Muhammad (Arabic: مُحَمَّد, pronounced [muħammad]; c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE) was an Arab religious, social, and political leader and the founder of Islam. According to Islamic doctrine, he was a prophet, sent to present and confirm the monotheistic teachings preached previously by Adam, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and other prophets.
They have in some of their books fabricated narrations created by the enemies of the Prophet. Ahlul Bayt (AS) refuted those false narrations and proved according Quran that the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) has the maximum knowledge in everything.
Allah (SWT) sent him to teach people the knowledge of the Book and Wisdom. How can he be illiterate??
The Prophet Muhammad was granted the maximum knowledge by Allah as it is in Quran (4:113) and was the most knowledgeable in every field of knowledge.
It is wrong to claim that he was unable to read or write. He was sent to teach human being the knowledge of the Book and the wisdom which means that he had all the knowledge.
Many scholars of Tafseer say that Allah (SWT) called the Prophet Muhammad as O Messenger in very important matters which are related to conveying the message of Islam (Osool Al-Deen) while called him as O Prophet in matters which are related to day to day rules and regulations (Foroo' Al-Deen).
The Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) is the most knowledgeable among all the human beings as Allah (SWT) said in Quran to him: (Allah taught you whatever you did not know, and the grace of Allah on you was Great)(Sura 4, verse 113).
The Prophet was sent to teach people the knowledge of the book and the Wisdom (Sura 62, verse 2), so how come the greatest teacher for all human beings is claimed to be illiterate?
The claim that the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) was illiterate was fabricated by Bani Umayya who had a plan to degrade the status of the Prophet and his near ones, and raise the status of his opponents.
The tragedy of Thursday is narrated in the most important Sunni books including Bukhari ( 1:32 Baab Kitabat Al-'ilm) and Muslim 3; 1258 and Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal 1;222 and 3;346). The Prophet wanted to write a statement to protect his Ummah from deviation after him, but Omar ibn Al-Khattab objected on the Prophet and not only did not obey his order, but also prevented other Muslims from obeying the Prophet (SAWA).
A literal reading of Twelver Shi'a hadith indicates that Allah created and appointed the prophet as a Prophet prior to his existence in this world. So it was not due to activities that he chose to do, such as mysticism, that he became a prophet.
Of course, he had some practices which can be called "mystical" such as spending time alone in the cave of Hira for worship. It is natural that someone who is very close to God would want to choose to do those activities.
My understanding is that the time "before" this world is outside of chronological time, and therefore Allah did this with full knowledge of what was before and after. So therefore Allah knew the Prophet's merits over all people, rather than just only pre-designing him as the Prophet. That is, it is a combination of the individual merit of the Prophet and the creational will of Allah. This was why he was born with 'ismah; otherwise, it might be unfair for Allah to grant some poeple 'ismah and not others. Other people may have different understandings. But in any case it was not solely due to the Prophet "earning" the prophethood through ascetic or mystical practices.
However, some other people, including some people who are not Muslims but who feel the Prophet was close to God, might see it this way and might agree with your view.
According to Twelver Shi'i belief, the Prophet had the knowledge of writing but did not do it.
In any case, this may be a technicality. In those days, people often dictated their letters rather than writing them themselves. So he probably would have given the pen to someone and told them what to write.
The Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) and his Progeny Ahlul Bayt (AS) were always for freedom of slaves and they freed all slaves who they could free.
Islam came when the whole world societies were full of slavery. Islam abolished slavery in a systematic and realistic way. Europe and America continued insulating people from Africa centuries after Muslim societies were totally free from slavory.
Quran mentioned the Prophet النبي in 45 places, while called the Messenger الرسول in 52 places.
The call by O Messenger came two in two verses in Quran in the most important issues like the announcement of the divine leadership of Imam Ali (AS) in Ghadeer, which is essential for the future of Islam after the Prophet : O Messenger, proclaim what was sent down to you by Your Lord, and if you don't, then you have not conveyed His Message. (Sura 5, Verse 67).
The call: O Prophet came in Quran in 13 verses.
In addition to below, it should be noted that the Messenger (pbuh) is the addressee in many parts of the Qur'an, meaning that much of the Qur'an speaks directly to Prophet, albeit not always mentioned by name. Additionally, other parts of the Qur'an make third-person references to the Messenger (pbuh).
Taking these facts into consideration, we can conclude that the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) is mentioned more than any other prophet in the Qur'an.
It is because of the great similarity between what happened to Prophet Musa (AS) and Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) and what happened hy and to the community to whom Prophet Musa was sent, and what will happen by and to Muslims who are supposed to follow the teachings of Prophet Muhammad (SAWA).
Allah (SWT) did mention in Quran (Verily, We have sent to you (O mankind) a Messenger (Muhammad) who is a witness on you, as We have sent to Fir'aun a Mesenger (Musa). Sura 73, Verse 15.
We don't read in the whole Quran any verse like this verse of similarity. Allah (SWT) never mention similarity between Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) and any other prophet like it is between him and Prophet Musa (AS).
The verses mentioning the sufferings of Musa from the disobedience from his own community (Bani Israel ) are warning the Muslims from similar attitude of disobedience of the orders of Prophet Muhammad (SAWA). Allah (SWT) said in Quran ( O you who believe, Be not like those who annoyed Musa, then Allah saved him from what they claimed ( against him) Sura 33, verse 69).
In Sura Al-Jum'ah which is recommended to be recited on Friday Prayers and many other prayers on Thursday night and Friday morning, we read how Allah (SWT) is warning the Muslims from the fate of those who were claiming believing in Prophet Musa (AS) and were been asked to follow Torah, but they failed to obey. Allah mentioned them as an example for Muslims and said they are like a donkey carrying books which means that Muslims who will not obey the Prophet and Quran will be like these who denied the signs of Allah.
Allah (SWT) did mention in Quran that the successors of Musa are twelve ( Indeed, Allah Has taken the covenant from Bani Israel (Musa's community) and We appointed twelve (divine) leaders . Sura 5, verse 12. This verse and above verse (Al-Muzzammil: 15) confirming the similarity between Prophet Musa and Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) should be enough evidence to prove that the successors of Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) are twelve. This Quranic evidence confirms many authentic prophetic statements mentioning the Twelve successors of the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) which are mentioned in Shia and Sunni books of Hadeeth including Saheeh Bukhari : 6682, Saheeh Muslim : 3393, Musnad Ibn Hanbal :3593, Tirmithi; 2149 and many other Sunni books.
Prominent Sunni scholar from Al-Azhar in Egypt ( Shaikh Mahmoud Abu Rayyan) who did thorough research comparing between different Muslim sects said that if Muslims understand Quranic verses about Musa and Harun,they will understand that none than Ali (AS) is the real successor after the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA).
This subject has many details which can lead Muslim Ummah to unity under the orders of Allah (SWT) and the Prophet (SAWA).
Cat is a Taahir animal and we have many Hadeeths from the Prophet (SAWA) and his Ahlul Bayt (AS) that keeping a cat at home is allowed and performing Wudhu from remaining of water from which cat drank is allowed. About the name of a cat in the house of the Prophet (SAWA), the narration is found in Sunni books, but I could not find it till now in our Shia books. It make no difference as the Hadeeths which we have are authentic in allowing having a cat at home.
In Quranic verses, plural was sometimes used for one person like in the Verse of Mobahala ( Sura Aal Imran; verse 61) ( Let us call our sons and your sons, our women and your women, and ourselves and yourselves) The Prophet (SAWA) called Fatima only for his women and called Ali only for ourselves.
Authentic evidence supports that Fatima was the only real daughter of the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) while had three fostered daughters who were orphaned daughters of Hala Bint Khowailid sister of Lady Khadija (AS).
Justice of the Prophet (SAWA) will never allow discrimination in dealing with the three fostered daughters wihle all the focus of the Prophet was on Fatima.