Sayyid (also spelt Saiyed, Seyit, Seyd, Said, Syed, Sayed, Sayyed, Saiyid, Seyed and Seyyed) (Arabic: سيد, Persian: [sejˈjed]; meaning "Mister"; plural: Saadat or Sadat Arabic: سادة sādah is an honorific title denoting people (feminine version: sayyidah سيدة) accepted as descendants of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and his cousin Imam Ali through his grandsons, Imam Hasan ibn Ali and Imam Husayn ibn Ali, sons of Muhammad's daughter Fatimah and son-in-law Ali (Ali ibn Abi Talib). Female sayyids are given the titles Sayyida, Syeda, Alawiyah or Sharifa. In some regions of the Islamic world, such as in India, the descendants of Muhammad are given the title Amir or Mir, meaning commander, general.
Bani Hashim (the family of the Prophet) are entitled to Sahm Sadat if they are poor. The grand children of Ameerul Mo'mineen Ali (AS) are called Alawi Sadat while grandchildren of Aqeel ibn aabi Talib are called Aqeeli Sadat and grandchildren of Jafar ibn Abi Talib are called Jafari Sadat.
When your Marja' has not issued a Fatwa (verdict) on a specific matter, you can refer to the second Marja' who is next highest in the degree of knowledge according to most senior Ulama of the Hawza.
It is absolutely fair as all the rules of Islam are fair with out fail. Those who are linked with the greatest human being, Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) are gifted more reward when they do good and implement his teachings , and this gift is for the sake of respect and love of the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA). Similarly if they do wrong and violate the message of Islam, they will entitled to double chastisement because of the disrespect they showed to the Prophet (SAWA).
In Quran said : O wives of the Prophet; any one from you commits a proven sin will be punished double, and any one from you submits to the will of Allah and His messenger and does good, we shall grant her double of reward. (33:30 and 31).
What we commonly refer to as "sadaqah", or charity giving is mustahab, and it can be given to anyone; a Seyid or a non-Seyid.
It is only the wajib zakat (for example) of a non-Seyid that cannot be given to a Seyid.
And Allah knows best.
Yes, a Seyid male/female is allowed to marry a non-Seyid male/female. There is nowhere in our religion that somehow forces Seyids/Seyidahs to marry someone like them. This has also unfortunately turned into a very negative culture as well. The esteemed Marja' A.U. Seyid Sistani has pointed to this in a statement where he admonished some parents who cling onto this wrong culture and reject prospect spouses on the basis that they are not Seyids/Seyidahs.
With prayers for your success.
The Sayyid title is applied to all of the descendants of Hashim (they are called Hashimis) so it includes all of Imam Ali's (as) children.
May you always be successful
Why would God punish or restrict a woman due to her paternal lineage to only allow her to marry a certain group of men, whereas other Muslim women are allowed to marry any Muslim man?
However, I do think it's advisable to take sect into consideration when marrying, and to make sure that the husband and wife have compatible ideas about religion, especially if there is the possibility of children. However, this is general advice, not related to one's lineage.
Sayyed belongs to the family tree of the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA), that is why he should respect and act upon the teachings of the Prophet (SAWA) and Ahlul Bayt (AS).
Pious Sayyeds have great rule in history of Muslims in spreading the message of Islam in many countries. Great number of our Maraaji' of Taqleed, leading scholars, authors and teachers are Sayyeds.
Some of the scholars stated that the good deeds of Sayyed will have more reward, while bad deeds from him will cause him more hardship. They mention the Quranic verse 33:30 ( يضاعف لها العذاب ضعفين )as an evidence which states doubling the punishment of the sins if committed by a wife of the Prophet (SAWA). Sayyeds should keep the respect of the Prophet (SAWA) and Ahlul Bayt (AS) in their behavior.
Every Muslim must respect the Sayyeds and help them as far as he can.
The Prophetic Hadeeth states: Love Allah, for His bounties on you, and love me for the love of Allah, and love my Progeny (Ahlul Bayt) for my love.
We have many Hadeethes encouraging Muslims to be kind, co-operative, helpful and respecting Sadaat (Sayyeds) being from the family tree of the Prophet (SAWA).
Yes it is allowed.
Marriage between any Mo'min male and Mo'min female is permissible if other conditions are met.
he authentic Hadeeth from Ahlul Bayt (AS) states : المؤمن كفؤ المؤمنة Every believer man is compatible to marry a believer woman.
The child belongs to his father in the matter of Sayyed or non Sayyed. Most of our great Ulama say that children of non Sayyed from Sayyeda mother are considered as non Sayyed just like their father.
According to our leading scholars, the answer to your question is: Yes.
Imam Hasan (A) is said to have had about 15 or 16 children, but there are some historical disagreements about the details of how many children he had or who else [apart from al-Qasim's mother] he also was married to.