Why "Ash-hadu Anna Aliyun Wali Ullah" Was Added to the Adhan? - Our Prophet 6 - Foundations Of Islamic State

That is a very important discussion about this phrase: "Ash-hadu anna 'Aliyyan waliyyu Allah" [I bear testimony that 'Ali is the wali of Allah]. Now, this discussion in itself is very detailed, so I will just briefly summarize it.

The majority of our scholars believe that "Ash-hadu anna 'Aliyyan waliyy Allah" is not an original Wajib mandatory part of the Adhan because every ritual has mandatory parts and it has recommended parts like Salah. Salah has mandatory parts; Ruku [genuflection], Sujud [prostration], qira'ah [recitaton], Hamd [chapter of Hamd], Surah [chapter of Qur'an]. Then it has also Mustahab parts; like the Qunut [supplication] is Mustahab. The Dhikr that you say in the last Sujud- 'Ya Waliyya al-'Aafiyah'- that is Mustahab. A lot of the Tasbihat [glorifications] they are Mustahab.

The Adhan in its original form does not have "Ash-hadu anna 'Aliyyan waliyy Allah"as a Wajib part. It is a recommended, Mustahab part. Because, we have many narrations which state whenever the name of the Prophet, salla Allahu 'alayhi wa alihi, is mentioned, the name of Imam 'Ali Ibn Abi Talib 'alayhi as-salam, is also mentioned after that as a recommended deed.

So, many scholars, many Maraji' [scholars], they say when you say "Ash-hadu anna 'Aliyyan waliyy Allah", do not state it with the Niyyah [intention] of Juzi'yyah [essential part of greater whole], that this is a Wajib part of the Adhan. Say it with the Niyyah of Istihbab [recommendation]. Many, many scholars have said that. There are some Maraji' today who say no say it with the Niyyah of Juz'iyyah. But historically, most Maraji' have said do not say it with the Niyyah of Juz'iyyah.

And remember, you can add anything to the Adhan with this intention. Haven't you heard the Muadh-dhin [caller to prayer] say, for example; 'Allahu Akbar, Allah u Akbar.' [Allah is greater] And then he would comment by saying 'Jalla Jalaluhu' [His Majesty is majestical]. Have you not heard that? Even Sunnis do that! Well, hey, you are adding something to the Adhan. That is fine, you are not adding it with the Niyyah that this is part of the Adhan. You are adding it with the Niyyah that when the name of Allah is mentioned, it is Mustahab to praise God. So, I am praising God.

So, when the name of the Prophet salla Allahu 'alayhi wa alihi is mentioned, it is also Mustahab to mention Imam 'Ali Ibn Abi Talib 'alayhi as-salam. Many scholars have said you make it with this Niyyah. But still, there are still scholars, some Maraji' today who believe, no, it is part of Adhan.

After the event of Ghadir, when the Prophet salla Allahu 'alayhi wa alihi, was in Madinah, the last year he went to the Hajj after the event of Ghadir. When Imam Ali 'alayhi as-salam, was declared as the 'Wali'-as the authority for the Muslims. It was then when "Ash-hadu anna 'Aliyyan waliyy Allah" was revealed and the Prophet, salla Allahu 'alayhi wa alihi commanded the Muadh-dhin to say that.

Or one version says he said it, the Prophet approved of it, and that is when it became part of the Adhan. But of course, those who came after the Prophet, they omitted that from the Adhan. So, that is the case with "Ash-hadu anna 'Aliyyan waliyy Allah".

Now, when Jibrail said it in the Heavens in Bayt al-Ma'mur. Did he say "Ash-hadu anna 'Aliyyan waliyy Allah" or not? We do not know what exactly he said because not every aspect of the Adhan was clearly defined in those Ahadith [narrations]. It is highly likely that he did say it. There are clues that indicate he did say but we do not have like a Sahih Hadith that can verify that.

So, that is a discussion on "Ash-hadu anna 'Aliyyan waliyy Allah", very briefly, by the way, this is a very elaborate discussion but I tried to summarize it.

And then there are other aspects of the Adhan. "As-salat al-khayrun min an-nawm" [The prayer is better than sleep]. We have evidence that this did not exist at the time of the Prophet. This did not exist at the time of Abu Bakr. At the time of 'Umar Ibn al-Khattab, basically, he would come and to the Masjid, sometimes he would see people sleeping and then he told them the Muadh-dhin, when you are making the call to prayer, the Fajr prayer, by the way. They do not say this in all the Adhan, it is only for the Fajr prayer, because that is when people are sleeping, tell the people, tell them "As-salat al-khayrun min an-nawm"- prayer is better than sleeping.

Just examine this phrase from a linguistic perspective, just from the basic meaning of it. You know, it does not fit within the Adhan because the meaning is so silly. You are telling believers, hey, prayer is better than sleeping. Oh, really? I thought sleeping is better than praying... It is a silly statement to begin with.

Think about it, just think about it. You are saying to people, come pray. Prayer is definitely better than sleeping. Does anybody have a doubt about that? You can tell it does not fit with the other segments of the Adhan. So, we do actually have evidence, proof that it was 'Umar Ibn al-Khattab who inserted that in the Adhan.

And "Hayya 'ala khayr al-'Amal" [Hasten to the best of deeds]. We have also evidence from Sunni sources that it existed at the time of the Prophet. Also, 'Umar Ibn al-Khattab is the one who omitted it.

Because "Hayya 'ala Khayr al- 'Amal" means come to the best of deeds. 'Umar was mobilizing armies to go and fight for the conquests. And he would advocate that the best deed is what? Jihad! Fighting. So, he did not want people to think prayer is better. So maybe they would stay and not go to Jihad, thinking that I am doing the best of deeds, so no need for Jihad. So, he omitted that from the Adhan to mobilize people and encourage them to go to the Jihad. We actually have historical evidence for that.

So, the original Adhan that was revealed did not have "As-salatu khayrun min al-nawm" and it had "Hayya 'ala khayr al-'Amal". This is something we can prove with evidence from Sunni books and Shi'ah books.

Yes, say. [Going back to "Ash-hadu anna 'Aliyyan waliyy Allah", if it is not Wajib, the whole Adhan, we all are and we keep saying "Ash-hadu anna 'Aliyyan waliyy Allah", it is not Wajib, but the whole Adhan is not Wajib. So, what is left?] Yes. See, in Islamic law, whenever you have a recommended act like the Adhan, it has necessary components. What do we mean by necessary components? That means if you want to observe this Mustahab act and fulfil the command of offering it, you have to go by these parts.

Let me give you an example. Salat al-Layl or Salat un-Nafilah, is it Mustahab or Wajib? So, can I do it three Rak'at? [No!] Why not? It is Mustahab to begin with. So, you could say the Ruku' in Salat al-Layl is necessary. But what do you mean by necessary?

That means for Salat al-Layl to be valid, it must have a Ruku', Sujud and only two Rak'at. Two, two, .. the last one is one. But the whole Salat to begin with, what is it? It is Mustahab. But it has necessary components. That means you have to observe these components for the act to be valid. You can not just add or subtract something. But the Qunut in Salat al-Layl, it is a Mustahab part in a Mustahab act. The Ruku' is a necessary part in a Mustahab act. You see that difference?

Same with "Ash-hadu anna 'Aliyyan waliyy Allah" according to many scholars. It is a Mustahab part in a Mustahab act. "Ash-hadu anna Muhammadan Rasul Allah" is a necessary part in a Mustahab act. In other words, these scholars say if you do not say "Ash-hadu anna Muhammadan Rasul Allah", the whole Adhan is Batil - it is invalid.

It is like praying Salat an-Nafilah one Rak'at! It is invalid. But if you do not say "Ash-hadu anna 'Aliyyan waliyy Allah", the Adhan itself is valid because you have not skipped a necessary component.

Yes, and we examined this last year in Islamic law scholars, many of them today state historically, because Imam 'Ali, 'alayhi as-salam, has been marginalized and sidelined, and his virtues denied. The belief in the Wilayah has become basically the slogan for our Madh-hab [school of thought]. That is our way of defending Imam 'Ali Ibn Abi Talib 'alayhi as-salam, and the Wilayah of Imam 'Ali.

That is why many of the scholars, they believe that you should observe "Ash-hadu anna 'Aliyyan waliyy Allah" and if you do not, it is as if you are siding with those who are rejecting the authority of Imam 'Ali Ibn Abi Talib 'alayhi as-salam.

So, they call this 'Unwan Thanawi'- It is a secondary ruling. The primary ruling is that it is not Wajib for you to observe it in the Adhan, but the secondary ruling, due to this historical circumstances of Imam 'Ali, 'alayhi as-salam being marginalized. Then we have to make a statement by defending the Imam. So, from that aspect, some of them will even consider it Wajib.

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