Fidyah (Arabic: الفدية) and Kaffara (Arabic: كفارة) are religious donations made in Islam when a fast (notably in Ramadan) is missed or broken. The donations can be of food, or money, and it is used to feed those in need.
Kaffara has many types e.g. Kaffara of not fasting during the month of Ramadhan, which is feeding sixty poor believers for every missed day of fast, and Kaffara of traveling in a covered vehicle during the state of Ehraam for men in Hajj or Umra which is slaughtering a sheep and distributing it among the poor believers, and Kaffara of not fulfilling an oath, which is feeding ten poor believers or clothing them. These types of Kaffara can be given as material not cash to the poor believers directly.
There is a Qadha' and Kaffara for every day of missed fasting of the Month of Ramadhan. The Kaffara is either fasting two consequent months or feeding sixty poor believers.
Qadha must be done as soon as possible.
Kaffara is obligatory when the person deliberately committed the sinful act of not fasting during the month of Ramadhan. If his health does not allow him to fast, and he has no money to feed sixty poor persons, then he should feed the number of poor persons which he can, and recite Estighfaar.
If a person deliberately did not fast any day of the Month of Ramadhan, he has committed a sinful act and he must that day as Qadha and he must fast two months or feed sixty poor Momineen for not fasting that day.
Exams is not be a valid reason to leave fasting, so, the above rule is applicable.
Misbehaving with parents is one of the most dangerous major sins. Major sins leads to hellfire unless you leave it and decide not to do it again and compensate it.
There is no specific Kaffara for such major sin, but to make yur parents happy with you by doing good to them till they pardon you and be happy with you from their heart not just by tongue.
Such major sin is very dangerous in this life as wel as hereafter, so, you need to do everything possible to make your parents happy enough to forgive you and pray fro your forgiveness.
No way to avoid the wrath and curse but to gain the happiness of your parents with you.
Slavery exists today as it has existed in the past. Slavery exists in Western countries as well as Eastern countries. In Mauritania there is still a pre-modern system of slavery, with children being born into slavery. Those that campaign against it often risk their lives. In Pakistan children are enslaved, or at least indentured, which is virtually the same, in the carpet making business. The children that have campaigned against it have been killed. In Afghanistan children as young as three work long hours in brick kilns carrying bricks. In India, children work in the mica mines. In Africa, children work in mines also. In the Gulf, kidnapped boys are enslaved to work as camel jockeys. They are very often molested by their owners. There is a sad story of a boy from Pakistan who was sold as a camel jockey by his father who wanted the money for alcohol. Maids from the Philippines have their passports confiscated. Today, freeing a slave is not going to be as simple as making a credit card payment. It would mean contacting organisations that campaign against slavery, or else approaching actual business people who have control over their enslaved workers and offering to actually pay for one their slaves so that you can set that person free. Some people do that. It can be ethically controversial because it may imply a perpetuation of the slave trade, but maybe on these occasions the actual liberation of a child from a life of slavery, beatings and molestations is more important.
as salam alaikum
there are other options mentioned in the Qur'an and Hadith instead of emancipating a slave like fasting for sixty consecutive days or feeding sixty poor people.
With prayers for your success.
It is required to fast whole one month and one day after the month, that will make 31 days ( depending on the month). After fasting 31 days with out any gaps, you can then have a gap.
If some one is unable to fulfill the Kaffara on him in any way as you mentioned in your question, he must then recite Estighfaar as many times as he can.
It is not called Kaffara but Diyyah. Diyyah is a penalty on the person who kills or injures someone else. It goes to the inheritors of the victim who did not take part in the sinful act itself (abortion).
Deliberate terminating of pregnancy is a sinful act. The Diyyah depends on the age of the embryo. In your case of 11 weeks , the Diyyah is two hundred and ten Mithqal of silver. Every Mithqal is 4.64 grams.
It is not called Kaffara but Diyyah.
For deliberately aborting of 11 weeks embryo, the Diyyah is 210 Mithqal of silver. Every Mithqal is 4.64 grams.
The Diyyah or its value must be given to the inheritors of the embryo who did not take part in the act of abortion.
If he has made an oath to pay certain amount if he commits that sin, it becomes obligatory on him to fulfill his oath if he committed that sin, and pay that amount or what ever he can, then to pay the rest when ever he can in the future. It remains as a loan on him which must be paid as soon as he is able to pay it.