Muhammad (مُحمّد, c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE) was an Arab political, social and religious leader and the founder of Islam. According to Islamic doctrine, he was a prophet, sent to present and confirm the monotheistic teachings preached previously by Adam, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and other prophets.
Yes, it is right to pray two Rak'ats of Salaah for the sake of Allah (SWT) supplicating to Allah (SWT) to fulfill your difficulty and grant your need.
It is just like Fajr Salaah but it is not obligatory.
Holy Prophet (SAWA) had three sons, two of whom Al Qasim and Abdullah
were from Lady Khadijah (AS) and the third, Ibrahim, was from Lady
Maria Al- Qibtiyyah. All of them passed away during childhood. Al
Qasim and Abdullah passed away in Makkah and Ibrahim passed away in
Madinah. The Holy Prophet (SAWA) was survived by his only one biological daughter from Lady Khadijah (AS) who is the greatest woman of all times, Lady Fatimah (SA). He also had three fostered daughters, Ruqayyah, born 20 years before
Hijrah and passed away in the 2nd year after Hijrah ; Zaynab, who was
born 23 years before Hijrah and dies 8 years after Hijrah and Umm
Kulthum who was born 19 years before Hijrah and passed away in the 9th
year after Hijrah. These three fostered daughters are mentioned in the
books of history as daughters of A’atiqa bint Khowailid, the
sister of Lady Khadijah (AS). Lady Khadijah (AS) and the Holy Prophet
(SAWA) looked after them and brought them up as fostered daughters and
that is why they were known as daughters of the Holy Prophet (SAWA)
according to the Arab culture who called the fostered children as sons
and daughters like calling Zaid who was a fostered son of the Prophet (SAWA) yet he was called as Zaid Ibn Muhammad (SAWA).(son of Mohammad).
A list of a few good texts about The Prophet (S), his life and teachings:
Sunan An-Nabi https://www.al-islam.org/sunan-nabi-allamah-sayyid-muhammad-husayn-tabat...
The Message https://www.al-islam.org/message-jafar-subhani
Life of the Prophet Mohammad before Starting the Mission https://www.al-islam.org/message-thaqalayn/vol10-n1-2009/life-prophet-mo...
History of Islam up to the Demise of the Prophet (S) https://www.al-islam.org/history-islam-demise-prophet-s-mahdi-pishvai
Hayat Al-Qulub Vol. 2, A Detailed Biography of Prophet Muhammad (S) https://www.al-islam.org/hayat-al-qulub-vol-2-allamah-muhammad-baqir-maj...
You may refer to the narration provided by Shaykh al-Mufid in Kitb al-Irshad.
See page 123The Circumstances of the Last Illness and Death of the Prophet
as salam alaikum
apart from the general books of ahadith, some contemporary scholars have authored specific compilations like "Nahj al-Fasahah" by Abul-Qasim Payandeh and "Sunan al-Nabi" by Allamah Tabataba'i.
Amongst early collections, the "Musnad al-Imam al-Kazim" and the "Sahifah al-Imam al-Rida", reports most of their ahadith on the authority of the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him and his family.
With prayers for your success.
Thank you for your question. It depends what you mean by meditation. If it is akin to thinking (tafakkur) or watching over oneself (muraqaba) then these are practices which are condoned in Islam and indeed recommended for people seeking a spiritual life. But as for the Prophet's own states, much of that is unknown as they are states after the station of reaching. The Prophet's (saw) spiritual journey was different to most of ours as his beginning was further than where we will end up. Every station has its practice and the Prophet (saw) had states with Allah that we cannot quite imagine as we have not experienced the like of those states. Meditation in the sense that it is discussed as a spiritual or mental practice is much below these levels.
May you always be successful
There was No meditation at all in the life of the Prophet Muhammad (S) but he was worshipping Allah (SWT) as all the prophets used to worship Allah.
Meditation is a term used by non Muslims who do not recognise the prophetic worshipping. We, Muslim believe that spiritual uplift meant comes only through worshipping Allah (SWT) in the same way that all the prophets and Ahlul Bayt (A) performed.
A few years ago I wrote a short piece on this important topic, which would hopefully be useful for you to read:
With prayers for your success.
There is a false but famous narration in some books which claims that Ayesha was a child ( between six and nine years) when she got married with the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA). This narration is fabricated even according to many Sunni scholars because of :
1. The narrator is just one single person who is Hisham Ibn O'rwah Ibn al-Zubair who claimed narrating from Ayesha. Ayesha died on year 57 or year 58 after Hijra, while Hisham Ibn O'rwah was born in year 61 after Hijra. How can he claim narrating from her when she dies few years before his his birth?
2. Hisham Ibn O'rwah is not an authentic narrator according to many Sunni scholars including Al-Soyooti who included his name with the list of Mudalliseen ( those who mix and hide the reality in their narrations) ( Asmaa' al- Mudalliseen). Other leading Sunni scholars like Malik Ibn Anas , Al-Midyani and many others refuse the narrations of Hishan Ibn O'rwah.
3. There are certain historic facts in Sunni books prove that the age of Ayesha was between 20 to 30 or even more when her marriage with the Proohet (SAWA) took place:
3A. Asmaa' Bint Abi Bakr , the elder sister of Ayesha was elder then her at least few years. Some Sunni scholars said few years and said ten years. Asmaa' Bint Abi Bakr was born 27 years before the Bi'thah of the Prophet (SAWA) ( Majma' al-Zawa'id, V. 9, P. 260, Omdatul Qaari Fi Sharh Saheeh al-Bukhari, V. 2, P. 93, al-Majma' al-Kaberi by Al-Tabarani , V. 24, P. 77 and many others. This means that when the Prophet (SAWA) migrated from Makkah to Madinah after 13 years , the age of Asmaa' Bint Abi Bakr was 40 years. As the of Ayesha was few years ( or maximum ten years ) younger than her sister Asmaa', then the age of Ayesha when the Prophet ( SAWA) migrated to Madina was not less than thirty years.
As the marriage took place two years after Hijra, then the age of Ayesha was then more than thirty years.
4. It is also worth mentioning that the well known Sunni Historian Muhammad Ibn Sa'ad in His famous book Al-Tabaqaat al-Kubra (8: 9) narrated from Abdullah Ibn Maleekah that when the Prophet ( SAWA) proposed to Ayesha, Abu Baki ( her father) told him: I have given her for marriage to Jubair Ibn Mut'im, so, let me take her back from him, and he took her back from him by divorce, then gave her to the Prophet ( SAWA) for marriage.
It is also mentioned in history that Ayesha had a son from her first marriage called Abdullah, that is why she was called by the Prophet by the name of her son Abdullah as Umm Abdillah. ( Sunan Abi Dawood).
This is one of the misunderstandings among some Muslims caused by allegations on the Prophet (SAWA) created by his enemies. The Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) has achieved the maximum knowledge in the history of all human beings as he was taught by Allah, The Glorious who told him in Quran ( And Allah taught you everything which you did not know) (4 : 113).
The Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) was never illiterate but was from Umm Al-Qura which is one of the names of Makkah, that is why he was called as Ummi.
The Infallible Imams (AS) have clearly refuted this allegation in many occasions. Imam Muhammad Al-Baqir (AS) was asked: People claim that the Messenger of Allah ( SAWA) was not able to read or write. Imam (AS) said: They lied, curse of Allah be on them, how can it be possible when Allah The Glorious said: He who sent among the Ummeyeen ( People of Makkah) a Messenger from them, to recite on them His verses, He, and to purify them, and to teach them the Book and the Wisdom, while they were before that in obvious astray. How can he teach them the Book and Wisdom when he does not know reading or writing? He was asked: then why he was called as the Ummi prophet ? Imam (AS) said: because he was from Makkah, and Allah said in Quran : So that you warn Ummul Qura and what is surrounding it. Ummul Qura is Makkah, and that is why he was called Ummi. ( Elal al-Sharaaye').
There are Hadeeths that the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) was taught by Allah reading and writing in 73 languages.
Yes, there are many authentic Hadeeths from the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) and Ahlul Bayt (AS) stating that all of the infallible will be either killed or poisoned (ما منا إلا مقتول أو مسموم).
This Hadeeth was narrated by Imam Hasan (AS) from his grand father the Prophet (SAWA) after the martyrdom of Ameerul Mo'mineen ( AS). (Kifayatul Athar, by al-Khazzaz , page 160-162).
The Prophet (SAWA) himself was also poisoned. There are plenty of authentic narrations in Sunni and Shia books stating that the Prophet did not have natural death but was poisoned. ( Al- Mustadrak by Al-Haakim al-Nisaboori, V.3, P.60) and (al-Seerah al-Nabawiyyah by Ibn Katheer , V. 4, P. 449) and (al-Tabaqat al- Kubra by Ibn Sa'ad , V. 2, P. 249). These are few of Sunni books.
The age of the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) when he passed away was 63 years. According to some sources he was 19 days less than 63 years (62 years and 11 months and 11 days).