Death is the permanent cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living organism. Phenomena which commonly bring about death include aging, predation, malnutrition, disease, suicide, homicide, starvation, dehydration, and accidents or major trauma resulting in terminal injury. In most cases, bodies of living organisms begin to decompose shortly after death.
Here are a few narrations on this topic:
Imam al-Sadiq (A) said, “The things which enter a person’s grave are ritual prayer, fasting, hajj, charity, good deeds, supplication, and its reward is written for those who do them and for the deceased.” (Man la yahduruhu al-faqih)
Imam al-Sadiq (A) said, “Whoever of the Muslims does a good deed for a deceased person, God will double his reward and benefit through it the deceased” (Bihar al-Anwar citing Uddat al-Da’i)
It is related that a man came to the Prophet (S) and asked, “My mother has died. Will it benefit her if I give charity on her behalf?” He said, “Yes.” (Musnad Ahmad)
Apart from Wahhabis who object to this because they see everything as bid'ah, it is hard to see the objection to this since if one is doing something good in the hopes that it would benefit the deceased, at least one is doing something good and beneficial.
Maybe some people might object because some things are done for esaal-e-sawab which are not overly beneficial in the present time, for instance, printing Qur'ans and distributing them in an area where Qur'ans are easily accessible. This would have been very beneficial in earlier centuries but today because printing is cheap, it often is not the most beneficial thing to do even if it is meaningful, or sometimes things could even be wasteful. So it is good to think about what is most beneficial, and I am sure the deceased appreciate being remembered in a good way!
According to our traditions, there are different views as to how long Prophet Musa (a.s.) lived for. The ages mentioned have been 120, 126, 240, 250 years. Regarding where he is buried, there is no precise information that we have. One view says he is buried close to Bayt al-Maqdas. One view also mentions that his burial site is on Mount Nebo, in Jordan.
As for how he departed this world, it was generally of natural causes, but the story of how he passed is also interesting.
It is said that the Angel of death, 'Isra'il had a conversation with Prophet Moses (a.s.), asking him permission to take his soul, and the Prophet entered into a dialogue with the Angel, and his soul was not taken.
A while later, Prophet Moses (a.s.) was walking in the desert, and he saw a person digging a grave, and offered to help. After helping, the person asked Prophet Moses (a.s.) to lie in the grave to see if it fits, and he did so. When Prophet Moses (a.s.) lied in the grave, he was granted a vision of seeing his place in heaven, and then realised this person was 'Isra'il, and it was now time for him to depart this world, in the very grave that he dug for himself.
This is how the story goes, as one narration says, and for the details please refer to this site:
With prayers for your success.
This narration is mentioned in the Musnad of Ahmad bin Hanbal in which Abdullah ibn Mas'ood said that I don't mind or in fact I am ready to take oath and repeat it nine times that the prophet was killed rather than taking oath one time that he was not killed.
Musnad Ahmad bin Hanbal volume 1 page 408
Our prominent Ulamah have mentioned many authentic hadith that the Prophet was poisoned. Among them is:
· Sheikh Al Mufid in his book Al-Muqni'ah page 456
· Sheikh Al Toosi in his book Al Tahdhib vol 2 page 6
· Al Fattal Al Nisaburi in his book Al Rawdat page 71
· Al Allamah Al Hilli in his book Al Tahrir vol 2 page 118
· Al Shahid Al Awal in his book Al-Durus vol 2 page 6
· Allamah Al Majlisi in his book Mir'at Al Uqol vol 5 page 174
Ibne-Abil Hadeed Al Moathazalee a well known non-Shia scholar mentioned in his book Sharh Nahj Al-Balagha that the Prophet was poisoned and that he passed away as a Shahid (martyr) vol 10 page 221.
There is a narration from Imam Jaffer as Sadiq (as) that Imam Hassan (as) told his family members "I will die by poison as the Prophet Mohammad (saw) was poisoned."
Al-Khara'ij wal-Jara'ih vol 1 page 241
Among the Sunni scholars Al Hakim Al Nishapuri is very well known who compiled the famous book Al-Mustadrak alaa al-Sahihain he narrated from Al Sha'bi "by Allah the Prophet was poisoned."
It is not the death but it is the martyrdom of the Prophet Mohammad (peace be upon him and his Holy Progeny).
Yes, you can pray Salatul Walidain (Prayers for the Parents) and gift the reward of it to your living parents. Gifting the reward can be to the living as well as to the dead.
Shia Muslims mourn the tragedies of the Prophet (SAWA) and his Ahlul Bayt (AS) more than any other Muslim sect. No doubt, the tragedy of Imam Husain (AS) in Karbala is the greatest tragedy in the history of human kind looking at the details of it and the way it happened and the victims from infant child to women to the Imam himself and the inhuman acts by the enemies even by preventing Imam Husain and his family from drinking water despite being on the bank of the river, and other details of the tragedy which was declared by Imam Hasan before Karbala (No tragedy will be like your tragedy O Aba Abdillah (Husain)).
Our mourning on the tragedies of Imam Husain (AS) is according to greatness the deepest extent of the tragedies.
No other Muslim sect mourn the tragedies of the Prophet (SAWA) and his Progeny like the Shia Muslims.
What he is doing is a very big sin and he cannot miss salah on purpose. He may have someone to do the missed salahs after his death however he won't be free of the punishment which he will brings upon himself for each intentional missed Salah.
Share him the following hadith:
Imam Ali [as] said: Verily, some people worshipped Allah being desirous (Of His reward) – so this is the worship of traders; and some people worshipped Allah fearing (His punishment) – so it is the worship of slaves, and a group worshipped Allah in gratitude (to Him) so this is the worship of the free. (Nahju ‘I-balaghah)
try to remind him of the benefits of the salah and help him in a way to beat his laziness. Tell him to try and count the endless amount of blessings he has and how rationally one must thank the one who blesses him. How is salah a burden compared to the life and sustenance that Allah has given us?!
May Allah grant you success
Allah (SW) guided all His creatures to the Right Path and warned the human beings from wrong deeds. He also helps those who want to do good. Allah does not force people to do good nor does He force them to avoid bad. Human beings are granted intellect and free will and been asked to do good and avoid bad. If Allah forces people, then the whole matter of good and bad in our life will go away and differentiation will be impossible between good people and bad people. That is the Justice and Wisdom of Allah (SWT).
To pray to Allah (SWT) to deal with him with His Mercy. The Mercy of Allah includes everything as Allah says in Quran: And My Mercy included everything ورحمتي وسعت كل شيء
During the time of the Prophet (S), literacy was still new in his society, and his people did not have the custom of writing long books. They also did not have as much technology for writing as Muslims did later; for instance, much of the Quran was originally written on non-paper things like pottery shards. So it was not until later that the major Islamic books were written.
Also, there were a lot of things happening (including the need to handle military threats, the expansion of Islam, civil war, sorting out the practicalities of governing, and so forth), and people are more likely to write books when there is more stability.
It is also quite possible that it didn't occur to some of the people to write a biography. After all, they all knew who the Prophet (S) was, and everything about their society was common knowledge to themselves. Why should they write a book about a subject that everyone knows about?
At the same time, the later companions or those from other regions most likely did not know a lot about the early life of the Prophet (S) because they came into the community later and only saw him in his final years.
Of course many details are passed on in hadith.
It is narrated that Imam Ali (A) spoke with the deceased in Wadi al-Salaam just by talking to them.
Anyway, the problem with trying to communicate with deceased people is that even if one feels one is getting communication, it is impossible to prove whether or not it actually comes from the deceased person (as opposed to, say, jinn, or one's imagination, or something else).
Also it is better to let the deceased go and not to try to hold on to them as they have their own journey to make after this life. It is also not healthy for us to try to hold on to people after their time has come. It is better to have a clean break, mourn, and go on.
However, if there is something important to be resolved (for instance, a very bad relationship during this life, or something very important to know), I don't think there is any harm in simply speaking to them at their gravesite (if it is accessible/if they were buried) or even during a quiet time like after prayer, in hopes that it might be heard. After all, the way that the material world works is different from the way that the barzakh works. Many of us are often talking to Imam Husain (A), Fatima al-Zahra (A), etc, anyway, although they are deceased, and often even waiting to hear back from them somehow!
If Allah wills, one might find some sort of response sometime (for most people this sort of thing is in dreams), and perhaps not, but at least one did what one did.
A minority of people have a strong inborn sense of perception of things that are generally not visible to other people and this is not always relating to piety, it is just a sense like any other sense, in the same way that some people are born with perfect pitch or an artistic eye.
Some people have extensive a'mal for trying to speak to deceased people; I am not aware of any benefit or usefulness in them (but of course I cannot speak for everything as I am not familiar with everything).
The best thing to do for the deceased is to pray for them or do good acts in their memory anyway.
There is no communication between us and the deceased persons. Hadeeth says: The deceased is too far from the living person while the living person is too close to the deceased ( very near to die). ما أبعد الميت من الحي وأقرب الحي من الميت.
Some very pious servants of Allah can under certain circumstances communicate with certain deceased person if there is a religious necessity, but this is not available to public.
Such pious servants of Allah do not come up in public and never claim anything. You need to be careful from those who claim to attract people's attention of benefits.
According to hadith, we will see and recognise our relatives in the barzakh.