajda: Prostration

Salat: Prayers

Salat-ul Asr: Mid after noon prayers.

Salat-ul Fajr: Morning prayers.

Salat-ul Isha: The evening prayer said after Maghrib prayers.

Salat-ul Maghrib: Prayer said at the time of sunset.

Salat-udh Dhuhr: Noon prayer.

Surah: A chapter of The Holy Qur’an.

Sayyid: A woman who is from the progeny of the Holy Prophet (SAWA)

Tahir: Pure as per Islamic Law.

Tawaaf: Circumambulating around Holy Ka’aba.

Tayammum: A way of purifying without the use of water. Tayammum is used as a substitute for Wudhu and/or Ghusl if water is not available.

Wajib: Obligatory actions that must be performed and by not performing them one will incur Allah’s punishment.

Wajib Sajda: Obligatory prostration.

Wudhu: A way of purifying, which is necessary before praying, before Tawaaf and other acts of worship where ritual purification is a pre-requisite. Wudhu is done with water.