Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life. According to radiometric dating and other sources of evidence, Earth formed over 4.5 billion years ago.
Prior to anything, we must first establish whether the narration is authentic, as far as the text and the chain as well.
If we were to assume it's all good as far as its issuance from a Ma'sum (a.s.), then we most certainly cannot take it in its literal meaning, and it must be interpreted in such a way that would make sense. Whale could refer to the orbit, maybe because the whale's back is not flat, and for the earth, it has "the equatorial bulge", the water could refer o space, rock could refer to planets, and so on.
Some of these explanations have been given in commentaries on al-Kafi.
The Imam (a.s.) is duty-bound to say things that are not above or beyond people's comprehension at that time. There could be words omitted for brevity, like how the Quran addresses people and certain things.
The following is a good detailed answer (in Arabic) from the holy Shrine of Imam Husain (a.s.):
And Allah ta'ala knows best
Good question - here is a previous response to it:
If you have any further enquiries, feel free to ask!
The things that are created in these two ayat are different. 41:10-11 refer to the creation of the earth (ard) and the things upon it, which is done in 4 days, whereas 41:12 refers to the creation of the seven heavens (samawat), which is done in 2 days. So altogether they add up to 6 days.
There are also other ways these ayat are understood, beyond a literal interpretation of "days".
"Day" is usually taken to refer to a time period in general, rather than a "day" in the sense of one rotation of the earth since our measurements of time rest on the physical world, and there was no such thing as an earth-day before the creation of the earth and sun. That said, a narration ascribed to Imam al-Baqir (A), in response to an enquiry about how a "day" could be meaningful before creation, says that time is also measured in an area of existence near Allah, and therefore is not only reliant on the physical world.
Some people maintain that the expression "two days" (or "two periods") refers to spiritual and physical aspects of creation, or that "days" refers to distinctly different stages of creation, rather than timespans.
Some people also understand "four days" with respect to the earth to refer to the four seasons, insofar as they are equal in length and relate to sustenance.
For instance, in Tafsir al-Qummi, "two days" is explained as "the beginning of Creation and its end", and "four days" is explained as "the four times when Allah brings out the world's means of sustenance... spring, summer, autumn, and winter."
If one is taking a numerical approach to "days", however, Qur'an 41:10-41:12 outline the creation of our world as follows:
41:10 - the earth (ard) in 2 days
41:11 - mountains, sustenance, and blessing in 4 days
41:12 - the heavens (samawat) in 2 days
Elsewhere, the Qur'an mentions that the world was created in 6 days.
From this, it can be understood that the 4 days in 41:11 include the 2 days mentioned in 41:10. That is, the earth and its features were, altogether, created in 4 days. Then, the heavens were created in 2 days. Altogether, these sum up as 6 days - or, rather, spans of time.
"The sun runs to a resting place/stopping point/stopping time (mustaqirr) of its own. That is the decree of the Mighty, the Knowing." (36:38)
Clasically, the sun's "resting place" has been taken to mean: (a) the sun disappearing after sunset (just as a human being goes to their dwelling place at night before rising in the morning), (b) the final destiny of the sun on the Day of Judgment, or (c) the solstice, in a reference to the sun following its winter and summer orbits until the solstice.
Today, some Muslims interpret it as referring to (d) the astronomical end of the sun/the solar system.
Personally, I tend to see this as a poetic or celebratory expression of the natural world, than a statement intended to inform people of a scientific fact (even if the Qur'an is consistent with facts of reality).
In any case, options (a), (c), and (d) match scientific understanding (obviously, from the perspective of earth, the sun rises and sets).
Option (b) is outside the domain of science since it pertains to the end times and hereafter which no longer operate according to the natural laws presently.
(Some people seem to be of the view that it is unscientific to say that, from the perspective of an earth observer, the sun rises and sets. Perhaps people do not go out and watch sunrises as often as they used to; however, I would challenge them to explain why it is unscientific to discuss sunrise and sunset, when this has such a gigantic impact on things such as the weather and ecology, not to mention basics such as timekeeping. So it is scientifically fine to discuss the sun from the perspective of an earth observer, or from the perspective of right outside the solar system, or from an intergalactic perspective; they are all just viewpoints.)
As for "running", this matches the idea that the sun has a motion in the galaxy/universe and is not fixed in one spot, although it also matches the idea that the sun moves along the sky from the perspective of an earth-based observer. So either perspective is correct with respect to reality.
So the verse is open to several interpretations but they do not conflict with what is known about how the universe and natural world works. Probably the main point is to inspire reflection on the natural order.
Seeking useful knowledge is a noble work and a responsibility on Muslim community. Space and other planets is no exception like any other field of knowledge.
Our concept of day and night with us human beings, is not necessarily the same concept of day with Allah who Created every thing including the time before creating the earth and sky. Time was created before earth and sky and that time had got its day which is different from our day.
Solar system scientific details are not the field nor the topic of Islamic texts. We read in Quran many verses about sun, moon and sky etc but we leave it for the specialised scientist to study and their findings to people. Solar system center and moon rotation are scientific issues which should be dealt with by the scientists.
Some people say it is because Allah had created the jinn first, and the angels had seen the jinn fighting so knew that a new species with free will would also fight.
Some say that there were other humanoids (nasnas), and they had fought, and so they deduced from this that a new species with free will would also fight.
These two views are reinforced by a narration from Imam al-Sadiq (A) in which he says that the angels could not have known that humans would cause bloodshed if they hadn't seen the precedent of earlier creatures on earth.
Some simply say that they understood this from looking at human nature, or by looking at the nature of life on earth and the challenges of living as an earth-based being (for instance, competition for food, water, reproduction, and land).
Since the earth (dunya) is considered the basest or lowest level of creation, vis-a-vis the heavenly realms, perhaps it also didn't make sense to instill Allah's vicegerency in an earthling.
Maybe there are other reasons too which relate to the nature of the angels and their existence outside of the earthly realm which would give them access to knowledge or a perspective that human beings generally lack.
Allah, The Glorious Has created us to bestow on us His Mercy. He never needs anything and did not create the creatures for any need by Him but He created us and all the creatures to shower on us His Mercy. We read in Quran (Except those on whom your Lord has bestowed His Mercy, and for that (Mercy) He created them). Sura 11, verse 119.
The most valuable thing for us and for every human being is our life. That is why people sacrifice everything they have for the sake of saving their life. This life is a gift from Allah out of His Mercy on us.
Verse 9 of Surah Fussilat says: "The earth was created in two days" and verse 10 says: "The mountains, blessings and food of the earth were created in four days"; Following these verses, the creation of the heavens is also mentioned in "two days". It may be thought that the sum of these is eight days. But we must note that the two days mentioned in verse 9 are also part of the four days mentioned in verse 10; In this way, in the first two days, the earth was created and in the next two days, other characteristics were added. In fact, verse 9 speaks of the creation of the earth, and verse 10 discusses the total stages of the creation of the earth and its preparation for life.
translated from the Persian website of Ayatullah Naser Makarem Shirazi
There are some narrations indicating that the believer (mu'min) and/or those who have allegiance (wilayah) to Ahl al-Bayt (A) are created from a specific sort of clay, which is sometimes associated with the Euphrates. The faithless (kafir) and/or enemies of Ahl al-Bayt (A) are created from another sort of clay. And most people are of a sort of mix between the two which is why we have diverse temperaments.
Anyway, if these narrations are correctly transmitted, they seem to be more metaphorical about our natures and not literally relating to what kind of components we are physically constructed from. In fact, given that we human beings primarily gain our physical material from eating, and food is imported and shipped worldwide today, we are often built from the "clay" of many different regions!
So with that in mind, it is reasonable to say that someone with a strong affinity for Ahl al-Bayt (A) might have some creational link to Karbala metaphorically or metaphysically.
That being said, I am not aware of any text that indicates that we are buried in the same place whose clay we are created from, or which really assigns any significance to the region where we are physically buried.
In fact that Qur'an tells us that we don't know what land we will be buried in; life is full of surprises and we never know where we will go, nor when we will go.
Similarly the Qur'an does not assign any particular ethical significance to where we live and just says that Allah's earth is vast and if we are unable to live freely in one area, we should move.
as salam alaikum
Yawm al-Qiyamah is not limited to planet earth and its effects as described in the Qur'an will be manifest in the whole universe and everything in it.
With prayers for your success.