Fasting And Difference Between Hardship And Sickness 1/2

Bismillahi, ar-Rahmaani, ar-Raheem. Sabbihi isma Rabbika 'l-A'laa . Alladhee khalaqa fasawwa . Wa alladhee qaddara fahadaa . Wa alladeee akhraja la-mar'aa. Faja'alahoo ghuthaa'an ahwaa. Sanuqri'uka falaa tansaaa (87:1-6) Bismillahi, ar-Rahmaani, ar-Raheem. Al-Hamdulillah Rabb al-Alameen, wa assalat wa assalam ala Sayyidina wa Nabiyyina Muhammad wa aala alihy at-tayyibeen at-tahireen. Rabbi shrah’lee s’adri, wa yassirleee amree, wah’–lul u’qdatam min lisaanee yafqahoo qawlee (20:25-28)

InshaAllah we are going to continue today a few issues which are related to the fast. And we said that there is this harm and there is this complication, difficulty and hardship. So there's the sickness, which most of the time the word Bismillahi, ar-Rahmaani, ar-Raheem. Associated together. And then there is this complication and difficulty and hardship. So before I start, I just want you to let you know that there's a difference between sickness and complicated situation or hardship or difficulty. Sickness is something which is on a continuous basis, like, for example, diabetes, heart problem, blood pressure, all of these things a person has this kind of a sickness so fast might increase the sickness or fast might prolong the sickness or fast might initiate the sickness.

So these are the three things where the Maruaja they mentioned, especially Ayatollah Al-Udhma Sayyid Ali Sistani and Damadullah and Sayyid Al-Khu'i, quddusa sirru, they mention these three things that the sickness, a person who is not sick might become sick due to fast or a person is sick, but his sickness might get prolonged, the healing process might become longer or no, the sickness might become severe. That means the pain might increase if he if he will fast, that means the sickness will increase.

It might not be prolonged, but the pain will be difficult because he needs to take certain pills. If he does not take those pills, then he might have this pain and the pain might increase. So the thing is that a person who is not sick, well, person can become sick because of the fast or the sickness might get become prolonged or the sickness might become severe. In all these three cases, if the fasting is going to cause harm, caused sickness, severe sickness, then fasting is dropped.

There's no obligation of fasting. That means if you fast, your fast is invalid. Similarly to travel, if you travel due to the conditions, if the conditions apply on your traveling, then your fast is not correct. You can't fast, for example, if somebody fast before Dhuhur, and all these conditions, we might take a session and explain the concept of fasting and and travelling. But today we are going to talk about this sickness and fasting and haraj and fasting or complication and fasting.

So sickness, we know it's something like chronic, something like lasts for one whole day or two days or three days and so on. So the whole day he's going to become sick or he's sick something something which is like on a continuous basis. So this is sickness. Second, the second situation is a complication or hardship or difficulty. That's a temporary situation.

Like, for example, if somebody will fast, there are times in his day he might become dehydrated. He might become, he might have a headache, he might have some some temporary complications which could be relieved by medication or by drinking water or by drinking juice, any thing which has sugar in it or maybe eating some pills. So it's a temporary situation and it can be relieved and there is no sickness. So this is the difference between sickness and hardship. Haraj and Meradh. Maradh is sickness, haraj is hardship, mashaqqah is hardship.

So these two things, many times people, they look into the book of law, they get confused. Am I sick? Should I not fast? Because fast is not obligated on a sick person? Or no, should I fast, but then I have another rule for me. Another another law which governs my situation. So what is the what is the ruling of haraj? The ruling of haraj is that if you have this temporary problem, if that temporary problem is relieved by drinking this much water or this much juice, then don't drink this much. Limit yourself to the amount and the quantity which will relieve your your your temporary problem. So you understand what is the rule of haraj? Rule of haraj is that you drink an amount of whatever or eat like pills, whatever relieves your temporary hardship, your temporary difficulty. And you stop.

Of course, your fast is gone. My fast has gone. Then why should I continue fasting? Because if you if you don't because you have broken your fast but broken to the, due to the necessity, due to the hardship. So Islamic law says that you don't have to pay a penalty, you don't have to pay a penalty. You just make up this day. However, if you will, if you say, oh, my fast is gone, let me just have a nice grilled burger or whatsoever, you see chicken curry masala chicken tikka whatsoever, no.

If you eat more than what's required to relieve your difficulty and hardship, then you will have a Kaffarah, you will have a penalty also, which is like feeding 60 poor or fasting 60 days. So that's why, because anybody who breaks his fast, voluntarily, deliberately, his fast breaks, he commits a sin. And then after that, he has to pay a penalty, which is either 60 feeding 60 poor or fasting 60 days. So what the what the Islamic law is trying to tell us here, that if you have certain difficulty and hardship and you need to get some water, you need to get some juice, you need to get some sugar or you need to get some salt, you need to get something to relieve your difficulty and hardship or this complication, the temporary complication which has incurred.

So drink that much and continue the day. Continue on the basis of obligatory precaution with Sayyid Ali Sistani. So, Sayyid Ali Sistani says on the basis of obligatory precaution, continue the day and then make up, no kaffarah, no sin Al-Hamdulillah, only make up that day. So and this is obligatory precaution. So if you find that Marja' who is alam, after Ali Sistani tells you you don't need to continue today, then you can refer to him in this ma'sala, this ruling, because it's an obligatory precaution, as you know, in the rulings, which are obligatory precaution with your Marja', he gives you the permission to refer to someone else who is qualified and who relieves you from this precaution. So if somebody relieves you from this precaution and he's from the qualified scholars, you can refer to him and you don't need to abstain the rest of the day. Or if you find a qualified person, qualified scholar who tells you you don't need to do qadha', just continue this day. So you can continue this day and you don't need to do qadha.

But Sayyid Ali Sistani says, I'm choosing to do precaution, that continue this day and make up another make up this day like do qadha'. So this is the the basic ruling of difficulty and hardship. And we said that the sick person, there's no fasting obligated so he can eat chicken curry marsala, chicken tikka. However, it is recommended as it is recommended for a traveling person if he is exempt from fasting, if he is exempt from fasting, he is recommended for him to abstain and consider the etiquettes of the holy month of Ramadan.

Do not eat too much. Do not drink too much. Try to feel that sensation of fast. So to get the great reward of the fasting in the holy month of Ramadan, even if you are not fasting but you keep yourself like your fasting, you will get the reward. The same thing for the sick person. Even if you are a sick person, you are exempt from fasting, trying not to eat too much and drink too much in a way that you can get your thawab, reward of the of the fasting in the holy month of Ramadan.

So now one point, this sickness, it's not any sickness or I feel like I have a fever or something, not any sickness. The sickness, there are times the people, they are fasting in they have fever and they can survive, but there are people they might not be able to survive. So the thing is that the sickness which exempts you from fasting is the sickness which really causes harm to you, either prolongs your sickness or makes it severe.

And so there is a kind of so not any sickness, sickness like heart, heart attack, even if they are in medication, and doctors say you can fast if they have fear that the fasting might affect them, they don't have to fast. But the blood pressure patients who have hypertension and who have to take pills every now and then frequently otherwise their mind will blow and and so on, so that the sickness is the sickness, which is intolerable, usually in normal cases, but not basic sickness, like, oh, I, well, I have a mild pain in my stomach and I'm sick today.

That may not be a case where you invalidate your fast. So it's always good to refer to a doctor professional or if you have a previous experience of the stomach ache, which if you don't do not have your medications, then that kind of sickness will exempt you from fasting. So Ayatullah Al-Udhma Sayyid Ali Sistaniy says this for the sick person, if he has a larger probability, that means through the doctor, the trustworthy doctor, or experience or past experience so that you don't have to have knowledge that I'll become sick even if larger, even if larger probability, 80 percent strongly. I think I will become sick, if he if he has some intellectual basis for that, not just whispering and just like delusions and illusion. And no, I think I will become sick. He has some proper intellectual professional base for his his judgement.

Or no, he says that mine minor probably also exams, but the minor probability must be associated. With what? With fear. Minor probability must be associated with fear, so if you have minor problems, maybe I'll become sick, maybe my sickness will prolong, maybe my sickness will become serious. But this may be is it a larger probability or minor probability? No. Minor probability, like 20 percent. 10 percent. So. But do you have fear? No, I don't have fear.

OK, then you are not exempt from fasting. If he says yes, I fear we'll ask him why. Why are you afraid of this minor probability? Because it has been in the past. I had a similar condition. I had a similar situation. So I'm afraid that it might happen again and I might become sick. OK, then then if you have a fear based on certain experience which initiates this minor probability, then yes. So major probability, larger probability does not require fear. Minor probability requires fear.

So this is where you are exempt from fasting. So there's no fasting. But if you have certain temporary a temporary problem, temporary situation, then you can. And here also the maraja' they say especially Sayyid Sistani in al-Arwat ul-Uthqa' also mention that if fasting will cause hardship, which will prevent you from your fulfilling your responsibilities on your job, and you might get fired or you might get sacked or no, fasting might prevent you from focusing in your studies and you might get zero and you might not pass the test.

And it's very crucial for you to study and pass the test, especially for the youngsters who are in high school and in university. And they have the severe examinations in these days nowadays in the holy month of Ramadan when when we have May, June. And so it's a month of exams, examinations. So if the long fast or even regular fast, if it is going to cause some kind of obstacle from you to focus in your studies, or it might cause an obstacle to focus in your job and you might get fired and you might get sacked, then here, drink that much amount.

So if you can drink a quarter cup of orange juice and it will relieve you and let you focus and let you focus on your job or in your studies, for example, then don't drink half a cup. If if you need half a cup, don't drink full cup. As I mentioned, minimum amount to your needs, to the to the amount which will relieve your temporary distress. So here, if you doubt I do know will my will my difficulty will be relieved from half a cup or one full cup, then go for half a cup, don't go for a full cup due to the probability unless if you are sure that you really need a full cup.

So, that's why you have to you have to judge yourself. Nobody will judge you. It's your body. It's your problem. It's your difficulty. It's your hardship. You know what will relieve you in between you and Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala, you have to judge yourself how much I need to drink or to eat to relieve my difficulty and hardship. So if you can relieve if you are sure that one half a cup will relieve or a quarter cup will relieve, don't take half a cup.

If you are sure that half a cup will relieve that, don't go for a full cup. That's from one side. Another aspect of this ruling is that am I only allowed to drink once a day to relieve my difficulty? No. Whenever you you try to tolerate a little bit of toleration is good, you will get reward. But let's say after one hour or after half an hour again, you started losing your focus in your studies again. You started having headache again. You started having problems in the job. You can't focus on your job.

Then you will you can repeat having the amount which would relieve your difficulty. You can frequently, however, don't go more than what you need. If you got more than what you need, you have committed a sin and you have incurred a penalty. Besides the qadha', the qadha is there anyways, as we mentioned says Sayyid Ali Sistani on the basis of obligatory precaution. But you will you will be required to pay Kaffarah or a penalty if you drink more than whatever amount is required to try to relieve yourself with whatever minimum quantity, which relieves your problem or hardship or difficulty.

Now, also, there's a condition, you can't just say I have an exam or my I can't fulfill my job. Sayyid Ali Sistani, and the maraja', Sayyid Yazdi and Tabataba'i, they have a condition. They say if you can't take a leave of absence, if you can't focus on your job, take a leave one month leave in holy month of Ramadan. So don't put yourself in hardship in the holy month of Ramadan.

Or if you don't have another job and another alternative, as they say, so you don't have a substitute, another job, and you are restricted to this job. If you are fired from this job, your children will go on hunger and you will have economical problems and situation. So that's where the rule of difficulty and hardship helps, that you can't take a leave, you don't have another substitute job, alternative job. You are stuck with this job. If you get fired, you get fired or the one who is going to give exams, there is not another date. The date is inside the holy month of Ramadan and it's a very important exam, severe exam. If he fails this exam is finals will be filled and he will never be in the second class or second level. So this is a kind of relieving the difficulty and hardship by getting. Now, if you don't if you if you just want to break the fast, if you have exams, if you want to break the fast, you can you can travel a distance 22 kilometers and eat something there and come back before Dhuhur, like after after the dawn time after adhan al-fajr, you can go whenever, before Dhuhur, from adhan al-fajr till Dhuhur.

You can travel twenty-two kilometers out of your city limits, eat something there, come back, and now you don't have to limit yourself to the rule of difficulty and hardship. And later on, you do make up this day, do qadha of this day. So this is another solution for for those people who have exams. So either if they apply rule of difficulty and hardship and they do qadha, if they are going to do qadha anyways, then they can just travel twenty two kilometers, eat something and come back.

And then they do qadha and their fast is really because if a traveler, if somebody travels then the obviously the fast is, he's exempted from fasting. In my next session, I'm going to just mention the evidences of the text of the fatwa of Ayatollah al-Udhma Sayyid Ali Sistani .

Allahumma salli ala Muhammad wa aali Muhammad.