Muhammad (Arabic: مُحَمَّد, pronounced [muħammad]; c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE) was an Arab religious, social, and political leader and the founder of Islam. According to Islamic doctrine, he was a prophet, sent to present and confirm the monotheistic teachings preached previously by Adam, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and other prophets.
Last of the Prophets ia the proper word for the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) not last of messengers because all the messengers were Prophets as well, and no Prophet will be sent after Muhammad (SAWA). If he was called last of the messengers, that will leave a chance to liars to claim prophet hood after him. Every messenger is a Prophet but not every Prophet is a messenger, that is why, no Prophet means no Prophet or messenger will come after Muhammad (SAWA).
He was the leader of all the human beings including the Prophets and messengers.Imamate after him is for his successors who are not Prophets as he said: No Prophet after me.
We don't have such narration suggesting the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) is from the tribe David. David is from Ishaq (AS) while Prophet Muhammad is from Ismael (AS).
You need to ask the person who claims that to provide authentic evidence supporting his claim.
Different people look at a thing and take different lessons from it.
However, one could glean from their marriage that when two people are sincere, mutually self-sacrificing, pool their wealth and talents, and committed to each other and a higher cause, they can accomplish anything!
I am sure there will be some other insights as well.
Dates of birth are taken from narrations. Even there are different dates of the birth in Sunni books. Some Sunni scholars like ibn abdul Barr and al-Waaqidi . Al-Seira Al-Nabawiyyah by ibn Katheer said the Prophet was born on second of Rabaul Awwal ( not on the 12th)Ibn Abdul Barr in his book Al-Estee'aab. This has been mentioned in al-aseerah al-Nabawiyyah by ibn Katheer, v.1, p.199.
Some Sunni scholars said the Prophet was born on the eighth of Rabi,ul Awwal like Ibn Hazm and al-Zohri and al-Khawarizmi.
Other Sunni scholars said it was on the tenth of Rabi'ul Awwal like Ibn Dihyah and ibn Asaakir and al-Shi'bi.
Sime Sunni scholars narrated that the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) was born in month of Ramadan or month of Safar. So,bayou see many different Sunni narrations in this matter.
We,v the followers of Ahlul Bayt (AS) have taken the most authentic narrations from Ahlul Bayt (AS) which is 17 Rabi'ul Awwal.
This is a good question, which has been discussed by scholars. These are some views:
1. Heaven and hell exist outside of our normal time, because they are eternal. So, when we do a good act in this life, we build something at the same time in heaven (like hadith speaking of planting a tree in heaven). However, we do not experience it until after we leave this world and go through the Resurrection. Since the mi'raj occurred outside normal space and time, the Prophet (S) was able to see the eternal reality rather than being bound to our reality, which consists of normal space and time, and from which the eternal realities of Heaven and Hell are veiled. I personally favour this view.
2. When the Prophet (S) saw heaven and hell, he saw the heaven and hell of barzakh. That is, when we are in barzakh but before Resurrection, we also experience a type of heaven or hell based on our deeds, but which continues only until the Resurrection and is not eternal.
3. Allah showed the Prophet (S) a vision or appearance of what will happen in the future in Heaven or Hell. Allah can do that because Allah knows all things and can present knowledge of the unseen to anyone He wills.
Also, it should be remembered that while the idea that the Prophet (S) experienced the mi'raj is established in Qur'an and hadith, individual narrations about what he saw may be correct or incorrect.
You did not understand the full meaning of the narration. It is wrong to claim that all women will be in hell, how come when millions of women are sincere believers and great women like Lady Fatima, Lady Mariam, Lady Khadija, Lady Zainab, and many other most pious ladies are better than millions of men. The narration which you mentioned means only the sinners from the women.
Even the other part of the narration about poor people in Paradise should be understood properly that not only poverty but their right faith and good deeds including tolerating poverty made them in Paradise.
They have in some of their books fabricated narrations created by the enemies of the Prophet. Ahlul Bayt (AS) refuted those false narrations and proved according Quran that the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) has the maximum knowledge in everything.
Allah (SWT) sent him to teach people the knowledge of the Book and Wisdom. How can he be illiterate??
The Prophet Muhammad was granted the maximum knowledge by Allah as it is in Quran (4:113) and was the most knowledgeable in every field of knowledge.
It is wrong to claim that he was unable to read or write. He was sent to teach human being the knowledge of the Book and the wisdom which means that he had all the knowledge.
Many scholars of Tafseer say that Allah (SWT) called the Prophet Muhammad as O Messenger in very important matters which are related to conveying the message of Islam (Osool Al-Deen) while called him as O Prophet in matters which are related to day to day rules and regulations (Foroo' Al-Deen).
The Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) is the most knowledgeable among all the human beings as Allah (SWT) said in Quran to him: (Allah taught you whatever you did not know, and the grace of Allah on you was Great)(Sura 4, verse 113).
The Prophet was sent to teach people the knowledge of the book and the Wisdom (Sura 62, verse 2), so how come the greatest teacher for all human beings is claimed to be illiterate?
The claim that the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) was illiterate was fabricated by Bani Umayya who had a plan to degrade the status of the Prophet and his near ones, and raise the status of his opponents.
The tragedy of Thursday is narrated in the most important Sunni books including Bukhari ( 1:32 Baab Kitabat Al-'ilm) and Muslim 3; 1258 and Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal 1;222 and 3;346). The Prophet wanted to write a statement to protect his Ummah from deviation after him, but Omar ibn Al-Khattab objected on the Prophet and not only did not obey his order, but also prevented other Muslims from obeying the Prophet (SAWA).
A literal reading of Twelver Shi'a hadith indicates that Allah created and appointed the prophet as a Prophet prior to his existence in this world. So it was not due to activities that he chose to do, such as mysticism, that he became a prophet.
Of course, he had some practices which can be called "mystical" such as spending time alone in the cave of Hira for worship. It is natural that someone who is very close to God would want to choose to do those activities.
My understanding is that the time "before" this world is outside of chronological time, and therefore Allah did this with full knowledge of what was before and after. So therefore Allah knew the Prophet's merits over all people, rather than just only pre-designing him as the Prophet. That is, it is a combination of the individual merit of the Prophet and the creational will of Allah. This was why he was born with 'ismah; otherwise, it might be unfair for Allah to grant some poeple 'ismah and not others. Other people may have different understandings. But in any case it was not solely due to the Prophet "earning" the prophethood through ascetic or mystical practices.
However, some other people, including some people who are not Muslims but who feel the Prophet was close to God, might see it this way and might agree with your view.
According to Twelver Shi'i belief, the Prophet had the knowledge of writing but did not do it.
In any case, this may be a technicality. In those days, people often dictated their letters rather than writing them themselves. So he probably would have given the pen to someone and told them what to write.