Money is any item or verifiable record that is generally accepted as payment for goods and services and repayment of debts, such as taxes, in a particular country or socio-economic context.
Haraam money is always Haraam till you give it back to the real owner. You are not allowed to use the SIM which you have purchased with Haraam money till you pay that money back to the real owner or his inheritors.
Inshallah it is ok.
Maybe they already knew or understood.
Yes of course. Nazr does not necessarily mean paying money but it can be doing something like praying a Namaz or Quran or Du'a or going for Ziyarat or Umra.
Yes it is permissible like any other business as far as it is real business and not gambling nor cheating in selling something which is not existing.
If you know that your brother would be ok with you using his amanah in a wise and responsible way, and that you would return it back to your brother once he asks for it, then you are allowed to lend that money to your father.
And Allah knows best.
Khums is obligatory on everything you own on the day of your Khums. Rise in shares value means increase in your wealth, which must be calculated as part of your owning.
If you have already paid it's Khums, then no Khums again on the remaining amount because it has been already purified by paying its Khums.
You have full right to get back your money from him through any lawful way but not through false statements. Lying is forbidden.
In the case of khums payment, it is not dependent on whether you work or not. It is a matter of what you have when your khums date comes. Should you have any savings that you have not paid khums on before, and it is your pure excess and savings from that year, then you will need to pay khums on it.
In addition to this, another case of khums being applicable on you would be items that you own and are new and you have not used.
Please refer to your Marja' taqleed for detailed information.
And Allah knows best.
Wasting money is forbidden in Islam and considered as one of the major sins, but if money is been thrown in the air then collected by children or participants in the wedding as a gift for them to make them happy, it will not be wasting money but gifting it to the children or participants. Gifting money should be within the moderate levels and not over the limits, otherwise if the amounts were over the moderate limits, or just for show, it will be then not permissible. If you know any part of the thrown money will be wasted, then it will be not permissible to waste any money.
If the bonds funds are invested in lawful business, it will be then permissible to invest in it and to use the income from it. It makes no difference whether it is in Muslim or non Muslim country as far as the money is invested in lawful business.
It is not wrong to have savings or to be wealthy if you have given all the obligatory dues of Khums, Zakat etc.
The reason and intention behind saving and collecting wealth should be noble i.e. to do more good, and not ust to accumulate wealth or to show off. Some wealthy persons think that their wealth is the main pillar of their strength forgetting Allah and the Day of Hereafter. Such thought makes the wealth a curse on them and not a bounty. Allah says in Quran (Woe to every slanderer and backbiter, Who accumulated wealth and counted it, He thinks that his wealth will make last forever) Sura 104, Verse 1 to 3.