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Is the concept of soul identical to that of Nafs? If so, how can it be interpreted that every Nafs is to taste death? Aren't souls eternal?
In the Qur'an, when used alone, the word "nafs" is not really used as a synonym for soul (in the sense of the soul as a non-corporeal entity distinct from the body). Rather, it is usually used to refer to the complete self; for instance, in phrases like "bring yourselves" or "they deceive themselves".
(Of course, this distinction can be blurry based on how one perceives the nature of the soul and the relationship between the soul and the body.)
This is different from the use of the word "nafs" outside the Qur'an, in that "nafs" in other texts or discussions is often used to mean specifically the immaterial part of the human.
Therefore, when the Qur'an says "kullu nafsin dha'iqat al-mawt", it means that all people will taste death in a holistic sense, not specifically that all souls will.
However, since the soul and body experience things simultaneously, the soul will also taste the experience of death, just as it experiences other things occurring via the body.
If one understands death to mean "transfer from realm to realm", rather than "annihilation", then definitely the soul will experience transfer from realm to realm upon death.
Some say that we will have a different type of body as a vehicle for the soul in the barzakh and in the Hereafter. Therefore, if death is also understood to mean "transfer from one type of body to another", the soul will also taste death in that way.
So it is not incorrect to say that all souls will taste death; the usage of the word in the Qur'an is simply more expansive than that.
Note that compound phrases in the Qur'an such as nafs al-'ammarah (the bestial soul), nafs al-lawwamah (the blaming soul), and nafs al-mutma'innah (the content soul which God calls to Paradise) refer more to immaterial aspects of the human being.
What are some works I can read on the Nafs and Ruh, their relationship to each other, their functions, and the different types of Nafs?
Jaami' al-Sa'adaat by Shaikh al-Naraaqi.
In the Quran, Allah often says he knows what is in your hearts and what is in your breasts. What does Allah mean when he says he knows what is in your breasts, is that the heart again, the nafs or something else?
The difference between the heart قلب and the breast or chests صدور in Quran has been discussed by many scholars of Tafseer. We see some non Shia scholars claim that there is no difference between heart and breast. We can not accept this opinion because of the clear mention of hearts and breasts in the same Quranic verses which must mean a difference in the meanings.
Among many opinions, we can say that the breast or chest is wider than the heart and it is effected by the state of mind and feeling of comfort or discomfort. That is why we read the supplication of prophet Moses (AS): O my Lord, extend my breast (Taha: 25).
The heart is our inner which is the origin of our intentions, while the breast is effected also by outside reasons and factors which make us feel comfortable or otherwise. That is why we read in Sura Al-Inshiraah how Allah (SWT) tells His Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) mentioning His bounties on him: Did not We extend your breast? ألم نشرح لك صدرك which means that Allah (SWT) Has granted him this bounty of making his breast big and extended.
In Quran we read about Quran that it is : Cure for what is in the breasts وشفاء لما في الصدور (Younus : 57). What is in breasts can be a mixture of our feelings and our thinking and reactions to other factors surrounding us.
No doubt, heart is the Centre of the breast (Hearts inside the breasts) (ولكن تعمى القلوب التي في الصدور) )(Verily, it is not the eyes that grow blind, but it is the hearts which are inside the breasts that grow blind) Al-Hajj : 46.