A mosque (; from Arabic: مَـسْـجِـد, romanized: masjid, lit. place of ritual prostration) is a place of worship for Muslims.Any act of worship that follows the Islamic rules of prayer can be said to create a mosque, whether or not it takes place in a special building. Informal and open-air places of worship are called musalla, while mosques used for communal prayer on Fridays are known as jāmiʿ.
Non Muslims are different types;
1. People of Book who are Christians and Jewish etc who have different rules in entering Masjid. The obligatory precaution prevents letting them inside a Masjid.
2. Non Muslims who are not People of Book e.g Mushrik or denying religion etc, are definitely not allowed to enter any Masjid.
The call for Salah which is called Athaan (Azaan) was made during the time of the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) from a high place to reach to maximum number of Muslims. This is a historic fact. Based on this fact, the minarets were constructed later on.
If you are sure that the Masjid will remain under the management of reasonable persons and will not be influenced by extreme Wahabi groups, then you can help them.
It is better to help poor Mo'mineen in poor areas or poor countries where they don't have a Masjid.
It is recommended to pray with Muslims from any sect. As it is a Friday prayer, you need to pray your own Dhuhr prayer before or after it.
Praying with our Muslim brothers from any sect is highly recommended.
Engaging in haram acts does not mean one abandons their devotion to Allah ta'ala and their 'ibadah.
Indeed, it is even more important to stress on that, for the purpose of hopefully empowering oneself to become more obedient to God and stay away from sin.
Yes, this man should continue to pray, fast, and perform everything else required by him as a Muslim. If done in the correct way, they will also be valid as well.
With prayers for your success.
This matter has different opinions among the Maraaji' of Taqleed who are the highest in Islamic knowledge. Many of them e.g. Ayatullah Sistani and Ayatullah Sayyed Sa'eed al-Hakeem say that non Muslims are not allowed to enter Masjid according to obligatory precaution but they are allowed to inter all other religious places like Islamic centers and Husainiyya and Imam bargah etc.
'Other Scholars e.g. Ayatullah Kho'ee and Ayatullah Waheed Khurasani say that non Muslims are allowed to enter usual Masjids "except Masjid al-Haraam " if they don't carry with them any item which can make the Masjid Najis.
Yes, we are allowed to pray at home especially when the Mosque is closed. Friday prayer has its conditions where ever it was established e.g. minimum number of participant is five, and the Imam of Jum'ah must be 'Adil (pious believer who does not commit sins) and other conditions.
According to the view of our esteemed jurists, attending Salat al-Jumu'ah (Friday Prayer) is not wajib, but only Mustahab, and you are able to either attend, or pray your Dhuhr and 'Asr at home. You have this option to choose.
Of course, it is always recommended to pray in the form of jama'ah, or congregation, so it is encouraged to try to pray your wajib prayers in jama'ah in any opportunity you have.
With prayers for your success.
Yes it is permissible to look at the Ka'bah during Qunoot because looking at the Ka'bah is a worship by itself. Nevertheless, it is always recommended during Qunoot of Prayers to look at your palms (inner side of your hands).
Yes, it is permissible to pray behind a Sunni Imam, for the purpose of Islamic unity. Of course, details of this issue must be taken from the specific fatwa of your Marja' taqleed.
And Allah knows best.
1. Islam does not change the religious places of non Muslims. Thousands of religious places of non Muslims all over the Muslim world remained unchanged and unchangeable.
2. If the people of the area opt willingly to become Muslims and use the place as Masjid for them, they have that right. The people of Istanbul have willingly become Muslims and decided to use that place as Masjid for them. The place was used by people of the area as a Masjid for centuries till a ruler ( Mustafa Kamal) issued an order to stop Muslims from using the Masjid and announced it as a museum.
3. The Turkish court examined that order of Mustafa Kamal and found it illegal.
4. When a place is made a Masjid, it remains Masjid till the Day of Judgement.
No one is allowed to change a Masjid.
During the government of the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) and Ameerul Mo'mineen (AS), they did not convert any church into Mosque. It is left to the people of the area whether they want to remain Christians, so, church will remain as a church for them, but if they opt to be Muslims willingly and want to use the place as a Mosque, they are free to do that.
Islam does not confiscate the religious places of other communities.