In finance, a loan is the lending of money by one or more individuals, organizations, or other entities to other individuals, organizations etc. The recipient (i.e. the borrower) incurs a debt, and is usually liable to pay interest on that debt until it is repaid, and also to repay the principal amount borrowed.
It is good for your husband to help you as it is good for you to help him, but if you ask about the obligatory duty of your husband then the answer is: Husband is responsible to spend on all livelihood expenses of his wife including accommodation, food, clothing, medicine etc. He is not responsible to pay for your loans which you have taken for yourself and not for both of you or for your livelihood expenses.
Your student loan was taken by you and the money was received and spent by you and not spent by both of you. Had your husband spent any amount of that loan, either for his own expenses or on your livelihood expenses which is his responssibilty , he will be then responsible to repay that amount.
It is allowed to take money from the government to meet studying expenses and repay it later on after employment according to the agreement.
If the company is dealing with Halal products only and the finances were taken from non Muslim banks or financial institutions, then it is allowed to invest in its stocks.
It is allowed to buy shares of any company which does not do Haraam business like alcohol, gambling, pork etc.
Company with whole allowed business but taking loans from the non Muslim banks, does not make the company Haraam.
Muslim must give back the rights of others in any possible way. Debts should be written to save the rights of others as we read in Quran (O you who believe, when you take a loan for an agreed time, you should write it down) (2:282).
The person who gave the money should remind the person who took the loan and present evidence including witness or any other supporting evidence. If the person who took the money denies remembering the loan, he should be asked to take an oath by Allah that he did not take any amount.
Claimant needs to prove while opposite party needs to take oath. البيّنة على من إدّعى واليمين على من أنكر.
If you know that your brother would be ok with you using his amanah in a wise and responsible way, and that you would return it back to your brother once he asks for it, then you are allowed to lend that money to your father.
And Allah knows best.
If you have already paid it's Khums, then no Khums again on the remaining amount because it has been already purified by paying its Khums.
Yes, it is allowed if it is necessary.
Any business which deals with interest is not allowed in Islam. Raising funds for loans with interest is also not allowed.
Social media marketing is like any other type of marketing, must avoid Haraam businesses.
Such loan is permissible to take. Some scholars also allowing taking loans with interest if it is absolutely necessary and the person is in much hardship.
May Allah grant you success
as salam alaikum
usury, or charging interest on money loaned, is one of the major sins and therefore it is not permissible.
With prayers for your success.
The amount which you lent last year was supposed to be calculated in your Khums of last year but as it was not with you, you did not pay its Khums. When you received it back, you must pay its Khums immediately.