The Quran (القرآن, romanized: al-Qurʼān, literally meaning "the recitation"), also romanized Qur'an or Koran, is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah). It is widely regarded as the finest work in classical Arabic literature. The Quran is divided into chapters (Arabic: سورة sūrah, plural سور suwar), which are subdivided into verses (Arabic: آية āyah, plural آيات āyāt).
It is not haraam to recite Quran in a state of janabah unless it is the sajdah ayahs, however it is nicer and more respectful to be in a state of ritual purity.
Allah does not punish people for things they do due to accident or forgetfulness.
However you should make up the prayers done in the state of janabah.
It depends on what one understands "easts" and "wests" to mean.
It is narrated from Imam Ali (A) that this is because the sun rises in a different place every day; this spot changes throughout the year. "Easts" can be taken to mean literally "places of sunrise" and "wests" can be taken to mean "places of sunset". So it refers to all the different places where the sun rises and sets as one of the divine signs.
The meaning of worshiping Allah (SWT) is not limited to reading Quran or Tafseer or praying Salah but it is much wider up to the extend of including all useful life activities including studying, working, eating, exercising, resting etc as far as the activity is done for noble cause e.g. being healthy to do good.
There is a Prophetic Hadeeth advising to keep every act of life, for the sake of Allah. That will make life a continuous worship.
Allah (SWT) guided all human beings to the right and warned them from wrong. (We showed him (human being) the two ways,; good and bad) (Sura 90, Verse 10).
(Verily, We showed him the way, (for him to decide) whether to be grateful or ungrateful) Sura 76, Verse 3).
Allah (SWT) helps every one who wants to be guided, as He kept the instinct knowledge in every human being about the main facts of the existence (Tawheed, Adl, Nubawwat, Imamat, and Qiyamat) and helps those who want to strive to be guided (Those who strive in Our way, We will verily guide the to Our ways ) (Sura 29, Verse 21). But those who refuse the guidance of Allah (SWT) and insist on refusing it, will be let alone with their own option.
Allah (SWT) is gracious to all His creatures and He showers His Mercy on all of them : My Mercy included every thing .(Sura 7, Verse 156).
Guidance from Allah is always offered to every one who wants it, but it can not be enforced on those who insisting on refusing it.
It is the consensus of the Shi'a scholars that there is no distortion in the Qur'an. You can read more about this topic in the article below that gives references to the statements of a variety of scholars.
A famous scholar Ayatullah Sayyid Abu'l Qasim al-Khu'i has a detailed discussion around this topic in his book that you can also go through for a more in-depth treatment of this subject.
Not at all.
All prominent Shia Scholars believe that Quran is intact and never been distorted.
Shia enemies put false allegations on us including in this matter. If they read our books properly, they will see that our faith is that Quran is intact. Sunni books have narrations from Omar that Sura al-Ahzaab was like Sura Baqarah, and from Ayisha that a Quranic chapter was eaten by a pet. These Sunni narrations and any similar narration are rejected by us because we believe that Allah (SWT) has promised to save and protect Quran from any discretion. (Sura Al-Hijr, verse 9).
We do believe that many persons tried and still trying to twist the meaning of some Quranic verses to make it in accordance to their wrong claims, but Qurani'c words are intact.
Shia scholars have written books on this subject confirming our faith in the intact Quran.
Thank you for your question. Reciting whilst not knowing the rules of tajwid is not a sin, but a person should endeavour to pronounce the Arabic properly.
May you always be successful
Reading the Quran and famously narrated duas are recommend to be recited in the original Arabic language. This way the meaning stays the same and the real spiritual feeling may be gained by reciting them exactly how they have reached us.
If however a person isn’t able to read them in the original language, he still may do it in his own language with a pure intention to the best of his ability.
In Al-Kāfī we find the following narration where the prophet (sawa) states:
“The non-Arab from my community should recite the Quran by his own language, for the angels will raise it to Arabic”
May Allah grant you success
In addition to what has been said, my understanding of this verse is with respect to the meaning of "wali/awliya" as putting one's self under someone else's authority. That is, one should not put one's self under the authority (in the sense of dependence or giving over power of one's self to someone else, e.g. politically, financially, personally) of someone who is not Muslim in such a way that one loses control over one's life or society and cannot easily recover it.
To my understanding, one of the principles of the early Muslim community was self-definition and self-sufficiency. It doesn't mean that one cannot be friends; friendship is different from disempowerment. To see the results of political or economic disempowerment, one can look at what happened during the colonialist era as an instructive example. (I am not saying that European colonialism was a morally Christian act, but just that this is how these dynamics can play out in the real world)
I would like to add that, in this day and age, no one would argue the reverse; that is, none of the Western countries (which are somehow connected to the Christian heritage even if they are not necessarily "Christian") woud put themselves under the political, legal, financial, or cultural authority of Muslims, yet no one says that this is prejudiced.
The verse that you have asked about is often used by some anti-Islam supporters to portray Islam as a hateful and intolerant religion which goes against peaceful co-existence.
They use the verse to say that a Muslim isn’t allowed to be friends with non-Muslims. It is correct that some translations have translated the word ‘Awliya’ - the plural of wali’ - as ‘friends’ but the word wali or awliyah, can have various meanings depending on the context.
Firstly in Islam as we know, marriage is allowed with the people of the book. Therefore it wouldn’t make sense for Allah to command us not be friends with the people of the book and at the same time, allow marriage with them. Is it possible that one may have a Christian or Jewish wife but not be her friend?!
Secondly, when we read history, we find that the prophet Mohammad had (sawa) peaceful interactions with the people of the book as well as friendship.
Extracted from a longer Hadith in Kitāb Al-Tawhīd by Sheikh Saduq, we find the following:
كان لرسول الله صديقان يهوديان
“The Messenger of Allah had two Jewish friends”
This shows us that according to our books, the prophet did in fact have friendship with those from the people of the book. By coupling this hadith with the verse, we would come to realise that the word ‘wali’ must have a different meaning than friend.
When we look into some books of history, we find that according to some reports, this verse was revealed during an incident relating Jews who had breached a covenant with the prophet.
Please read the passage below:
“It is reported that the Messenger of Allah besieged them for six days until finally they surrendered to him. `Abdullah ibn Ubayy came to him and interceded on their behalf saying: “O Apostle of Allah, these are my allies and clients who have defended me against the black and the red (that is, against all kinds of people). They were three hundred armoured soldiers and four hundred without armour. Would you now cut them down all in one morning? By Allah, I can then find no security; rather I dread the turns of for- tunes!” The people of Banu Qaynuqa` were allies of the Khazraj tribe only, and not of the Aws. `Abdullah ibn Ubayy persisted in his entreaties until the Prophet relented and granted him their blood. But seeing the humiliation which they had suffered, the people of Banu Qaynuqa` left Medina altogether and settled in Adhri'at in Syria. Then Allah sent down concerning `Abdullah ibn Ubayy and others of the Khazraj tribe:
O you who have faith, take not the Jews or the Christians as patrons. . . (Qur'an. 5 : 51‐ 52) .”
Source: Beacons of Light: Muhammad, the Prophet and Fatimah az-Zahra’ (the Radiant) a Partial translation of I'lamu 'l Wara bi Alami 'l-Huda of Abu Ali al Fadl ibn al Hasan ibn al Fadl at Tabarsi (c. 468/1076 - 548/1154).
So we see that from this source, a hypocrite from among the companions, tried to intercede for the Jews of Banu Qaynuqa who broke the peace treaty with prophet which was a betrayal. The Prophet allowed this Jewish tribe to reside in Medina on the condition that they do not help enemies against the Muslims; despite this, they still broke their agreement.
From this source it shows that Allah revealed this verse to rebuke the hypocrite Abdullah bin Ubay who took these people as his allies and his protective guardians. He relied on them and had a type of attachment towards them over the prophet and Muslims.
This leads us understand that if we take the verse to mean friends, it would indicate those from them who Muslims have conflicts with, and not regular people from Ahlul kitab.
However from the context of the historical report, it seems that the correct translation could be the following:
O you who have faith, take not the Jews or the Christians as patrons or protective guardians. . . (Qur'an. 5 : 51‐ 52)
Also it could be possible for a Muslim to be forbidden from friendship with some other Muslims. For example if they would lead him astray or to an immoral path, he must not be friends with them despite them being Muslims. So this isn’t discriminatory and restricted to only people of the book.
If a Muslim was to have a Christian friend for example, who he may study with or partake in sports with etc, then this would be permitted providing that this person wouldn’t lead him down an immoral path or a deviated path. How many times have we found ourselves around Christians who held better moral traits than Muslims although they are upon Batil?
Also to mention, it is better for someone to take mu’minin as friends as this will lead them to become stronger in iman and prevent them from haram things.
It should be noted that the book above, also contains reports from non-Shia reported Seerah of the prophet. This is due to the Shia losing many books by having them burnt by the enemies, so the above opinion is a possible exegesis for the verse and not 100% definite. Allah swt knows best and the full explanation of the Quran will be with us when Imam Mahdi (May Allah hasten his reappearance) returns.
What we do know for certain, is that it wouldn’t mean friends in the absolute sense as the Prophet had two Jewish friends as reported in our sources. As we know, the Prophet Mohammad (sawa) is of course our role model who we try to imitate. If he showed friendship and kindness towards the non-Muslims, we may also take this example.
May Allah grant you success
It is allowed for one to hold paper or a phone if they wish to recite verses of a surah which they haven’t memorised however it is makruh meaning there is less reward in the Salah.
May Allah grant you success
The term "Mother of the believers" means that no Muslim is allowed to marry any of the wives of the Prophet after him. Every wife of the Prophet is Ummul Mo'minen, but not Ummul Mo'minaat because there is no question of marriage with Mo'minaat.
In Quran (33:53), it very clear that no Muslim man can be allowed to marry any of the wives of the Prophet after him.
Aiysha, was called by a Muslim woman: O mother. Aiyasha replied: I am not a mother to you women, but mother to your men. This is mentioned in Sunan Al-Bayhaqi (7:70) and also in Tafseer Al-Qurtobi (14:123) and also in Al-Tabaqaat al-Kubra by Ibn Sa'd (8:67).
Khadijah (AS) is the greatest wife of the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA), but there were among the wives majority of pious and obedient wives, and few of disobedient wives who went against the orders of the Prophet (SAWA). Even one wife of the Prophet ( Qateelah or Qutaylah Bint Qays) left Islam after him, and got married with Ekrimah Ibn Abi Jahl. (Ibn Katheer narrating from Al-Haakim Al-Neesabori).
No doubt, that marriage was completely wrong, but it proves that not every wife of the Prophet was pious. So, the title of Ummul Mo'mineen establish a rule banning the marriage with any of the wives, but it does not means high status of piousness.
Most of the wives of the Prophet Muhammad were pious and very pious like lady Khadijah, Umm Salamah, Mariyah, Zainab, Jowairiyah, Safiyyah etc.