Fidyah (Arabic: الفدية) and Kaffara (Arabic: كفارة) are religious donations made in Islam when a fast (notably in Ramadan) is missed or broken. The donations can be of food, or money, and it is used to feed those in need.
If the 10 year old is a female, who has reached her shar'i age of bulugh, then yes, she will need to pay the kaffarah of 'feeding 60 poor', along with doing the qadha' of that day.
If it was a male, then no, he does not.
And Allah knows best.
No Kaffara and no responsibility on a child in the age of three or four. Estighfaar is always good.
You can, but, over time, you may come to understand the meaning of the istikhara and why it was negative.
It is not necessary to give kaffarah.
Abortion is a major sinful act in Islam act because it is killing a human being in the early stages. There is a sinful act which needs Estighfaar and sincere repentance and a (Diyah) penalty on the person who committed this crime. The amount of the penalty depends on the age of the embryo starting from the moment of the formation of the zygote. Supporting in this major sin is definitely sinful and if the supporter was partner in the abortion, he will be responsible to share the penalty as he shared the crime with same ratio.
If a person promises Allah (SWT) to do or not to do something, he must fulfill his promise with out fail. If he breaks his promise, he has then committed a sinful act and must expiate by either fasting two months or feeding sixty poor believers. This is called Kaffara of 'Ahd كفارة العهد.
Fasting the whole of the month of Ramadan is obligatory unless you are traveling or ill with an illness which is related to fasting or caused or worsened by fasting. If taking the antibiotics is must, then you can try to take it in the period fromMahrib till Fajr. If you need to take it during the day and you can not avoid it, then it will be medically necessary which allows you not to fast but you must keep Qadha of that fast which you missed after the month of Ramadan.
Kaffara has many types e.g. Kaffara of not fasting during the month of Ramadhan, which is feeding sixty poor believers for every missed day of fast, and Kaffara of traveling in a covered vehicle during the state of Ehraam for men in Hajj or Umra which is slaughtering a sheep and distributing it among the poor believers, and Kaffara of not fulfilling an oath, which is feeding ten poor believers or clothing them. These types of Kaffara can be given as material not cash to the poor believers directly.
There is a Qadha' and Kaffara for every day of missed fasting of the Month of Ramadhan. The Kaffara is either fasting two consequent months or feeding sixty poor believers.
Qadha must be done as soon as possible.
Kaffara is obligatory when the person deliberately committed the sinful act of not fasting during the month of Ramadhan. If his health does not allow him to fast, and he has no money to feed sixty poor persons, then he should feed the number of poor persons which he can, and recite Estighfaar.
If a person deliberately did not fast any day of the Month of Ramadhan, he has committed a sinful act and he must that day as Qadha and he must fast two months or feed sixty poor Momineen for not fasting that day.
Exams is not be a valid reason to leave fasting, so, the above rule is applicable.
Misbehaving with parents is one of the most dangerous major sins. Major sins leads to hellfire unless you leave it and decide not to do it again and compensate it.
There is no specific Kaffara for such major sin, but to make yur parents happy with you by doing good to them till they pardon you and be happy with you from their heart not just by tongue.
Such major sin is very dangerous in this life as wel as hereafter, so, you need to do everything possible to make your parents happy enough to forgive you and pray fro your forgiveness.
No way to avoid the wrath and curse but to gain the happiness of your parents with you.
Slavery exists today as it has existed in the past. Slavery exists in Western countries as well as Eastern countries. In Mauritania there is still a pre-modern system of slavery, with children being born into slavery. Those that campaign against it often risk their lives. In Pakistan children are enslaved, or at least indentured, which is virtually the same, in the carpet making business. The children that have campaigned against it have been killed. In Afghanistan children as young as three work long hours in brick kilns carrying bricks. In India, children work in the mica mines. In Africa, children work in mines also. In the Gulf, kidnapped boys are enslaved to work as camel jockeys. They are very often molested by their owners. There is a sad story of a boy from Pakistan who was sold as a camel jockey by his father who wanted the money for alcohol. Maids from the Philippines have their passports confiscated. Today, freeing a slave is not going to be as simple as making a credit card payment. It would mean contacting organisations that campaign against slavery, or else approaching actual business people who have control over their enslaved workers and offering to actually pay for one their slaves so that you can set that person free. Some people do that. It can be ethically controversial because it may imply a perpetuation of the slave trade, but maybe on these occasions the actual liberation of a child from a life of slavery, beatings and molestations is more important.