An angel is a supernatural being in various religions. The theological study of angels is known as angelology.
Abrahamic religions often depict them as benevolent celestial intermediaries between God (or Heaven) and humanity.
Some people say it is because Allah had created the jinn first, and the angels had seen the jinn fighting so knew that a new species with free will would also fight.
Some say that there were other humanoids (nasnas), and they had fought, and so they deduced from this that a new species with free will would also fight.
These two views are reinforced by a narration from Imam al-Sadiq (A) in which he says that the angels could not have known that humans would cause bloodshed if they hadn't seen the precedent of earlier creatures on earth.
Some simply say that they understood this from looking at human nature, or by looking at the nature of life on earth and the challenges of living as an earth-based being (for instance, competition for food, water, reproduction, and land).
Since the earth (dunya) is considered the basest or lowest level of creation, vis-a-vis the heavenly realms, perhaps it also didn't make sense to instill Allah's vicegerency in an earthling.
Maybe there are other reasons too which relate to the nature of the angels and their existence outside of the earthly realm which would give them access to knowledge or a perspective that human beings generally lack.
Reading other verses in Quran (Allah has created every moving animal from water) (24:45)
and (It is He, who sends down water from the sky and with it We bring forth plants) (6:99) clarifies that Jinns and angles are not included. We can not take just one verse on a subject and leave other verses on the same subject to understand what Quran says about that subject.
It is ok to address a secondary cause (whether it be Imam 'Ali, an employer, a relative, etc) to request specific assistance as long as one agrees that Allah is the primary cause and these are just secondary means.
There is theoretically no problem with addressing the angels as well. However the Qur'an says that the angels fulfil God's command as God gives it to them and therefore this suggests they do not usually act according to the wishes or preferences of human beings. For instance, if an angel assigned to deliver sustenance, it will deliver what it was told to and not what the person wants. So for instance if I just casually say "Ya Jibra'il", it might not have the same effect. Of course God knows best.
The Qur'an says that the angels do not disobey God and do as they are commanded (Qur'an 66:6). It is also narrated from Imam 'Ali (A) that the angels do not disobey or tire. From this, we can glean that the angels do not disobey Allah.
Possibly, angels may have the inherently capability to disobey but simply choose not to do so, because they have no reason to do it and no inclination to do it.
This is often understood as being because angels have intellect but no animal desires, unlike human beings, which have both intellect and animals desires, and usually it is either our bodily urges or related traits (such as anger) which cause us to do wrong.
The angels also have a greater awareness of higher realities (such as things pertaining to Allah) as well as the ugliness of some wrong acts, so perhaps this also may contribute to not wishing to do wrong things, unlike people, who are sometimes blind to these things.
For this reason, stories like that of Fotros can be considered questionable.
God knows best!
He had the choice to sin or not. Some beings are stubborn and arrogant. We see this with humans as well that they know the truth of Allahs punishment yet still persist in sin knowingly.
The angels were mentioned in Quran in around 88 places. Hundreds of Hadeeths narrated by Ahlul Bayt (AS) from the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) did mention the angels. The angels have degrees and different duties. The four main angels are Israfil, Jabrael, Mikaeel and Izraeel.
'The duties of the angels are in very big variety. You can find more details in the books of Hadeeth like Biharul Anwar.
This question touches on the nature of reality - for instance, are thoughts part of reality?
In the material world, one's thoughts and intentions are not visible or "real" in the same way that a brick or truck is real.
However, in the hereafter, one's thoughts and intention will be made manifest so everyone can see them. (Thus, everyone will be able to read what was on other people's minds the same way they would see a brick or a truck here.) Therefore, they have an objective reality which we do not see directly.
Beings such as angels or Shaytan which are occupying a different aspect of reality (for instance, coming and going from the heavens) or which are of a different construction may be able to see the realities of our thoughts and intentions. (If the angels could not see your intentions, how could they write down that you should have extra reward when you are tempted to do a wrong deed but abstain?)
To my understanding, this is not about special permission from Allah but rather being on a different "wavelength" of reality or having different senses, in the same way that some animals can hear certain frequencies that humans cannot.
In any case, the way that the universe is created is part of the divine plan, so we should assume there is divine wisdom behind it.
Knowing what is in the mind of others is part of 'Elm al-Ghayb ( Knoweldge of the unseen) which is gifted by Allah (SWT) to His humble servants according to different degrees depending on the level of the humbleness of the servant.
The Prophet (SAWA) and Ahlul Bayt (AS) are gifted what Allah Has gifted them from 'Elm al-Ghayb. Even pious believers can know the mind of some person under curtain circumstances. The Hadeeth says: Beware of the deep sight of the believer, as he is guided by the Noor of Allah.
Real piousness opens the gates of facts of life to the pious servant of Allah (SAWA).
Satan does not know our intentions but whispers to people to misguide and harm them.
The narration has been wrongly translated according to the wrong understanding of some fanatic Muslims like Wahabis.
The narration in Arabic is لا تدخل الملائكة بيتا فيه كلب أو تماثيل
The angles do not enter a house which has a dog or statues (Idols).
Photographs or drawings are not statues nor idols. Some narrow minded persons claim that photos and drawings are like the statues. This misunderstanding came from the difference in the meaning of the word صورة تصاوير which means in original Arabic statues or idols but in the Arabic of today it is been used for photographs which were not available that time.
Photography is allowed and putting photos at home is allowed but we should not display photos of females in reception room or any where where non Mahram men can see it.
The angels do not disobey Allah ( SWT) at all, as we read in Quran in Sura Al-Tahreem, verse 6: Angels, never disobey Allah in any order He gives them and do what ever they are been ordered. (66:6). لا يعصون الله ما أمرهم ويفعلون ٬لا يؤمرون
No doubt, every creature's reward is in hands of Allah ( SWT) and He knows the deeds of every creature and He grants the reward according to His knowledge and Great Mercy. There is question of punishment on angels, because they do not disobey Allah (SWT) at all.
Not at all. Such narrations which contradict with Quran are fabricated and have no value whatsoever among the followers of Ahlul Bayt (AS).
Allah (SWT) Has ordered people to follow the prophets ( We have never sent any messenger but to be obeyed by Allah's order) 4:64. All the prophets are infallible and never committed any sinful act.
We find in Bukhari many narrations which go against Quranic facts and we have no way to leave Quran for the sake of Bukhari or any one else.
I have not come across the idea that the angel Mika'il keeps the devil out of heaven in mainstream Shi'i or Sunni texts.
Also, the Qur'an says that God Himself threw the Shaytan (the devil) out of heaven. This is not to say that an angel could not have been involved; however, the Qur'an does portray it as being directly between God and Shaytan. It also implies that Shaytan accepted being thrown out insofar as Shaytan swore to misguide human beings until the end of time (and this oath implies that he is not trying to return to heaven).
Of course, God knows best!
A summary of what the angel Mika'il does as per Islamic texts can be found here: https://www.al-islam.org/ask/topics/4478/questions-about-Angel