The Adhan, also written as Adhaan, Azan, Azaan or Athan (Arabic: أَذَان) (also called in Turkish: Ezan) is the Islamic call to worship, recited by the muezzin at prescribed times of the day. The root of the word is ʾadhina أَذِنَ meaning "to listen, to hear, be informed about". Another derivative of this word is ʾudhun (أُذُن), meaning "ear".
Shirk is calling someone God, assigning divinity to someone other than God, or assigning the offices of divinity to someone other than God.
Saying "'Ali is the wali of God" is not shirk, because it is not doing any of the above.
Furthermore, the Qur'an speaks of the "awliya' Allah" (plural of wali) with respect to human beings. Therefore, it is not shirk to say that Imam 'Ali is the wali of Allah, since Allah uses that phrase Himself. Given his high level of spirituality and service to Islam, very few Muslims would disagree with the idea behind saying "'Ali is the wali of Allah," although this phrase has become associated with Shi'ism.
Therefore, the biggest objection that someone could put forward to saying this in the adhan is that it does not belong in the adhan, not that it is shirk or an untrue statement.
It is not necessary to say "'Ali is the wali of Allah" in the adhan or kalimah. It is optional to say that. Shi'is generally do not consider it part of the adhan or salat. If it is said in the adhan, it is said as an optional thing which is said for blessings, or because it is seen as recommended, not as an actual part of the adhan. This is similar to how one might recite salawat after the Prophet's name during the adhan - it is done as an optional thing and not out of the belief that it is a formal part of the adhan.
For matters of religious law, such as the salat or converting to Islam, it is enough to say "there is no God but Allah and Muhammad is his Prophet".
However, due to the Shi'i belief in the Imamate, some Shi'is might feel it is a more complete or comprehensive statement of faith to also say "'Ali is the wali of Allah" (because the 3 statements cover monotheism, prophethood, and imamate); one might also say it to indicate a desire to convert specifically to Shi'ism. But it is not necessary.
Among Shi'is, it has become common to say "'Ali is the wali of Allah" during the adhan. There are some narrations indicating that this was said in the presence of the Prophet, for instance, that on the Day of Ghadir Salman al-Farsi recited it during the adhan, and the Prophet approved of it.
Similarly, regarding the kalimah, there are narrations in Sunni and Shi'i books connecting endorsement of Imam 'Ali to endorsement of Allah and the Prophet. For instance, it is said that it is written on the Throne of God: "There is no God but Allah, Muhammad is My servant and messenger, and 'Ali was his supporter."
Sadly, today, some Muslims attack each other over very small details of practice. They dislike some things because they are different from the Islam they are familiar with, or because they are symbolic of a different sect. It would be better to move towards a spirit of tolerance and acknolwedge that there are multiple ways in which Islam is lived today. After all, even if two people are reciting the adhan differently, they are still reciting the adhan. There are many people who don't care about God at all. Why not focus on the big things such as discussing the existence and relevance of God, rather than focusing on small details and trying to "prove" who is right?
(This is not directed at you personally since I am sure it is a genuine question, and it is a good question to ask and know about, but rather it is an overall comment regarding the situation of the Muslim world today and the types of arguments that are had over how to do wudhu and so forth.)
1. The name of Ameerul Mo'mineen Ali (AS) was mentioned in the Athaan during the time of the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) as you can find it is Sunni books like Assalaafah Fi Akhbar al-Khilafah by al-Maraaghi, page 24. After the announcement of Ghadeer when the Prophet asked all companions to give allegiance to Ali, the first Athaan given by Bilâl was with Ashhadu Anna Ali Ameerul Mo'mineen.
Some opponents of Ali objected on that and complained to the Prophet saying : the sin of black woman (Bilâl) has added on Athaan. The Prophet rejected their complain and asked them : Then what did we announce ?
Clearly, the witness the Ali is Ameerul Mo'mineen is the soul of Ghadeer announcement and the spirit of Islam being the divine successor of the Prophet (SAWA).
2. This status of Ali is mentioned in many Sunni books like Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, volume of Fadha'il Ali Ibn Abi Talib, page 342 who narrated Hadeeth of Jaabir ibn Abdullah al-Ansaari, from the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA): I saw on the gate of Paradise a writing : LAA ELAAHA ILLALLAH, MUHAMMAD IS RASOOLULLAH, ALI IS BROTHER OF RASOOLULLAH.
3. A man came to the Prophet (SAWA) and said: I saw and heard Salman (al-Farisi) mentioning is Athaan after the witness of Risalah, a witness of Wilayah to Ali. The Prophet replied him: What you heard (from Salman) is good.
( عنوان الصحيفة Onwan al-Saheefah, page 81.
4. We have authentic Hadeeth from the Prophet (SAWA) : When you mention me with Prophet hood, mention Ali as Ameerul Mo'mineen.
5. Mentioning the name of Ali (AS) in Athaan is not matter of love because we love Fatimah and all the Infallible Imams, but we do not mention their name in Athaan, but it is a matter of following the orders of the Prophet to all Muslims to follow Ali.
6. All our great scholars say that mentioning Ali as Ameerul Mo'mineen in Athaan and Eqamah is recommended. We do have few Ulama who said that it is obligatory as a sign of faith but our present Maraaji' of Taqleed say it is Mustahab (recommended).
7. Those who claim mentioning the name of Ali in Athaan is Bid'ah are very far from the authentic evidence or they might be influenced by the books of others who are away from Ahlul Bayt (AS).
as salam alaikum
many believers that mentions Ali's name during the adhan, do it out of love and later scholars usually says that it is mustahab. However it was not part of the original Adhan and if it is said thinking that it was part of the original Adhan it is almost unanimously considered as an act of innovation (bid'ah).
With prayers for your success.
The time of breaking the fast is immediately on Maghrib time which is the start of the night according to Quran. (Then complete fasting till night) 2:187
It is recommended to pray Maghrib Prayer then break the fast.
Yes, it is highly recommended to recite Adhan and Eqamah for every obligatory daily Prayer even if you are alone. The Hadeeth says that two rows of angels will pray behind you if you recite Adhan and Eqamah, and if you recite Eqamah only with out Adhan, one row of angels will pray behind you. If some leaves both Adhan and Eqamah, he will pray alone.
Obviously, there should not be any danger on you if the government does not allow loud voice of Adhan.
Hayya Ala Khairil 'Amal is part of the Athan أذان of the Prophet (SAWA) and even in the time of the rule of Abi Bakr, but it was removed by Omar Ibn al-Khattab and replaced in morning Athan by Al-Salaat Khairun Min al-Nawm.
Al-Sunan al-Kubera by al-Bayhaqi Hadeeth 1847 narrated that the original Athan was with Hayya Ala Khairil Amal. All Ahlul Bayt (AS) used to mention it in Athan. Many of Sahabah used to say it even after Omar banned it.
Abdullah Ibn Omar used to say Hayya Ala Khairil Amal in the Athan after Hayya Alal Falah. ( Al-Mussannaf of Abdul Razzaq, Hadeeth 1732 and Al-Mussannaf by Ibn Abi Shayba , Hadeeth 2224).
Al-Layth Ibn Sa'd used to mention Hayya Al Khairil Amal in Athan ( Al-Sunan Al-Kubera by al-Bayhaqi Hadeeth 1845).
Yes, it is recommended to recite Azaan at home with loud voice. It removes harm and brings blessings and protection to the recitor and his famly members and all who live at that home.
The challenge when trying to answer questions about history is that all we can rely on is evidence that has come to us (such as texts or archaeological evidence) and often it is not 100% clear what happened.
In any case, there are some texts that say that 'Umar ibn al-Khattab ordered that the line "prayer is better than sleep" be added to the Fajr adhan. For instance, in al-Muwatta' (a prominent early Sunni source), it is said that the mu'adhdhin came to Umar ibn al-Khattab at fajr time and found him sleeping, so he told him, "Prayer is better than sleep" (to tell him to get up), and then 'Umar ibn al-Khattab ordered that it be added to the adhan. (See the relevant chapter in the book on salat in the Muwatta')
However, some people, especially Sunnis, hold a different view.
I think it is reasonable to say that all Muslims who do the adhan try to do the adhan in the way they think is correct and the way the Prophet (S) intended it. Shi'i fiqh does not prescribe "prayer is better than sleep" in the adhan because the dominant Shi'i view is that this is was not how the Prophet (S) instructed Muslims to do it. At the end of the day, Allah judges on intentions, and we do our best to follow the Sunnah!
In such cases when there is not enough time to recite the full Nafilah of Zoh or Asr, you can pray just 4 or even 2 Rak'ats as Nafilah for each Zohr and Asr. If you could not find time , then you can recite the Nafilah later on as Qadha.