Fidyah (Arabic: الفدية) and Kaffara (Arabic: كفارة) are religious donations made in Islam when a fast (notably in Ramadan) is missed or broken. The donations can be of food, or money, and it is used to feed those in need.
Waking up for eating or drinking in Sehri (Sohoor) is not a condition in fasting. Fasting is must on Baaligh Muslim whether they wake up or don't wake up for Sehri.
Baaligh girl ( who completed full nine lunar years) must fast the month of Ramadan. Not fasting is a major sin which requires then Qadha of that day, and Kaffara of fasting two months or feeding of sixty poor believers, for every day of not fasting.
Giving Kaffara does not make it permissible.
Abortion is a type of killing of a human being under formation, that is why it is a major sin. The Penalty of such major sin is called Diyah which is obligatory on the person who did the abortion as well as a Kaffara of killing . The Kaffara is three parts; freeing a slave, fasting two months continuously and feeding sixty poor Momin's. The amount of the Diyah depends on the number of the days of the embryo since the formation of the zygote.
If the 10 year old is a female, who has reached her shar'i age of bulugh, then yes, she will need to pay the kaffarah of 'feeding 60 poor', along with doing the qadha' of that day.
If it was a male, then no, he does not.
And Allah knows best.
No Kaffara and no responsibility on a child in the age of three or four. Estighfaar is always good.
You can, but, over time, you may come to understand the meaning of the istikhara and why it was negative.
It is not necessary to give kaffarah.
Abortion is a major sinful act in Islam act because it is killing a human being in the early stages. There is a sinful act which needs Estighfaar and sincere repentance and a (Diyah) penalty on the person who committed this crime. The amount of the penalty depends on the age of the embryo starting from the moment of the formation of the zygote. Supporting in this major sin is definitely sinful and if the supporter was partner in the abortion, he will be responsible to share the penalty as he shared the crime with same ratio.
If a person promises Allah (SWT) to do or not to do something, he must fulfill his promise with out fail. If he breaks his promise, he has then committed a sinful act and must expiate by either fasting two months or feeding sixty poor believers. This is called Kaffara of 'Ahd كفارة العهد.
Fasting the whole of the month of Ramadan is obligatory unless you are traveling or ill with an illness which is related to fasting or caused or worsened by fasting. If taking the antibiotics is must, then you can try to take it in the period fromMahrib till Fajr. If you need to take it during the day and you can not avoid it, then it will be medically necessary which allows you not to fast but you must keep Qadha of that fast which you missed after the month of Ramadan.
Kaffara has many types e.g. Kaffara of not fasting during the month of Ramadhan, which is feeding sixty poor believers for every missed day of fast, and Kaffara of traveling in a covered vehicle during the state of Ehraam for men in Hajj or Umra which is slaughtering a sheep and distributing it among the poor believers, and Kaffara of not fulfilling an oath, which is feeding ten poor believers or clothing them. These types of Kaffara can be given as material not cash to the poor believers directly.
There is a Qadha' and Kaffara for every day of missed fasting of the Month of Ramadhan. The Kaffara is either fasting two consequent months or feeding sixty poor believers.
Qadha must be done as soon as possible.
Kaffara is obligatory when the person deliberately committed the sinful act of not fasting during the month of Ramadhan. If his health does not allow him to fast, and he has no money to feed sixty poor persons, then he should feed the number of poor persons which he can, and recite Estighfaar.
If a person deliberately did not fast any day of the Month of Ramadhan, he has committed a sinful act and he must that day as Qadha and he must fast two months or feed sixty poor Momineen for not fasting that day.
Exams is not be a valid reason to leave fasting, so, the above rule is applicable.