In finance, a loan is the lending of money by one or more individuals, organizations, or other entities to other individuals, organizations etc. The recipient (i.e. the borrower) incurs a debt, and is usually liable to pay interest on that debt until it is repaid, and also to repay the principal amount borrowed.
It is allowed to take money from non Muslim bank or financial institute for any lawful purpose.
It is allowed to take what is known as Student Loan from Non Muslim authoraties even if you know that they will charge interest. You can pay it as you pay taxes to the authorities. It is not obligatory to take such loan but it is allowed.
You can lawfully take money from non Muslim bank based any where and act upon the agreement between you and them as far as you use the money in a lawful way. The interest which you have to pay is like the tax which you have to pay.
Muslim is not allowed to work in usury (RIBA) dealing. If the job is away from usury then it will be allowed, but if it is related to usury in any way like taking, giving, accounting etc then it will be not allowed.
It is highly recommended to sacrifice on Eid Al-Adha, but it is not obligatory except on pilgrims in Hajj. The narration you mentioned means the importance of the sacrifice and the great reward of it but does not mean that it is obligatory.
Learning programming is allowed in any company or school or college, but indulging with interest (RIBA or usury) is not allowed for Muslims.
A woman is not required to marry a man just because he wants to marry her. She is also not required to give a reason for refusing. Marriage is optional.
The opposite is also true - that is, a man is not required to marry a woman just because she wants to marry him, and he is also not required to give a reason for refusing.
The idea a woman must give her life over to a man simply because he asks - unless she had a reasonable excuse - would indeed be an astonishing form of male privilege.
Main criteria for marriage in Islam is religious practice and good morals. Financial status is not among the main conditions. In fact the Prophet (SAWA) proposed a marriage between very poor person ( Jowaibir) and a very rich woman (Al-Dhalfaa').
The man should be able to earn livelihood for him and his wife and live with his wife with dignity.
It is not allowed to take loan with interest from Muslim or any bank or financial institution owned by Muslims.
It is allowed to take from non Muslim any amount in a lawful way to be used in a lawful way even if you know that non Muslim will charge you interest which you pay it as you pay taxes or service charges to the non Muslim as part of their financial practice.
It is good for your husband to help you as it is good for you to help him, but if you ask about the obligatory duty of your husband then the answer is: Husband is responsible to spend on all livelihood expenses of his wife including accommodation, food, clothing, medicine etc. He is not responsible to pay for your loans which you have taken for yourself and not for both of you or for your livelihood expenses.
Your student loan was taken by you and the money was received and spent by you and not spent by both of you. Had your husband spent any amount of that loan, either for his own expenses or on your livelihood expenses which is his responssibilty , he will be then responsible to repay that amount.
It is allowed to take money from the government to meet studying expenses and repay it later on after employment according to the agreement.
If the company is dealing with Halal products only and the finances were taken from non Muslim banks or financial institutions, then it is allowed to invest in its stocks.