Ghusl (Arabic: غسل) is an Arabic term referring to the full-body ritual purification mandatory before the performance of various rituals and prayers, for any adult Muslim after having sexual intercourse, ejaculation or completion of the menstrual cycle, although wudu or just sleep, without either, are the lesser stages of purity that is acceptable.The washing is also recommended but not required (i.e. it is mustahabb) before Jumu'ah and Eid prayers, before entering the ihram in preparation for Hajj, after having lost consciousness and after formally converting.
Semen does not come after urination but it gushes out in ejaculation. There is a white liquid which comes after ruination called Wathi وذي which is not Najis and does not need any Ghusl.
Yes, and it is recommended.
Yes. Most of our present eminent Maraaje' say that Ghusl of Friday suffices Taharah and you can pray with it with out need for Wudhu.
If you touch any part of the dead body or bone of a dead body directly with out gloves, you need to perform Ghusl of touching a dead. If you touch wearing gloves, then you don't need to perform Ghusl of touching the dead.
Touching any Najis item including dogs or its urine etc does need Ghusl at all. You need to wash the part which touched the Najis item with water, then perform Wudhu and pray. It is a sinful act to delay performing the Prayer till it's time goes. Performing the Qadha namaz will not omit the sin of not praying within the time of the prayer.
You must perform your Namaz within its time under any circumstance.
Ghusl does not need water flowing on the body, but needs just making any amount of water reach to every part of the body even by wiping water on all parts of the body. A big scholar in Najaf Ashraf who is Ayatullah Sayyed Muhammad Husain Al-Hakeem said: Ghusl can be performed with one cup of water by putting my hand in the cup of water then wiping over my head, face, neck, right side of body then left side of the body. Making the water touch by wiping to the whole body won't take more than one cup of water.
You can refer to Islamic rules of your Marja' of Taqleed for more details.
Ghusl does not need to be done in the shower, but it must be "washing", and water flowing, or to submerge yourself completely under water "ghusl irtimasi". Wiping in front of a sink would not be considered as ghusl, and therefore invalid.
And Allah knows best
Taharah is a real condition شرط واقعي in Prayers and fasting. Any worship which requires Purity (Taharah) is invalid if it was done with out purity.
If you could not learn basic rules of Ghusl and never been informed that Ghusl is obligatory in certain cases, which is very rare now a days, then the rule is different. But if you knew about Ghusl and it becomes obligatory in certain situations, and you did not know that it applies on you, and you fasted with out Ghusl, then you need to perform the obligatory Ghusl then perform every worship which was performed with out Ghusl.
You can read the verdict of Ayatullah Sustani as follows:
Ruling 1593. If a junub in the month of Ramadan forgets to perform ghusl and remembers after one day, he must keep a qaḍāʾ fast for that day; and if he remembers after a few days, he must keep a qaḍāʾ fast for all the days that he is certain to have been junub on. For example, if he does not know whether he was junub for three or four days, he must keep qaḍāʾ fasts for three days.
If you did not know, and you did not have the ability to educate yourself about these things, then your fasting is valid. Otherwise, you will need to do qadha.
ِAnd Allah knows best
Any Salah which was not performed with proper Ghusl must be made up again. If you are not sure how many prayers were invalid, you can estimate.
Both women and men should perform ghusl al-janabah after penetrative sexual intercourse (also inclduing anal intercourse).
Also if a woman has an orgasm or climax without sexual intercourse, then the ghusl al-janabah should be performed. It's worth noting that this type of ghusl would make one in the state of wudu so one could perform Salah after the ghusl without doing wudu again.
if a woman is aroused causing some fluid or discharge, this wouldn't make ghusl al janabah obligatiory unless she reached climax.
May Allah Grant You success
Man or woman should perform Ghusl Al-Janabah after any sexual intercourse, and after wet dream in which ejaculation takes place, and after orgasm, and after deliberating ejaculation (masturbation) which is itself a sinful act.