One should move as soon as they are able, as per Qur'an 4:97-99 and the example of the Prophet (S) and the early Muslims (who made the first migration to Ethiopia and the second migration to Medina).
Amina Inloes is originally from the US and has a PhD in Islamic Studies from the University of Exeter on Shi'a hadith. She is the program leader for the MA Islamic Studies program at the Islamic College in London and also the Managing Editor of the Journal of Shi'a Islamic Studies.
It is not haraam to recite Quran in a state of janabah unless it is the sajdah ayahs, however it is nicer and more respectful to be in a state of ritual purity.
Allah does not punish people for things they do due to accident or forgetfulness.
However you should make up the prayers done in the state of janabah.
It depends on what one understands "easts" and "wests" to mean.
It is narrated from Imam Ali (A) that this is because the sun rises in a different place every day; this spot changes throughout the year. "Easts" can be taken to mean literally "places of sunrise" and "wests" can be taken to mean "places of sunset". So it refers to all the different places where the sun rises and sets as one of the divine signs.
My understanding is that the emphasis on males having hur al-ayns is because God is shy and considers that women might also be more shy about these things. However, men are often not shy in broadcasting that they want many females and in fact sometimes consider it a manly thing to say, so God speaks of this from the male perspective.
The Qur'an is also discreet in discussing other delicate matters such as using the washroom and spousal relations, even though this discretion is not usually reflected in translation.
Maybe also some of the men in that time period were a little difficult and they needed some extra encouragement.
The Hereafter does not have the same considerations of this world, and God knows best how people will feel about these things in the Hereafter.
In any case, the Quran (for instance in Surah Ya Sin) does in general speak of having the enjoyment of companionship in Paradise in a general sense (not limited to men).
You should make up the missed prayers and you can also personally ask Allah for forgiveness during du'a.
In the technical sense of the use of the word "authentic (sahih)", with respect to having a solid, complete chain of narration and solid textual sourcing, Du'a Sanamay Quraysh is not authentic.
(I say "technical sense" to specify what is meant because there are a lot of ways that people casually use the word "authentic" today.)
As for whether Imam 'Ali (A) actually said it... God knows best.
In any case, you have the option to recite it if it calls to you and you find benefit in it, and you have the option to leave it aside if you prefer to.
In addition to what has been said, my understanding of this verse is with respect to the meaning of "wali/awliya" as putting one's self under someone else's authority. That is, one should not put one's self under the authority (in the sense of dependence or giving over power of one's self to someone else, e.g. politically, financially, personally) of someone who is not Muslim in such a way that one loses control over one's life or society and cannot easily recover it.
To my understanding, one of the principles of the early Muslim community was self-definition and self-sufficiency. It doesn't mean that one cannot be friends; friendship is different from disempowerment. To see the results of political or economic disempowerment, one can look at what happened during the colonialist era as an instructive example. (I am not saying that European colonialism was a morally Christian act, but just that this is how these dynamics can play out in the real world)
I would like to add that, in this day and age, no one would argue the reverse; that is, none of the Western countries (which are somehow connected to the Christian heritage even if they are not necessarily "Christian") woud put themselves under the political, legal, financial, or cultural authority of Muslims, yet no one says that this is prejudiced.
This is a big question - many people have challenges in their personalities or temperaments that are long-term projects to work on. However, here is something that you could consider and see if it has any helpful advice ("Imam Ali and Islamic Anger Management by Shaykh Mohamed Ali Ismail")
(I recall he did a workshop some years ago at an Islamic event on practical tips for anger management but I don't know if it is available online; you could try to find it)
Also if you haven't already, you could look through books such as this: https://www.al-islam.org/jami-al-saadat-collector-felicities-muhammad-mahdi-naraqi
Best of wishes on this next stage of your spiritual journey, and, yes, it is enough to have the intention to follow a marja' and to do your best to do so; you do not need to notify the marja'.
The general understanding of this verse is that things are generally created in pairs (for instance, positive and negative, matter and antimatter, light and dark, or male and female), and that one of the signs of Allah is that human beings marry and form a pair in order to become more whole than they would be individually.
However, it is not usually taken to mean that all human beings are specifically created with a soulmate or "pair" whom they marry in this world. Indeed, some people have more than one happy marriage in their lifetimes; others are miserable in their marriages!
Marriage can be destined and can be a matter of free choice; matters of destiny are not usually clear. Some people misuse the idea of destiny and marriage to cover up socially unjust practices (for instance, not allowing their children to marry someone of a certain race, culture, family, or profession) and then saying these restrictions are "destiny". At the same time, it does seem that sometimes some people are destined to be together or destined not to be together.
However if you are happy with your husband, I hope you will be able to be together in the Hereafter!