Mut'a (Temporary marriage)
Nikah mut'ah (Arabic: نكاح المتعة, translit. nikāḥ al-mutʿah, literally "pleasure marriage"; or Sigheh (Persian: صیغه) is a private and verbal temporary marriage contract that is practiced in Twelver Shia Islam in which the duration of the marriage and the mahr must be specified and agreed upon in advance. It is a private contract made in a verbal or written format.
No. The Mahr is the right of the woman which can be money or teaching or any other benefit. Sexual acts between husband and wife can not be a Mahr.
The aim of Mut’ah marriage is to save people from falling into sinful
sexual acts. Those who don’t have a permanent wife or those who are
away from their wife can take the benefit from this type of Islamic
marriage which is a time fixed marriage to save themselves from
falling into sinful acts. The Holy Prophet (SAWA) and the infallible
Imams (AS) warned against hurting the feelings of anyone
specially your near ones like your wife. If the person who has a wife
with him does anything which causes pain and injury to her feelings,
he should avoid such act. Even if he does need it to save
himself from sexual sins, he must not cause any harm t his wife.
Virgin girl needs the permission from her father or paternal grand father for any type of marriage including Mut'ah marriage. Some scholars say that if she really needs to get married to save herself from sin and her father or grand father are refusing to permit, she might be able to have Mut'ah marriage with a suitable believer with a condition of no sexual relationship. This is not the verdict of all the scholars so she need to refer to her Marja' of Taqleed.
As the respected Sayyid al-Musawi has explained, the person who banned Mut'a was 'Umar b. al-Khattab and not the Prophet (s). However, it is true that many of our Sunni brothers and sisters believe that the practice was abrogated by the Prophet (s) himself. This view is based on some hadith narrations that seem to suggest so.
The notable scholar and Marja' Sayyid al-Khu'i has covered these narrations from the Sunni sources and debunked them in his work Al-Bayan while discussing the topic of abrogation of Qur'anic verses.
You can read the chapter here, the relevant section is to be found after some scrolling, or you can simply search for '4:24'. Hope this helps.
Omar was the first who forbade Mut’ah marriage, not the Prophet (SAWA).
Omar said in public during his rule: Two Mut’a were allowed during the era of the Prophet and I stop it and will punish on it, the Mut’ah marriage and Mut’ah of Hajj. ( 1.Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal , v. 22, p. 365, Hadeeth 14479.
2. Al-Sarkhasi in al-Mabsoot, v. 4, p.27.
3. Ibn Baaz, the grand WAhabi Mufti in Majmoo’ al-Fataawa , v. 20, p.298.
4. Ibn Hazm in al-Muhalla , v. 7, p.107.
5. Sunan al-Nasaa’ee in al-Sunan al-Sughra H. 2735 and al-Sunan al-Kubra H. 3716.
6. Ibn Taymiyyah in Kitab al-Taharah wal Hajj, v. 2, p.471 and many others.)
Omar never said that Mut’ah marriage is forbidden and that he forbids people for it because it is forbidden in Islam, but rather the exact opposite. He affirmed that it was allowed during the era of the Messenger of God (Peace and Blessing be on him and his Progeny ) and he (Omar) who wants to prohibit and punish against it. The evidence is crystal clear that the Mut’ah marriage was allowed and been practiced by Muslims during the era of the Messenger of God (SAWA) and during the era of the Abu Bakr government and part of the era of the Omar government, and confirms that the first one who forbade it is Omar.
On the authority of Abu Nadhra, he said: (I was with Jabir bin Abdullah, a man came to him and said: Ibn Abbas and Ibn Al-Zubayr differed concerning the Mut’ah marriage and Mut’ah in Hajj, so Jaber said: We did them with the Messenger of God (may God’s Salutations and peace be upon him and his Progeny)), then Omar prohibited them, so we did not modify them (Sahih Muslim / c 4 p. 59 - Sunan Al-Bayhaqi / 7 p. 206).
This hadith was narrated in another form: (On the authority of Abu Nadhra on the authority of Jaber (may God be pleased with him) he said: I said that Ibn al-Zubayr forbids Mut’ah marriage and that Ibn Abbas orders it. He said: On my hand the conversation took place, we did Mut’ah marriage during the time of the Messenger of God (may God’s Salutations and peace be upon him and his Progeny) and with Abu Bakr. When Omar took the government over, he addressed people and said: This is the Messenger of God, and the Qur’an is this Qur’an, and Muslims were doing Mut’ah marriage during the time of the Messenger of God (may God’s Salutations and peace be upon him and his Progeny) and I have banned them and admonish them: one of them The Mut’ah marriage, and I will not find a man who married a woman for a period, but will throw him with stones, and the other: the Mut’ah of Hajj (Sunan Al-Bayhaqi / 7 p. 206).
It was also narrated in a third way: (On the authority of Jabir bin Abdullah, he said: We did Mut’ah during the era of the Prophet (may God’s Salutations and peace be upon him and his Progeny): Hajj and women, and Omar forbade them. (It was included by Ahmad Ibn Hanbal in his Musnad C 3 / pp. 356-363) in two ways, one of which is the way of Asim . It is authentic Hadeeth as the narrators men are all confident.
And on the authority of Omar, he said in his sermon: Two things that were in the era of the Messenger of God (may God’s prayers and peace be upon him), and I finished them and punished them: the Mut’ah of Hajj and the Mut’ah of women. (The provisions of the Qur’an for Al-Qassas, Part 1/352 and Part 2, p. 191, Tafseer Al-Qurtubi 2, p. 392).
Al-Ragheb said in his book (Al-Muhadharaat 2, p. 94): Yahya bin Aktham told a sheikh in Basra: Whom did you follow in the permissibility of Mut’ah marriage ? He said : My evidence is from Umar ibn Al-Khattab. He said how come when Umar was the most against it ?! He said because the authentic narration is that he ascended the podium and said: God and His Messenger have given you two Mut’ah, and I am forbidding them on you and punishing on them, so we accepted his statement that it was on the time of the Prophet, and did not accept his prohibition.
These Hadeeths and others indicate a personal opinion of Umar against what was been practiced during the time of the Messenger of God (may God bless him and his family and peace) and even the time of Abu Bakr !!
Some apologized for him that he was very hard on the issue of Mut’ah marriage because he entered a day in the house of his sister ‘Afra, and found in her lap a baby who had been bron from Mut’ah marriage, so Omar got angry and went out to the mosque and went up the pulpit and prohibited Mut’ah marriage.
Abdullah bin Abbas, the well known companion and cousin brother of The Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) confirmed that the prohibition of Mut’ah marriage came only from Omar, and it was reported that Ibn Abbas said: The verse of Mut’ah marriage is very clear in Quran, and it is as it was , it has never been abrogated. (See Al-Ghadeer, Vol. 6, p. 210).
If her father and paternal are dead, she will be allowed to marry a believer who is compatible to her in Religion and morals.
Jesus Christ (AS) never said that he was a god or son of God. The oldest texts about Christianity have no such claim frm Jesus, his mother, or any of his sincere disciples.
This claim of trinity was created by some people hundreds of years after Jesus (AS).
Mut'ah marriage is the solution to sexual problems of people who can not have permanent marriage, and this problem existed all the times. We believe that the faith of all the prophets is same buy their Shariah differs according to the situation of their communities. We have no details of the Sharia of previous prophets but we believe that Allah (SWT) did guide people in every time to the solutions of their problems including their sexual needs.
Mut'ah marriage was mentioned in Quran (4: 24) and many authentic Hadeeths in Sunni and Shia books of Hadeeth. It was practiced by the believers and was encouraged by the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) and the Infallible Imams (AS). This fact is recorded in authentic Hadeethes in Sunni books as well as Shia books. This is enough evidence for those who want to follow the Prophet (SAWA).
Usually Mut'ah marriage is not done in public as there is no compulsory condition to announce it.
Sunni books mention breastfeeding the adult ( woman breastfeeding a man who is non Mahram to her to make him able to see her with out Hijab) and claim it allowed , but can they prove that it was done by Abu Bakr, Omar or Othman?
Temporary marriage is the solution for sexual needs of human beings who are unable to have permanent marriage . It is the way to save them from sinful acts.
As the need was existing all the times, no doubt, the prophets have guided people to the same solution.
Witnessing the marriage is recommended but not compulsory, but if the girl is virgin,her father or paternal grand father must permit or approve the marriage.
In our Shi'ah fiqh, it is not obligatory nor a condition for there to be any witnesses during a marriage contract.
However, it is advisable and recommended for marriage to be conducted in the presence of others, and for the Nikah to be publicised and announced.
And Allah knows best.
Yes she can put this condition in the contract of the marriage. If the man agrees to it then it will be binding on him.