The Arabic word qada (قُضِي) means literally "carrying out or fulfilling". In Islamic jurisprudence it refers to fulfilling or completing those duties that one may have missed due to some reason or other.
Assuming that your mother has passed, besides whether it is wajib for you or not, it would be the most noble and most loyal thing for you to do. Your mother might have forgotten, or unintentionally neglected, or gone through some difficulties, and did not perform her acts of worship.
You, the loyal son, are able to compensate that and the reward and blessings will not only go to her, but to you as well. In some hadiths it says there are some children who are loyal to their parents while alive, and not loyal when they die. Being not loyal is not doing dua or prayers or good deeds for them.
If you cannot roughly estimate, or have no idea, you have two options:
1. Pray what you can, as long as you are healthy and have time. The bonus is it's extra 'ibadah for you, which is a wonderful thing.
2. You can hire someone to do the 'ibadaat on behalf of your mother. There are many poor mu'mineen/mu'minaat who live off doing 'ibaadaat hire. Pay for whatever you are financially capable of.
With prayers for your success.
For a person who has Qadha of obligatory prayers undone yet, Nawaafil and recommended prayers are permissible and valid provided it does not hold you or make you neglect performing your obligatory Qadha.
Your priority is fulfilling your wajib, and then turning to nawafil. If you were to pray your qadha` prayers during the time of your nawafil, you will also be granted reward as well. So, as long as you have qadha` prayers, you should not be doing nawafil, and with a good routine for qadha' prayers you will be able to finish it in an adequate time.
And Allah knows best.
Salaam. As long as the time for them remains yes, you should perform them with the intention that they are within the time allocated for them. however, if the time has passed for them, then you will have to perform the prayers with the intention of Qaza.
He must fast the number of days which he is sure that he has missed. If he estimates that he missed between 3 to 6 days, he must fast three days as it is the days that he is sure that he missed. Fasting more will be a precaution ( Ehtiyat).
This is a matter of diference in opinion among our esteemed jurists, and therefore you must refer to your Marja' taqleed.
However, it is indeed less confusing and more simple if prayers are redone on a day by day Qadha'. Starting with Dhuhr, and ending with Fajr, and ticking each day off as you go along.
And Allah knows best.
The eldest son is responsible to perform the obligatory Qadha prayers of his father if it was missed due to a valid reason like illness etc. If the parents did not perform their obligatory prayers for no valid reason, the Qadha is not obligatory on the eldest son. Although, it is very good for him or other children to pay for persons who perform Qadha prayers on behalf of deceased persons to perform the obligatory Qadha prayers of the deceased. This will help the deceased a lot.
I can understand dear brother or sister how much of a challenge it can be for someone to do salah in a non-Islamic work place. Some managers do not understand the importance of Salah for Muslims and may only permit for one to do it on their break. This can be problematic since the break period could be before the salah starts, or at a time when the salah could be qada.
Usually though around this time in the summer, one has a lot of time to pray zuhr and. Asr. Of course it is better to pray them on time however not all circumstances may permit that. Let us say for example zuhr time is at 1:00pm but you could only pray it at 4pm. As long as maghrib time hasn’t set in, you would be still be able to do the salah within an acceptable time period.
In many work places people go for cigarette or toilet breaks so if these were permitted but not a short prayer break, it could possibly be discrimination. How could one have a right to smoke for 5 -10 minutes yet a Muslim isn’t able to pray within a similar time period?!
If one had very extreme circumstances where they had no other way, it is also possible one could pray in a bathroom if they had tahir mat. This is however makruh meaning the salah would have less reward. I do know of some cases where some were forced to perform salah in a staff bathroom which had a lock on the door. This way they could perform their salah without it being qada and without being prevented.
You should try to speak to your non-Muslim colleague or manager and inshallah a flexible arrangement can be agreed on.
Some ulema state that one must leave the job which would prevent them from doing Salah and must pick a job in which they are able to do salah.
It should be noted that it isn’t permissible to purposely delay salah past qada time, so you cannot just pray them qada the next day instead within the set time.
May Allah grant you success
Yes. Recommended Prayers especially Salat al-Layl ( Night prayer) is highly recommended for every one including those who have unfulfilled Qadha prayers on them. No doubt, the reward of performing Qadha prayers is much more than the reward of recommended prayers.
You must perform every prayer within its time and never miss any obligatory prayer.
You should make up the missed prayers and you can also personally ask Allah for forgiveness during du'a.
No, as far as you are still alive. You must perform your own Qadha as soon as you can during your life. If a person passes away before completing all his Qadha prayers and fast and Hajj, some one else will be allowed to perform the Qadha on his behalf whether with payment or with out payment.
You can ask or pay during your life to some one to perform Qadha after your death but this will not free you from the responsibility of the Qadha until you perform it yourself during your life. If you die before performing your own Qadha worship, you have to suffer a lot till Qadha is completed after your death.
Yes, she has to perform Qadha for Morning Prayer which she missed after being clear from the menstruation. She should have performed Tayammum and prayed on the time of Morning Prayer if Ghusl was not possible.