Qur'an 27:80-81 say: "Thou dost not make the dead hear; nor dost thou make the deaf hear the call when they turn their backs; nor canst thou guide the blind away from their error. Thou canst only make hear those who believe in Our signs and are submitters."
Some exegetes take this verse metaphorically, to mean that you cannot make a person who is dead in their heart to understand the call to the truth. Not that it is literally saying that it impossible for people who are physically deceased to hear anything from the living world.
This seems to better fit with the context of the verses which are about how the Prophet (S) cannot force people to listen to or accept his message; the main idea of the verses is not about physical death and the deceased.
A similar idea in the Qur'an is: "Have they not journeyed upon the earth, that they might have hearts by which to understand or ears by which to hear? Truly it is not the eyes that go blind, but it is hearts within chests that go blind (22:46)." That is, it is not about physical blindness but rather a metaphorical blindness.
God knows best.
Although belief in tahrif of the Qur'an is non-standard, it is better to reserve the word kufr for the things that Allah directly uses it for.
The Qur'an does not directly say that belief in tahrif is kufr. (Rather, some people assert this based on a deduction/interpretation of a verse, not a direct statement.)
The word kufr tends to be thrown around quite casually these days. There is rarely any benefit to accusing people of kufr or labelling Muslims as kafir just because one thinks they are incorrect in their belief. It is quite sad that this intolerance has developed today. The classical Islamic era seems to have been much more tolerant and open to discussing differences of opinion regarding theology. This is not to say that every view was always right, but it is better to be able to discuss things rationally rather than to shut down dissenting views by just labelling and attacking (verbally or sometimes physically).
The assumption that the physical world must be lifeless and non-sentient arises is somewhat modern and became prominent along with the rise of a European secular worldview. Peoples throughout history have held (and continue to hold) a variety of views of whether or not there is some inherent intelligence or sentience in nature.
Anyway, a literal reading of the verse suggests that the mountains do indeed have some level of awareness or comprehension, such that they were able to understand what it would mean to be offered the "trust" (amanah), and reply.
Other interpretations of this verse include:
* The verse is metaphorical. That is, it means to say, if the mountains were able to speak and understand, this is what they would say - to emphasize the enormity of the amanah.
* The verse is referring to the inhabitants of the earth and mountains, such as people, earth, jinn, and angels. This view exists but is somewhat odd since humans took on the amanah.
Personally I favour the literal understanding. It is in line with the Qur'anic verse that says that everything glorifies Allah but we do not understand it. So just we cannot understand the mountains does not mean they have no ability to communicate with Allah. However others may prefer other views.
Even if one does not accept this literal meaning, it should be noted that on the Day of Resurrection, it is said that the earth will be able to speak and bear witness to what happened upon it, so the natural world will have awareness and the ability to speak then.
Many Sunni books narrated authentic Hadeeths from the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) that Ali is the deputy and the successor of the Prophet (SAWA) e.g.
1. Musnad Ahmad bin Hanbal in Musnad Al-Asharah, Hadeeth 841: The Prophet said: Ali is my Khaleefa.
2. Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal, fadha'il al-Sahaba, Hadeeth number 1016: Ali is my Wasi .
3. Musnad Ahmed ibn Hanbal: It written on the gate of Paradise: LA ILAAHA ILLALLAH, MUHAMMAD RASOOLULLLAH, ALI AKHO RASOOLILLAH.
4. Al-Bukhari in his book Al-Tareekh Al-Kabeer vol. 1, p.375 that the Prophet (SAWA) said on the day of Ghadeer: For whom I am the master, Ali is his master.
5. Al-Albani in his book Takhreej Al-Hadeeth Al-Nabawi , Hadeeth number 94 that the Prophet said: Ali is the master of every of everyone who believes in me as his master.
It is always highly recommended for every Muslim to recite Quran but when a person is in the state of Janabah or a female is in her menses, it becomes Haraam on them to recite the four verses of the obligatory Sajda. Rest of Quranic verses are always allowed and recommended to recite.
The narration of Makrouh for woman in her menses to recite more than seven verses in case it is authentic, does not mean no reward but less reward from the usual situation of purity.
Zakat is obligatory on golden currency which is a currency made from gold. Zakat is not obligatory on gold if it is not in the shape of currency but Khums remains obligatory on the savings of everything including gold.
Zakat is obligatory on golden currency if it's weight is fifteen Mithqal as minimum.
Every Mithqal is 4.25 grams.
Witness is usually taken when there is a dispute between parties and conflict of interests. Witness is a heavy burden which can be difficult on one woman alone. Another woman supporting the first one will make the witness fully accepted.
In fact, it is out of respect for the woman not to leave her face the challenge of the witness alone.
Yes it is allowed for men to apply henna on hands as tattoo provided that it does not have the name of Allah or any name of The 14 Infallibles according to obligatory precaution. Henna for men should not be like what is usually used by women.
Obligatory Qadha prayer must be performed as Qadha without mixing it with Nafila.
If you have your family's blessings, and she has her family's blessings, then you can commence with communicating with her, within the shar'i boundaries of course. That would be something positive, to get the know the person prior to the marriage ceremony.
However, if it is away from parents knowing, and without any correct guidance, then you should not do that. A male/female going behind their parents' and secretly communicating with another person, wanting to supposedly marry them, is not at all advisable.
Parents should never be the last to know. That is a very disloyal trait, and in most cases ends very bad. First step is to have family involved, and then everything will fall in place, in shaa Allah.
With prayers for your success.
As Muslims, we do istinja`, or wash ourselves after using the toilet, not only because it is more hygienic and cleaner, but also to stay in the state of taharah, especially for salat.
This is necessary, wherever you may be, even in public office, if you are there regularly. You can use a water bottle, and it does not need to be excessive amount of water as well.
If you do not wash yourself, then no, you cannot pray in such a state, especially if it is after urinating. Your option is to either wait until you go back home, wash yourself, and then pray, or do as recommended above, and pray on time.
And Allah knows best.
You do not need to pay a kaffarah.
All you must do is redo that day as qadha`.
And Allah knows best.