A mosque (; from Arabic: مَـسْـجِـد, romanized: masjid, lit. place of ritual prostration) is a place of worship for Muslims.Any act of worship that follows the Islamic rules of prayer can be said to create a mosque, whether or not it takes place in a special building. Informal and open-air places of worship are called musalla, while mosques used for communal prayer on Fridays are known as jāmiʿ.
This matter has different opinions among the Maraaji' of Taqleed who are the highest in Islamic knowledge. Many of them e.g. Ayatullah Sistani and Ayatullah Sayyed Sa'eed al-Hakeem say that non Muslims are not allowed to enter Masjid according to obligatory precaution but they are allowed to inter all other religious places like Islamic centers and Husainiyya and Imam bargah etc.
'Other Scholars e.g. Ayatullah Kho'ee and Ayatullah Waheed Khurasani say that non Muslims are allowed to enter usual Masjids "except Masjid al-Haraam " if they don't carry with them any item which can make the Masjid Najis.
Yes, we are allowed to pray at home especially when the Mosque is closed. Friday prayer has its conditions where ever it was established e.g. minimum number of participant is five, and the Imam of Jum'ah must be 'Adil (pious believer who does not commit sins) and other conditions.
According to the view of our esteemed jurists, attending Salat al-Jumu'ah (Friday Prayer) is not wajib, but only Mustahab, and you are able to either attend, or pray your Dhuhr and 'Asr at home. You have this option to choose.
Of course, it is always recommended to pray in the form of jama'ah, or congregation, so it is encouraged to try to pray your wajib prayers in jama'ah in any opportunity you have.
With prayers for your success.
Yes it is permissible to look at the Ka'bah during Qunoot because looking at the Ka'bah is a worship by itself. Nevertheless, it is always recommended during Qunoot of Prayers to look at your palms (inner side of your hands).
Yes, it is permissible to pray behind a Sunni Imam, for the purpose of Islamic unity. Of course, details of this issue must be taken from the specific fatwa of your Marja' taqleed.
And Allah knows best.
1. Islam does not change the religious places of non Muslims. Thousands of religious places of non Muslims all over the Muslim world remained unchanged and unchangeable.
2. If the people of the area opt willingly to become Muslims and use the place as Masjid for them, they have that right. The people of Istanbul have willingly become Muslims and decided to use that place as Masjid for them. The place was used by people of the area as a Masjid for centuries till a ruler ( Mustafa Kamal) issued an order to stop Muslims from using the Masjid and announced it as a museum.
3. The Turkish court examined that order of Mustafa Kamal and found it illegal.
4. When a place is made a Masjid, it remains Masjid till the Day of Judgement.
No one is allowed to change a Masjid.
During the government of the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) and Ameerul Mo'mineen (AS), they did not convert any church into Mosque. It is left to the people of the area whether they want to remain Christians, so, church will remain as a church for them, but if they opt to be Muslims willingly and want to use the place as a Mosque, they are free to do that.
Islam does not confiscate the religious places of other communities.
as salam alaikum
according to the fiqh of Ahl al-Bayt prayer without connected lines is not valid and therefore it is not permissible to pray along with others on TV or online. It is good to keep your atmosphere pure and simply to focus on and get the best from your relationship with Allah during your acts of worship, especially away from such modern devices.
Furthermore, in our view it is sunnah of the Prophet to pray supererogatory prayers at home. This view was supported also by Imam Malik and Imam Shafi'i (according to some reports) and Abu Yusuf al-Hanafi.
With prayers for your success.
Yes, it is highly recommended to recite Adhan and Eqamah for every obligatory daily Prayer even if you are alone. The Hadeeth says that two rows of angels will pray behind you if you recite Adhan and Eqamah, and if you recite Eqamah only with out Adhan, one row of angels will pray behind you. If some leaves both Adhan and Eqamah, he will pray alone.
Obviously, there should not be any danger on you if the government does not allow loud voice of Adhan.
The level of the stand of Imam al-Jama'ah should not be higher than the level of the people praying behind him. He can stand lower than their level but not higher.
It is highly recommended for every Shia Muslim to pray with Muslims from other sects in their congregational prayers, but we need to recite Sura Al-Hamd and other Sura for ourself. Such Salaah will be valid if it was performed inside the time not before it.
Jum'a prayers with non Shia Muslims is good but we need to recite Dhuhr Prayer as well.
Yes, we have a Hadeeth from the Prophet (SAWA) narrated by Imam Jafar Al-Sadiq (AS): Hurting the heart of a believer is worse than breaking down the Ka'bah into rubbles.