Travel is the movement of people between distant geographical locations. Travel can be done by foot, bicycle, automobile, train, boat, bus, airplane, ship or other means.
Thank you for your question. With many of the issues in the sections on worship in Islamic law we do not necessarily understand the logic of the rulings as Islamic law is not derived that way (through independent rational speculation). It is derived from an examination of the scriptural sources according to methods that are discussed extensively in the science of the principles of jurisprudence. Sometimes, we can have an idea of the wisdom behind certain rulings, but in many cases, our actions are based on the purport of those sources.
This is one such case in which the logic is not known, but it could be rationally inferred that perhaps the wisdom behind it is that since the time of travel is earlier, and since God doesn't want the traveller to go through too much difficulty, they are required to break their fast, whereas if a person travels after zuhur the time till breaking fast is less and so it is not so difficult for them to complete it and therefore they are required to do so.
May you always be successful
Yes, we are allowed to perform recommended prayers while traveling in a bus or train etc. Being recommended prayers performed in moving, it will not be compulsory to face the Qibla during the move.
Obligatory Prayers require us to be steady and not moving, unless there is no way that we can stop the train or the bus etc and the time of the prayer can finish during the journey before we stop, then it will be allowed to perform the obligatory prayers while traveling, but we need to face the Qibla as far as we can.
As you travel every day for work, you must perform you Salah as full in both places, your home and your work place. Every one who travels for work three days a week or more, his Salah is full.
1. Salatul Jum'a is not obligatory on the traveler.
2. Even if you are not a traveler, but do not know the place of Salatul Jum'a, you just pray Dhuhr prayer as soon as the time of it starts.
3. If Salatul Jum'a is far away from you, it will not be obligatory on you but to pray Dhuhr.
It is not permissible for men during the state of Ehraam (Hajj or Umra) to travel in a covered vehicle during day time or when it is raining. This is according to all the scholars. Many scholars including Ayatullah Sistani say that it is permissible for men to travel in covered vehicle during night if there is no rain.
Women can travel in covered vehicle any time.
Traveler is not only exempted from fasting but he can not fast during the Month of Ramadan. Despite this exemption, eating and drinking in public during the day of month of Ramadan must be avoided. It can be forbidden (Haraam) if it amounts to violating the sanctity of the month of Ramadan or making people disrespect the obligation of fasting during this month or encouraging any one not to fast.
As the ulama say, if it is with the permission of the husband, it is not Haram.
him and he must make it up.
As you are traveling 5 days out of 7 for a year (20 days in a month) you are considered for that year to be khateer-e-safar (frequent traveler) and so you have to pray full and fast.
To become khateer-e-safar you are required to travel on average 10 days in a month