Punishment is the imposition of an undesirable or unpleasant outcome upon a group or individual, meted out by an authority—in contexts ranging from child discipline to criminal law—as a response and deterrent to a particular action or behaviour that is deemed undesirable or unacceptable. The reasoning may be to condition a child to avoid self-endangerment, to impose social conformity (in particular, in the contexts of compulsory education or military discipline), to defend norms, to protect against future harms (in particular, those from violent crime), and to maintain the law—and respect for rule of law—under which the social group is governed.
Such matters should be for a legitimate Islamic government who can implement such hudud, or under an infallible as some scholars would state.
One cannot take matters into their own hands. Even some ulema who may allude to doing so would forbid it if this caused a Muslim to go into harm or trouble which most likely occur.
May Allah grant you success
No one will be punished for the sins of other person unless he approves it. The person who approves and agrees with any act whether good or bad, will be partner with the person who did it.
The bad effect of major sins falls on those children who agree and support it only and not on those who are against the wrong. Mohammad Ibn Abu Bakr was one of the pious followers of Ameerul Mo'mineen, despite being son of Abu Bakr who took the right of Khilafah from Ameerul Mo'mineen and deprived Fatimah from her right in Fadak.
A Mo'min by the name of Sa'd al-Khair from the family of Bani Umayyah came to Imam Mohammad Al-Baqir (AS) and he was weeping loudly like a woman. Imam asked him: What makes you weep O Sa'd? Sa'd replied: Why I should not weep when I belong to the cursed tree according to Quran (Bani Umayyah)? Imam replied him: You are not with Bani Umayyah, you are with us (Ahlul Bayt), did not you hear what Allah says in Quran (Whoever follows me is from me).
al-Ekhtisas by Shaikh al-Mofeed , page 85.
This means clearly that the children of the criminals are not responsible about the crimes of their parents or grand parents as far as they do not agree with the crime.
With regards to general du'a (not performing qadha salat), no. Praying or not praying for the well-being of the deceased is optional.
However, it is good to pray for the deceased - both for them, and also for yourself, if there are areas of conflict that need forgiveness. Sometimes it is easier to make peace with people and forgive them once they are gone.
If your parents have harmed you, it may be helpful to remember that, after they are deceased, they are no longer able to harm you. Also, most people act angrily, violently, etc, due to hormones, greed for material things, the way the body interacts with emotions, and so on, and deceased souls no longer have these things. So the deceased may also regret how they acted in this life once they are no longer affected by having a physical body. God knows best.
Elder son is responsible to pray the Qadha prayers and fast what his parents missed. Any other son, daughter, friend and even a paid person can perform the Qadha on behalf of the deceased. Neglecting this responsibility will be a sinful act on the person who neglected it.
Masturbation is a major sin and its punishment has been mentioned in many Hadeeths, that the sinner will come in the Day of Judgement with his hand which he used in masturbation, swollen like a mountain and will bedridden in front of all human beings.
Zina ( fornication) is another major sin, which is different from masturbation.
Here is a good treatment of this question: http://www.askthesheikh.com/did-imam-ali-a-s-really-put-two-men-on-fire-because-they-claimed-he-was-god/
This is a good question, and one that has received a lot of attention in the contemporary era.
Classically, many Muslims held that death is generally the punishment for apostasy (with some exceptions and conditions). Some Muslims today see this more in line with a modern treason law. That is, today, while killing someone for apostasy is considered a violation of human rights, killing someone for treason against their own nation is considered acceptable. This is because, in the past, religion was a primary marker of public identity and deliniation of the state; whereas, in the modern world, religion is considered a private matter and a matter of personal belief, and national identity is considered primary.
Also, this law is based on hadith. Some people have challenged the authenticity of hadith that say this, because it seems to go against the Qur'anic view that there should be no compulsion in religion; it also seems unusually harsh, since the Prophet had a merciful and lenient character. Other people hold that it may have been appropriate in the time of the Prophet (where leaving the Muslim community would generally mean militarily aiding the enemy) but it is no longer valid today.
So, basically, one can say that, yes, this is a classical view; but it is still a subject of much discussion.
Also, note that even if the classical law is correct, it is not acceptable for a person to go around killing people because he or she thinks they are apostates.
There are a number of pieces on this on al-Islam.org, which you can read by going to Google and typing "apostasy al-islam.org".
Thank you for your question. The issue of punishment can be understood in a number of ways. According to one understanding, which is perhaps the most prevalent, God would punish a person for not believing as that is the consequence of their bad use of free will. He has endowed humans with the ability to know Him, and has given them the bounties of this life, but with a responsibility to choose the correct way. As such misusing those bounties and choosing the wrong way results in punishment.
Another way to visualize punishment is to understand that God doesn't punish humans for their actions, but rather the real manifestation of the actions of a human in the next world is in line with the reality of that action. Bad actions manifest as punishment and good actions manifest as reward. With this view, God warns us of our own punishment of ourselves through the witnessing of the reality of our bad actions in the next world and that is truly what we have earnt.
May you always be successful
Thank you for your question. Masturbating is a sin related to animalistic desires and so its punishment in the hereafter would be linked to that, as all sins have consequences and punishments that are suitable for them. Masturbation is a sin punishable in this world as well, and it is narrated that Imam Ali (as) punished a man for it by hitting his hand until it became red, and then got him married, paying for the marriage out of the treasury.
As for stopping, masturbation is a habit and like any other habit, stopping is a process, which requires determination and persistence. As a starting point a person should get rid of all aids, such as photos, movies, being on the wrong social media groups etc.
It is helpful if they can get married, or if not that they take up fasting on a regular basis. There are communities of people who are giving up frapping (another word for masturbation) so seeking support from such groups may be helpful for some. The most important thing is not to get discouraged if you slip, but to make sure that slips are as irregular as possible and to know that masturbation has a number of negative consequences, especially for a person's sex life later on. With determination many people have found their way out of frapping with a positive result on their lives and spirituality.
May you always be successful.
It isn't appropriate to say whether the corona virus is man-made or not without clear evidence.
However, one can also consider a third option - namely, not all acts of God are punishment, even if they involve destruction. We learn from the Qur'an, such as the story of Khidr (A), that sometimes things that seem evil are actually for the greater good. Also, it is good to remember that there have been plagues throughout most of human history, so it isn't something new; it is only because we have become accustomed to modern medicine, and because of globalization, that it seems unusual.
That being said, from a theological angle, the Qur'an and hadith indicate that there are metaphysical laws for societies that go beyond material cause and effect. That is, acts of evil or injustice may bring about a negative consequence for that society even if the material chain of cause and effect is not readily apparent. (This should not be taken to mean that countries with high levels of infection currently are suffering from their own injustices; it is just a general principle.)
Our world is rife with injustice and imbalance, including warfare, sanctions, overconsumption, economic injustice, and environmental destruction. It is reasonable to look at the coronavirus situation in that light (and by "situation" I mean not only the virus but the sociopolitical response), and to consider that, in addition to material factors relating to the spread of the virus (such as airplanes and urbanization), it may be (a) an act of God designed to give us the opportunity to bring out and fix some of those problems, or (b) a natural consequence as part of metaphysical laws of cause and effect.
(Of course, all of these things often work together. In fact, even if it did transpire that it was manmade, things still happen with the permission of God; as the Qur'an says, they plan, and Allah plans, and Allah is the best of planners.)
In any case, regardless of the origins of the virus, our responses to it are manmade (even if we have little control as individuals). This includes positive responses, such as helping others, and negative responses, such as taking advantage of it for political and national gain, or hoarding.
When individuals get sick, there is no one answer as to why - everyone's circumstances are different. One person can get sick simply as part of the natural chain of cause and effect and the spread of infection. Another can get sick as a divine test, divine trial, or to adjust their lives due to the divine decree (for instance, to stop them from moving to another country). A third person might get sick because it is their time to die, and Allah has hidden death in various causes. So, it is not possible to give one answer for what happens to individuals, although we can often get a sense of what is happening with ourselves through self-reflection.
It is also a good time for prayer. Here is a prayer attributed to Imam Rida (A) in the book Tibb al-A'immah for times of plague:
In the name of Allah, the compassionate, the merciful
There is no strength or might except in Allah, the exalted, the mighty.
Nothing is of benefit without the permission of Allah. I have placed my trust in Allah. Healing can only happen through Allah. Whatever Allah wills happens, and none can dispel evil but Allah. I am sufficed by Allah who created me and therefore guides me, who grants me food and drink, and heals me when I am ill. And we have sent down from the Qur'an healing and mercy for the believers.
O Allah, grant us well-being, and do not separate between ourselves and well-being, O creator of well-being, O most merciful of the merciful.