Money is any item or verifiable record that is generally accepted as payment for goods and services and repayment of debts, such as taxes, in a particular country or socio-economic context.
Money given to you is your money. If any amount of that money remains with you unspent, after one year from owning that amount,then Khums will be obligatory on that remaining amount only.
No, as the responsibility of paying the Khums is not on him but on his father.
All family members who eat and utilize money are not responsible to pay its Khums because they are not the owners and Khums is obligatory on the owner only.
It is wrong to take money from any government agency with out having the right for it. Muslim should always be sincere , truthful and honest.
'You need to return that money to its owners and if can not, then give it to the poor on behalf of the owners and not as a donation from you.
Harming people is not allowed in Islam. If it does not harm them now or in the future and you are sure that they will never object on it, then it becomes permissible.
Haraam money is always Haraam till you give it back to the real owner. You are not allowed to use the SIM which you have purchased with Haraam money till you pay that money back to the real owner or his inheritors.
Inshallah it is ok.
Maybe they already knew or understood.
Yes of course. Nazr does not necessarily mean paying money but it can be doing something like praying a Namaz or Quran or Du'a or going for Ziyarat or Umra.
Yes it is permissible like any other business as far as it is real business and not gambling nor cheating in selling something which is not existing.
If you know that your brother would be ok with you using his amanah in a wise and responsible way, and that you would return it back to your brother once he asks for it, then you are allowed to lend that money to your father.
And Allah knows best.
Khums is obligatory on everything you own on the day of your Khums. Rise in shares value means increase in your wealth, which must be calculated as part of your owning.
If you have already paid it's Khums, then no Khums again on the remaining amount because it has been already purified by paying its Khums.
You have full right to get back your money from him through any lawful way but not through false statements. Lying is forbidden.