The Adhan, also written as Adhaan, Azan, Azaan or Athan (Arabic: أَذَان) (also called in Turkish: Ezan) is the Islamic call to worship, recited by the muezzin at prescribed times of the day. The root of the word is ʾadhina أَذِنَ meaning "to listen, to hear, be informed about". Another derivative of this word is ʾudhun (أُذُن), meaning "ear".
No, it is not mandatory, but only required.
And Allah knows best.
It is highly recommended to recite Azan and more importantly Iqama for daily obligatory Prayers, but it is not obligatory. You can start you Prayer with out Azan and Iqama but you will be losing great deal of reward. Hadeeth states that if you recite Azan and Iqama and start your Salah, two rows of angles will pray behind you. If you recite Iqama then start your Salah, one row of angles will pray behind you. If you don't recite neither Azan nor Iqama and pray, you will pray alone then. Your prayer will still be valid but you will be losing great deal of reward.
Thank you for your question. Adhan and Iqamah are recommended acts so there is no problem in not performing them.
May you always be successful
The specific time for the nafilah of fajr is entering of fajr time, which in this example would be from 6:10. So, you should pray nafilatul-subh at 6:10, and then pray salat al-subh after that.
And Allah knows best.
The Prophet (SAWA) has said: Whenever you mention my name as Prophet, mention Ali as Ameerul Mo'mineen.
The name of Ali (AS) was announced in the Adhan immediately after the declaration of Ghadeer by Bilal and Salmaan and other Sahabah in the presence of the Proohet (SAWA) and he approved it. This has been narrated even in Sunni books like (Al-Salafah Fi Amr al-Khilaafah by al-Maraaghi, page 36).
The enemies of Ahlul Bayt removed and banned the name of Ameerul Mo'mineen Ali from the Adhan.
Whenever the period starts, fasting is finished and not valid. She can eat and drink whenever she needs but it is not good to eat or drink in front of fasting persons or children who don't understand why she is not fasting.
It has started when the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) declared Ali as his successor on his return from his last Hajj on the famous day of Ghadeer in front of the largest gathering in the history of Islam in his time. The companions who witnessed the declaration of Ghadeer were over 120 thousands up to 125 thousands according to historic sources. The Prophet asked all the companions who were present: Am I not more entitled to be obeyed by the believers, than themselves on themselves? They replied him: Yes, O Messenger of Allah. He said immediately raising the hand of Ali in front of all of them : So, for whom I am the Master, Ali is his Master من كنت مولاه فعلي مولاه. The Prophet then asked all the companions to give allegiance to Ali as Mawla (Master).
First Athaan (Azaan) after Ghdeer deceleration had in it ASHHADU ANNA ALIYYAN AMEERUL MO'MINEEN.أشهد أن عليا أمير المؤمنين
Some persons who were not happy with Ali did not like that and complained to the Prophet. He was angry with them and asked them: What did we say in Ghadeer?
This is narrated even in Sunni books like Al-Salafah Fi Akhbaar al-Khilafah by al-Maraaghi, a Well known Sunni 'Aalim from Egypt. Page 34. This book is in Al-Dhaahiriyyah Library in Damascus.
The Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) ordered the Muslims to always mention Ali as Ameerul Mo'mineen whenever they mention his name as the Messenger of Allah . (Al-Ehtijaaj by Al-Tabrasi). You can see in Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal the Hadeeth from the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) : When I was shown the gates of the Paradise, I saw that it is written on it : La Ilaaha Illallah, Muhammad RASOOLULLAH, Ali is the brother of RASOOLULLAH.
Azan is recommended while Tashahhud is obligatory. Tashahhud is part and parcel of Namaz and if Tashahhud is wrongly said, Namaz will be void and invalid.
Tashahhud was taught to us by the Proohet Muhammad (SAWA) and Ahlul Bayt (AS) with ordering us to (Pray as you saw me praying) صلّوا كما رأيتموني أصلّي
Imam Jafar Al-Sadiq (AS) explained to one of his students; Hammad Ibn Easa all the steps of Namaz including Tashahhud ( ASHHADU ANLA ELAAHA ILLALLAH WAHDAHU LAA SHAREEKA LAH WA ASHHADU ANNA MUHAMMADAN ABDUHU WA RASOOLUH ALLAHUMMA SALLI 'ALA MUHAMMAD WA AALI MUHAMMAD as we read it in al-Kaafi, 3/311.
We are not allowed to add to Tashahhud but we are allowed to pray any prayers as supplication after Tashahhud including the names of the Infallible Imams like ALLAHUMMA SALLI 'ALA AMEERIL MO'MINEEN.
Yes she can. There is no condition in Adhan and Iqaamah to be given by the father only or any man. Women including the mother can do it as well.
'Giving the name to the child should not ignore the father's wish.
Thank you for your question. There is no problem in praying once you are certain of the time even if others have not begun the recommended actions before prayer like azan.
May you always be successful
It means : The salutations and peace upon you O Messenger of Allah.
'It is usually said by many Sunni brothers. It is incomplete form of salutations because it must mention the Progeny of the Prophet along with him as the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) said: لا تُصَلّوا عَلَيَّ الصلاة البتراء Do not salute me with a cut off salutation. They aske him: What is the cut off salutation? He replied: To salute me with saluting my Progeny. ( al-Qawl al-Badee' by al-Sakhaawi; page 45 and al-Sawaa'iq al-Muhriqa by Ibn Hajar al-Haytami; page 225, and Yanabee' al-Mawaddah by al-Qondoozi al-Hanafi ;2:434).
It is always recommended to salute the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) and his Progeny Ahlul Bayt (AS) any time including before and after Azan and before and after Prayers.
Awwal Waqt which is also known as Waqt Al-Fadheelah is the period within which it is highly recommended to perform the prayer. It starts when the real time of the Salah starts. Azan is not always declared on the real time but delayed in some places especially in some non Muslim countries.
Awwal Waqt for morning prayer is from Real Fajr till darkness of the sky starts decreasing.
Awwal Waqt for Dhuhr prayer is from midday till the shadow of things becomes to four sevenths of the thing and it is better not to delay it more than the time of two sevenths of things.
'Awwal Waqt for Assr prayer is after performing Dhuhr or from the time of two sevenths of the shadow till the shadow reaches six sevenths.
Awwal Waqt for Maghrib is from vanishing the eastern reddish ness till the end of western reddish ness in the horizon.
'Awwal Waqt for Isha prayer is from vanishing of western reddish ness till one third of the night.