There are many hadith making it imperative on the umma to follow
Ali. One of them is narrated by Ammar-e-Yasir, which your following
ulema have recorded in their books: Hafiz Abi Nu'aim Ispahani
in Hilya; Muhammad Bin Talha Shafi'i in Matalibu's-Su'ul; Baladhuri
in Ta'rikh; Sheikh Sulayman Balkhi Hanafi in Yanabiu'l-Mawadda,
Chapter 43, from Hamwaini; Mir Seyyed Ali Hamadani Shafi'i in
Mawaddatu'l-Qurba, Mawadda V; Dailami in Firdaus. They narrate
a lengthy, detailed hadith which cannot be related here in full.
It may be stated briefly that when people asked Abu Ayyub why
he had gone to Ali and had not sworn allegiance to Abu Bakr, he
replied that one day he was sitting with the Prophet when Ammar-e-Yasir
came in and asked the Prophet a question. In the course of his
conversation, the Prophet said: "O Ammar! If all the people
go one way and Ali alone goes the other way, you should follow
Ali. O Ammar! Ali will not allow you to diverge from the path
of guidance and will not lead you to destruction; O Ammar! obedience
to Ali is obedience to me, and obedience to me is obedience to
Allah." In light of these injunctions, and in light of Ali's
opposition to Abu Bakr, shouldn't people have followed Ali? Even
if the Bani Hashim, Bani Umayya, distinguished companions, the
intelligentsia of the nation, the Muhajirs, and Ansars had not
been with him (and they were with him), people should have followed
Hafiz: During our discussion,
you have said two strange things. First you have repeatedly called
Abu Ubaida a "grave digger." Can you prove that this
was the profession of this gentleman? Second, you said that Ali,
the Bani Hashim, and the companions did not pay allegiance to
Abu Bakr, they opposed him. But all the historians and traditionists
have written that Ali, the Bani Hashim, and the companions of
the Prophet did take the oath of allegiance to Abu Bakr.
Well-Wisher: It is not we alone
who claim that Abu Ubaida was a grave digger. It is in your own
books. You may refer to Al-Bidayya wa'n-Nihaya, Volume V, pages
266-267 compiled by Ibn Kathir Shami, who says that since Abu
Ubaida used to dig the graves of the Meccans, Abbas sent a man
in search of Abu Talha, the grave digger of Medina, and another
man in search of Abu Ubaida, so that both of them might dig the
You say that Ali , the Bani Hashim, and the Prophet's companions
took the oaths of allegiance to Abu Bakr. You have read the words
"paid allegiance," but you have not understood to whom
and how they paid allegiance. All your learned traditionists and
great historians have written that Ali and the Bani Hashim paid
allegiance (outwardly), but that was done after six months, and
then only under extreme duress.
Hafiz: It is not proper for
a noble man like you to use the words that the common Shia people
use: that Ali was dragged out of his house and was threatened
with death if he did not swear allegiance. The fact is that in
the first few days of the caliphate, he willingly and cheerfully
accepted the caliphate of Abu Bakr.
Well-Wisher: Ali and the Bani
Hashim did not take the oath of allegiance immediately. Your historians
have written that Ali offered his allegiance after the demise
of Hazrat Fatima. Bukhari in his Sahih, Volume III, Chapter of
Ghazawa Khaibar, page 37, and Muslim Bin Hujjaj, in his Sahih,
Volume V, page 154, report that Ali offered his allegiance after
Fatima's death. Some of your ulema believe that Fatima died 75
days after the Prophet's death. Ibn Qutayba also holds the same
view, but most of your historians claim that she died six months
after the Prophet died. It follows, therefore, that Ali's allegiance
came some time after 3 to 6 months of the Prophet's death. Mas'udi
in his Muruju's-sahab, Volume I, page 414, says "None of
the Bani Hashim swore their allegiance to Abu Bakr until the death
of Bibi Fatima. Ibrahim Bin Sa'd Saqafi narrates from Zuhri that
Ali did not pay allegiance until six months after the Prophet's
death, and the people did not have the courage to pressure him
except after the death of Bibi Fatima. Ibn Abi'l-Hadid in Sharhe
Nahju'l-Balagha relates the same fact. In any case, your own ulema
insist that Ali's allegiance was not immediate but came only after
some time had passed and then only when circumstances forced him
to do so. Ibn Abi'l-Hadid, in his Sharhe Nahju'l-Balagha, Volume
II, page 18, narrates from Zuhri, from A'yesha, who said: "Ali
did not offer allegiance to Abu Bakr for six months, and no one
of the Bani Hashim offered allegiance until Ali did." Ahmad
Bin A'sam-e-Kufi Shafi'i in Futuh, and Abu Nasr Hamidi, in Jam'a
Bainu's-Sahihain report from Nafiy, quoting from Zuhri, who said:
"Ali did not swear allegiance until six months after the
Hafiz: Where have our ulema
said that Ali was dragged from his house and house set on fire,
as is commonly believed by Shias? They narrate it with great emotion
in their religious gatherings. They also excite the emotions of
people by saying that Fatima was tortured and consequently suffered
Well-Wisher: Respected audience:
you revile the Shias, attempting to cover the guilt of your predecessors.
You say that these hadith have been concocted by Shias. The truth
is that on the order of Abu Bakr, Umar and others went to Ali's
house, threatened him with a sword, dragged him to the mosque
and forced him to swear allegiance to Abu Bakr. These facts have
been recorded by your own ulema. If you wish, I will relate them.
We do not say anything on our own authority. We say only what
Hafiz: Yes, please do. We are
prepared to listen.
Well-Wisher: (1) Abu Ja'far
Baladhuri Ahmad Bin Yahya Bin Jabir Baghdadi, one of your reliable
traditionists and historians, writes in his History that when
Abu Bakr called Ali to swear allegiance, Ali refused. Abu Bakr
sent Umar who went with a torch to set fire to Ali's house. Fatima
came to the door and said: "O son of Khattab! Have you come
to set my house on fire?" He said: "Yes, this is more
effective than anything your father did."
(2) Izzu'd-Din Ibn Abi'l-Hadid Mu'tazali, and Muhammad Bin Jarir
Tabari, narrate that Umar went to the door of Ali's house with
Usayd Bin Khuza'i, Salama Bin Aslam and a group of men. Umar then
called out, "Come out! Or else I'll set your house on fire!"
(3) Ibn Khaziba reports in his Kitab-e-Gharrar from Zaid Bin Aslam,
who said: "I was one of those who went with Umar with torches
to Fatima's door. When Ali and his men refused to offer allegiance,
Umar said to Fatima, "Let whoever is inside come out. Otherwise,
I will set the house on fire along with whoever is inside."
Ali, Hasan, Husain, Fatima, and a party of the Prophet's companions,
and the Bani Hashim were inside. Fatima said: "Would you
set my house on fire along with me and my sons?" He said:
"Yes, by Allah, if they do not come out and pay allegiance
to the caliph of the Prophet."
(4) Ibn Abd Rabbih, one of your famous ulema, writes in his Iqdu'l-Farid,
Part III, page 63, that Ali and Abbas were sitting in Fatima's
house. Abu Bakr told Umar: "Go and bring these people. If
they refuse to come, fight them." So Umar came to Fatima's
house with torches. Fatima came to the door of the house and said:
"Have you come to burn our house?" He said: "Yes..."
and so on.
(5) Ibn Abi'l-Hadid Mu'tazali in his Shahre Nahju'l-Balagha, Volume
I, page 134, quoting from Jauhari's Kitab-e-Saqifa, writes in
detail about the affair of the Saqifa-e-Bani Sa'ad. "The
Bani Hashim and Ali were assembled in Ali's house. Zubair was
also with them since he considered himself one of the Bani Hashim.
Ali used to say, 'Zubair was always with us until his sons were
grown up. They turned him against us.' Umar went to Fatima's house
with a group of men. Usayd and Salma were also with him. Umar
asked them to come out and swear allegiance. They refused. Zubair
drew his sword and came out. Umar said: 'Get hold of this dog.'
Salma Bin Aslam snatched the sword and threw it against the wall.
Then they dragged Ali to Abu Bakr. Other Bani Hashim also followed
him and were waiting to see what Ali would do. Ali was saying
that he was the servant of Allah and the brother of the Holy Prophet.
Nobody listened to him. They took him to Abu Bakr, who asked him
to take the oath of allegiance to him. Ali said: "I am the
most deserving person for this position, and I will not pay allegiance
to you. It is incumbent on you to pay allegiance to me. You took
this right from the Ansar based on your relationship with the
Prophet. I also, on the same ground, protest against you. So be
just. If you fear Allah, accept my right, as the Ansar did yours.
Otherwise, you should acknowledge that you are intentionally oppressing
me.' Umar said: 'We will not leave you until you swear allegiance.'
Ali said: 'You have conspired well together. Today you support
him, so that tomorrow he may return the caliphate to you. I swear
by Allah that I will not comply with your request and will not
take the oath of allegiance (to Abu Bakr). He should pay allegiance
to me.' Then he turned his face toward the people and said: 'O
Muhajirs! Fear Allah. Do not take away the right of authority
of Muhammad's family. That right has been ordained by Allah. Do
not remove the rightful person from his place. By Allah, we Ahle
Bait have greater authority in this matter than you have. There
is a man among you who has the knowledge of the Book of Allah
(The Qur'an), the Sunna of the Prophet , and the laws of our Religion.
I swear by Allah that we possess all these things. So do not follow
yourselves lest you should stray from the truth.'" Ali returned
home without offering allegiance and secluded himself in his house
until Fatima died. Thereafter, he was forced to offer allegiance.
(6) Abu Muhammad Abdullah Bin Muslim Bin Qutayba Bin Umar Al-Bahili Dinawari, who was one of your ulema and an official Qazi of the city of Dinawar, writes in his famous Ta'rikhu'l-Khulafate Raghibin wa Daulate Bani Umayya, known as Al-Imama wa's-Siyasa, Volume I, page 13: "When Abu Bakr learned that a group hostile to him had assembled in Ali's house, he sent Umar to them. When Umar shouted to Ali to come out and to swear allegiance to Abu Bakr, they all refused to come out. Umar collected wood and said 'I swear by Allah, Who has my life in His control, either you will come out, or I will set the house with all those in it on fire.' People said: 'O Abu Hafsa! Fatima is also present in the house.' He said: 'Let her be there. I will set fire to the house.' So all of them came out and offered allegiance, except Ali, who said: 'I have taken a vow that until I have compiled the Qur'an, I will neither go out of the house nor will I put on full dress.' Umar did not accept this, but the plaintive lamentation of Fatima and the snubbing by others, forced him to go back to Abu Bakr. Umar urged him to force Ali to swear allegiance. Abu Bakr sent Qanfaz several times to summon Ali, but he was always disappointed. At last Umar, with a group of people went to the door of Fatima's house. When Fatima heard their voices, she cried out 'O my father, Prophet of Allah! What tortures we are subjected to by the son of Khattab and the son of Abi Quhafa!' When the people heard Fatima's lamentation, some went back with their hearts broken, but Umar remained there with some others until finally they dragged Ali from the house. They took Ali to Abu Bakr, and told him to swear allegiance to him. Ali said: 'If I do not swear allegiance what will you do to me?' They said: 'We swear by Allah that we will break your neck.' Ali said: 'Will you kill the servant of Allah and the brother of His Prophet?' Umar said: 'You are not the brother of the Prophet of Allah.' While all this was going on, Abu Bakr kept silent. Umar then asked Abu Bakr whether he (Umar) was not following Abu Bakr's orders in this matter. Abu Bakr said that so long as Fatima was alive he would not force Ali to swear allegiance to him. Ali then managed to reach the grave of the Prophet, where, wailing and crying, he told the Prophet what Aaron had told his brother, Moses, as recorded in the Holy Qur'an: 'Son of my mother! Surely the people reckoned me weak and had well nigh slain me.' (7:150)