1. To wear Ihram and Talbiya at Masjid al-Shajarah.
2. To do Tawaaf of Khane al-Ka’aba at Makkah.
3. To recite 2 Rakaat Salaat of Tawaaf at Makkah.
4. To perform Saee’ at Makkah.
5. To do Taqseer at Makkah.
6. To perform Tawaaf-un-Nissa at Makkah.
7. To recite 2 Rakaat Salaat of Tawaaf at Makkah.
This Umrah is Mustahab (Sunnat). Therefore, your Niyyat while wearing the Ihram will be Mustahab, but all other A’amaals which you have to perform for completing the Umra must be done with a Wajib Niyyat.
Ihram for men - consists of two pieces of white cloth and for ladies their usual daily wear is their Ihram, but it is highly recommended that it be white as it is the sign of purity.
a. For men the loins clothe covering oneself from the navel (around waist) to the knees. The second piece covers one self from the shoulders to the elbows. It is not necessary to have the clothes of Ihram on you all the time when you are in the state of Ihram. For example, one may remove the upper piece provided it is not done in front of the ladies. The Recommended size of cloth of Ihram is two and half yards in length and about 42/44 inches in breadth.
b. The cloth used for Ihram must be Tahira. If it becomes Najis at any time during Ihram, it must be replaced or made Tahira.
c. It must not be made of silk or golden threads.
d. It must not be Ghasbi. This means it must not be the one usurped from its rightful owner or belonging
For men the Ihram must not be sewn.
e. It must not be made of animal hide or skin.
f. Ihram can be purchased in Medina for about Saudi Riyals 30/45 per set, which is much cheaper than buying one from North America.
g. Men are allowed to wear a money belt around their waist, to secure their money, traveler’s cheques and other documents. These are made of plastic and are available for about 15/30 Saudi Riyals. Ladies should either sew or buy a white pouch to wear round their neck in order to keep their money and other valuables. These are available in North America for about $8/12, depending on the quality.
h. One should try to wear your Ihram at the prescribed Meeqat after Dhohar prayers, or when that is not possible, after any Wajib prayers. But if none of the Wajib prayers precede your Niyyat for Ihram, then a minimum of two Rakaats and a maximum of 6 Rakaats (by way of 2 Rakaats in each set, like the morning Salaat) is Mustahab.
• Niyyat: “I am wearing Ihram for Umra al-Mufradah Qurbatan Illallah”.
After wearing the Ihram immediately proclaim Talbiyya. Men must recite loudly but women should not recite loudly. Talbiyya must be recited in Arabic as under
With Talbiyya recited, the process of wearing Ihram is now completed. Twenty-five things become Haraam and forbidden for you as long as you are in Ihram. They are applicable to both, men and women.
1. Hunting: Remember that hunting within the sacred area around and in Makkah, known as the Haram, is always forbidden. It is not confined to Ihram. When in Ihram, hunting anywhere also is forbidden. You are allowed to kill scorpions, pythons, poisonous snakes and rats. You are allowed also to slaughter domestic fowls such as goats, sheep, camels, etc.
2. Sexual intercourse: Sexual intercourse, or any acts of courtship which would arouse sexual desire are forbidden. Even lustful glance at ones own wife or husband or any other lady or man who is Na-Mahram is forbidden. The expiation is one camel or a cow or a sheep in that order of affordability.
3. Masturbating: This includes all methods of self-abuse. It has the same precept as sexual intercourse.
4. Marriage contract: To read Nikah for oneself or for others regardless of whether the other person is in Ihram or not. This applies to Muta’a as well. The expiation is ihtiyatan (precautionary) one sheep.
5. Perfumes: To use perfume or apply it on ones clothes. Perfumes like Saffron, Camphor, Cloves, Cardamom, Amber and all their uses are forbidden. Sweet smelling fruits like apples etc., may be eaten, but it is forbidden to smell them.
6. Smell or odor: To close ones nose or nostrils from bad smell or odor is not allowed. The expiation of doing so is one sheep. However, there is no objection if one hastily passes away from the unpleasant odour.
7. Sewn clothes: It is Haram for men to wear sewn or stitched clothes in Ihram. Their clothes must not have sleeves or seams. However, belts with sewn pockets for keeping money, traveler’s cheques, passports and other valuables, slung around the shoulders or worn around the waist are allowed. Similarly, Hernia belts can be worn. One is not allowed to fasten the Ihram with pins or a needle or anything of that sort. You can not even tie a knot. Ladies are allowed to wear all types of sewn clothes during Ihram, except for the hand gloves and wear a veil. The expiation for violation of this rule is one sheep.
8. Surma: To apply black surma (eyeliner) in the eyes for cosmetic purposes are strictly forbidden for men and women. If it is neither black nor for any cosmetic or beautifying purposes, then it is allowed. The expiation of violation is one sheep.
9 Mirror: To look into a mirror for cosmetic reason, which means to appreciate ones looks and features, including combing hair etc., is forbidden. The expiation of this violation is one sheep. If a driver wearing Ihram has to refer to the mirrors of his car or bus as he drives, there is no objection. Spectacle glasses are allowed provided they are not worn for fashion or beautification, though this should be avoided if possible.
10. Lying and abusing: To tell lies or abuse and scorn is always forbidden but when in Ihram it becomes all the more undesirable and Haraam. Similarly, it is Haraam to boast or brag about ones own superiority or excellence, with an intention to belittle or under estimate the others.
Note: This means one has to be very careful not to use abusive, foul or obscene language in ordinary conversation. If this is done the expiation is one cow for violation of this rule.
11. Shoes and socks: It is forbidden for men to cover the upper part of the feet from the toes to the ankle. So, men must not wear socks or full shoes. Women can wear them, (although), it is better for women to avoid wearing socks. The expiation for men violating of this rule is one sheep.
12. Swearing: To take an oath or to swear in any form, particularly saying LaWallah, Balaa Wallah (no, by God or yes, by God) is Haraam. The expiation is Istegfaar, (repentance) for the first and second time, and a sheep for the third time.
The following cases are exceptional.
a) That it is intended to prove thereby some right or to make the wrong public to others.
b) That is not meant to swear thereby, but is merely expressing respect and love.
There is no expiation (kafara) for a right swearing, provided, it is not more than twice, otherwise, the expiation is one sheep. If it is a wrong swearing, the expiation is one sheep for the first time, for the second time two sheep and a cow for the third time.
13. Killing insects: It is forbidden to kill insects or brush-off an insect originating from one’s own body e.g. lice. There is no harm to transfer them from one place to another and the expiation for this rule being violated is to give a handful of food to the poor.
14. Make up: All methods of self-beautification, either by use of cosmetics or by ornaments are forbidden. A ring worn for the Niyyat of thawab, like a Firoza or Aqeeq or Dhoor al-Najaf is permissible. Ladies must also refrain from wearing ornaments, except those they usually wear. But even these must not be displayed to men, even to the husband.
15. Henna: To apply henna is Haraam during Ihram. The expiation for the violation is ihtiyatan (precautionary) one sheep.
16. Pulling out of a tooth: To have your tooth extracted even if there is no bleeding due to it. (Marhum Ayatullah Abul Qassim El Khui did not lay emphasis on this. He said this is permitted).
17. Blood: To take out blood from ones own body, or to cause any bleeding by scratching or brushing the teeth etc., is Haraam. However, if this becomes in evitable for relief from any distress, it is allowed. The expiation for ignoring this rule is one sheep.
Note: One should use salt to brush teeth rather than scented toothpaste.
18. Covering of the face: In the state of Ihram, women are not allowed to cover their faces with a mask or veil, not even partly. While saying her Salaat, they may cover part of their forehead etc., in an effort to cover her head and hair fully, but after Salaat, she has to see that her face is not covered even partially. She can cover her face while sleeping. She must also refrain from immersing her head in water. Men are not allowed to cover their face at all, their ears must also be visible.
Men must not carry any baggage on their heads, nor dip themselves in water. However, a handkerchief or strip of cloth tied on the forehead for relief from a headache is allowed. The expiation for this violation is one sheep.
19. Ointment: It is forbidden to apply any kind of ointment to the body, whether it has a sweet smell or not. If however, it becomes necessary for medical reasons it is allowed.
20. To remove or pluck hair from ones own body, or from another's body, regardless of whether the other fellow is in Ihram or not. The expiation for this is a handful of grain. There are four exceptions to this.
i) If hair falls itself, while doing Wudhu or Ghusl, there is no objection.
ii) If one’s hair has grown to his/her eyelid and is causing distress and agony, one may remove it.
iii) If the removal of hair becomes inevitable for any good reason and valid reason. But if due to the hair, there are too many lice on the body, and it becomes necessary to remove the hair so as to be relieved of the parasite.
iv) You are allowed to stroke your hair or beard or slowly scratch your body, if you know that by so doing no hair would fall, and no bleeding would be caused.
20. Travel: Men are not permitted to travel under any kind of shade or shadow, be it the hood of a car, an umbrella or walking in the shadow of a car, bus, caravan or aircraft. All travelling must be under the open sky. Shades are permitted at the time of resting or taking a respite on the way. You can ward off sunrays by cupping one hand. The meaning of refraining from shade or shadow is that men must not protect themselves from sunrays, cold, heat or rain. So it is not only the head, which must not go into shade, it is the whole body. Once you are in Makkah, you are allowed to go under shade or shadow, even before you have found your accommodation or place of abode. Women, children and such men who fear that exposure would disable them or render them very sick, are exempted. But for such men, the expiation (Kafara) will have to be given inspite of the valid excuse they may have. The expiation for this violation is one sheep.
According to Ayatullah Sayyid Seestani, he allows men to travel in closed bus during the night. Men may follow his rulings if they are doing his Taqleed.
21. Cutting of nails: Cutting of nails either whole or partly is not allowed unless the nail is causing pain. The expiation (Kafara) for each fingernail being cut is a handful of food. If all nails of the hands are cut in the same place, the expiation (Kafara) will be one sheep. The same is true of feet. If the nails of both the hands and feet are cut in the same place, the expiation will be one sheep. If one cuts the nails of his hand in one place and the feet in another place the expiation will be two sheep.
23. Carrying of weapons: One is not allowed to carry any weapons, unless it is absolutely necessary. There is no harm in carrying a knife, etc., for cutting fruits, etc.
24. Uprooting trees: To uproot, pluck or cut the grass, leaves of the trees and all that grows from the earth in Makkah and around it; is not allowed. This is forbidden during Ihram and also without Ihram.
25. Nikah: To be witness to somebody's Nikah.
Note: All the expiation can be paid in Makkah or after returning home or even by sending money to a third world country for the same purpose with the exception of hunting which must be paid in Makkah.
The above rules are according to Marhum Ayoutallah Abul Qassim Al Khoei. If you are a Muqaleed of another Ayatullah please make sure you check his rulings with an A’alem.