Muhammad (Arabic: مُحَمَّد, pronounced [muħammad]; c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE) was an Arab religious, social, and political leader and the founder of Islam. According to Islamic doctrine, he was a prophet, sent to present and confirm the monotheistic teachings preached previously by Adam, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and other prophets.
No. We don't have any authentic evidence that the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) or any of his holy Progeny Ahlul Bayt (As) moved index finger during Tashahhud in prayers.
None of the authentic Hadeeths suggest that.
Only Allah swt is All Knowing and no creation can know the reality of His essence. The Prophet Mohammad (sawa) was however given divinely inspired knowledge and revelation from Allah swt. He was also given knowledge from the unseen,
May Allah grant you success
It means : The salutations and peace upon you O Messenger of Allah.
'It is usually said by many Sunni brothers. It is incomplete form of salutations because it must mention the Progeny of the Prophet along with him as the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) said: لا تُصَلّوا عَلَيَّ الصلاة البتراء Do not salute me with a cut off salutation. They aske him: What is the cut off salutation? He replied: To salute me with saluting my Progeny. ( al-Qawl al-Badee' by al-Sakhaawi; page 45 and al-Sawaa'iq al-Muhriqa by Ibn Hajar al-Haytami; page 225, and Yanabee' al-Mawaddah by al-Qondoozi al-Hanafi ;2:434).
It is always recommended to salute the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) and his Progeny Ahlul Bayt (AS) any time including before and after Azan and before and after Prayers.
Thank you for your question. While the traditions from the Infallibles (as) encourage a positive attitude towards sickness and all types of trial, that does not mean that they sought those difficulties and didn't seek well being. Rather, Islam is a religion in which all types of well being are encouraged, and there are plenty of hadith supporting supplicating for good health and the prevention and removal of calamities as well as prescriptions for good health and wise maxims to help a person navigate their lives as effectively as possible. A Muslim is successful in this world and the next, attaining well being in both. Even if their situation is difficult, a Muslim should develop their personality such that they are always in a good state even if the world is falling apart around them.
So the encouragement to have a positive attitude is not the same as seeking problems or having a defeatist attitude. Rather, it is to build a Muslim to be able to progress in every state. For more on the philosophy of test see these short podcast episodes:
May you always be successful
"Ummi" in Qur'an 7:157 is generally taken to mean "unlettered". That is, the Prophet (S) did not read and write, and did not receive schooling. Therefore, the fact that he was able to provide a complex book with an eloquent style is further proof that the Qur'an was a divine miracle, since he did not have the education necessary to write a complex and eloquent book, or the ability to read previous scriptures and then write responses to them.
Sunnis tend to hold that the Prophet (S) was illiterate. Shi'is tend to hold that the Prophet (S) had the intrinsic knowledge of reading and writing, as part of his perfection and innate access to knowledge through Allah, but that he chose not to read or write. In any case, there is no evidence that the Prophet (S) ever read or wrote everything personally; instead, he had scribes take dictation for him (such as letters to others, or the Qur'an).
There are some mystical views which hold that the adjective "ummi" might reflect a sort of childlike simplicity or innocence. Especially since, in Islam, children are seen as being born pure and sinless. For instance, we refer to children as "innocent" because they don't have the sense of trickery, cunning, deceit, greed, or desire for power and carnal indulgence that some adults develop throughout life, and which can cloud their spiritual faculties. So, a person who is a mature adult but who nonetheless has a pure and "innocent" soul would still have a sort of childlike purity even if they are spiritually, intellectually, and socially mature. However this is not with respect to the Prophet's formal knowledge but rather - if it is a correct interpretation - would simply allude to an inner purity that would make him a suitable receptacle to receive the divine word in its purest form, just as if I want to write a text on a chalkboard, I will have the best results on a pure and clean chalkboard rather than one with a lot of marks.
In any case, it would be an additional interpretation to the above. Certainly the Prophet (S) demonstrated a lot of knowledge and wisdom in his life and management of the community so obviously his knowledge was well beyond that of a child.
It has also been suggested that "ummi" may refer to the designation of Mecca as the "mother of cities" (umm al-qurra) and therefore associate the Prophet with Mecca.
Maybe all of the interpretations have some truth but the first one is the most common ascribed to the text.
as salam alaikum
The Qur'an does not ascribe such attribute to the Prophet. There are other attributes that Allah uses to describe the noble Prophet like "gentle" (ra'uf) and "merciful" (rahim).
With prayers for your success.
The whole society of that time was relying on slavery as part and parcel of the social system. Islam brought the rules to decrease and eliminate slavery. The Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) had few slaves but he freed all of them.
Thank you for your question. The view of the Shia is that the ascent of the Prophet (saw) was bodily as well as spiritual, but that does not negate the possibility of certain parts of the ascension being purely spiritual as the body of the Prophet (saw) would remain in the plane that is suitable for a body during that particular part of the journey (even if that is not the corporeal world). So the ascent as a whole was bodily and spiritual.
May you always be successful.
The faith of the parents of the Prophet (SAWA) is a matter in which the majority of Muslim scholars have agreed that the parents of the Prophet were from the best of the believers.
Many evidences from the Holy Qur'an and authentic Hadith prove their faith.
In the Holy Qur'an in Surah ash-Shu'ara (26), verse 219, Allah (SWT) says "you're running on the believers who prostrate to Allah (SWT)".
Ibn Abbas narrated from the Prophet (SAW) that he said "the meaning of this verse is that Allah transferred me from person to person, from Prophet to Prophet until I became Prophet".
This hadith is mentioned in:
· Majma al-Zawa'id by Al-Haythami (vol 7, page 86)
· Musnad al-Bazzar
· Al-Majma' by al-Tabarani
Al-Suyuti in his book of Tafseer known as al-Durr Al-Manthur (vol 4, page 238), narrated that the Prophet (SAW) said "Allah (SWT) transferred me from pious fathers to pious mothers, all purified and noble and made me always in the best parents best grandparents".
Al-Kattani in his book Nazm al-Mutanathir Min al-Hadith al-Mutawatir (vol 1, page 190) narrated the hadith from the Prophet (SAWA) that "all the fathers and grandfathers and mothers and grandmothers of the Prophet (SAWA) were with the pure tawheed".
Bajuri in his hashiya on Jawharat al-Tawhid mentioned that the narrations that the parents of the Prophet (SAW) were all best of believers are unanimous (tawatur).
Those who claimed that the parents of the Prophet (SAW) will be in hellfire are cursed. There is a narration in Sunni books which is in Mawahib al-Jalil (vol 6, page 386). The narration says that Abu Bakr ibn al-Arabi was asked by someone that a person had claimed "that the parents of the Prophet (SAW) will be in the hellfire - what do you say about him?" He said "he is cursed (mal'oon) because Allah mentions in the Holy Qur'an that those who hurt Allah (SWT) and the Prophet (SAW) are cursed in this world and the hereafer and they will be facing terrible and insulting punishment". Then he said "there is no hurting greater than claiming that his (SAW) parents are in the hellfire".
Al-Suyuti, the well known Sunni scholar, has written an entire book by the name of Al-ta'zim wa al-minna fi anna abaway an-nabi fi al-janna proving that the parents of the Prophet are in paradise. He mentioned in vol 1, page 25, that Jibra'il came to the Prophet (SAWA) and he told him "Allah is conveying salam to you and informing you that hellfire is forbidden on your fathers and your mothers and those who looked after you". "Your fathers" refers to Abdullah, "your mother" refers to Aamina and "those who looked after you" are Abu Talib and Faitma bint Asad.
The above quotations are from Sunni books only .
As far as Shia faith, no doubt we (the followers of Ahlul Bayt) believe that the parents of the Prophet (SAW) are not only believers but also from the best of believers.
We read in the ziyaaraat of our infallible Imams that all the grandfathers and grandmothers were purified and the best of believers in Allah (SWT).
Forgiveness of sins is in the hands of Allah (SWT) who gave the Prophet (SAWA) the greatest status of intercession ( Shafa'ah) and made it very clear in Quran that those who commit sinful acts should come to the Prophet so that he seeks forgiveness for them ( Had those who did wrong to themselves, come to you and begged for Allah's forgiveness, and the messenger had prayed for their forgiveness, they would have found Allah accepting their repentance and Merciful) Sura 4, Verse 64.
Short answer: The Qur'an and hadith teach us to respect other people, regardless of what they believe. However, they do not give an equal place to all beliefs or practices.
Long answer: While the Qur'an and hadith recognize several different religions, including Judaism, Christianity, and Zoroastrianism, they do not recognize the custom of worshipping idols in Mecca or Medina as a distinct religion.
As for whether the Arabs who worshipped idols in Mecca and Medina saw their customs as a distinct religion, it is difficult to say for sure, but there is no indication in the texts that they saw themselves as united as a single faith community or a single religion; appealing to idols was simply customary practice. They focused on tribal and ancestral identity, not religious identity. I am fairly sure that the term "wathaniyyah" was adopted after their time. In contrast, the Qur'an encourages replacing ancestral/tribal identity with a faith-based identity.
The concept of "religion" as we have it today (and as it is used in the English language) is rather modern. In fact, it is heavily rooted ins secularism. Everyone is expected to follow the same way of life (national culture, national laws), and religion is seen as a private matter. Therefore, we should respect everyone's personal decision about their religion (that is, private beliefs); however, everyone must follow the same way of life (national culture and law). So, in essence, national culture and law has taken the place of religion in modernity in most nation-states.
In fact, many languages historically have not even had an equivalent word for "religion" as it is used in English today.
So, talking about religions during the time of the Prophet Muhammad (S) or the Prophet Ibrahim (A) should be done with the understanding that we may be accidentally projecting modern ideas onto the past, or onto other cultures, and then trying to avoid that.
The Qur'an, hadith, and classical Islamic literature tend to use words such as din, millah, and shari'ah to mean "religion". These could be translated as "way of life", "community", and "religious law". From this angle, the communities that were identified as having a specific way of life, scripture, communal identity, and law were Jews, Christians, Sabaians, or other established communities.
For instance, in the classical model of the Islamic state, certain religious communities (in particular, the Ahl al-Kitab, including Jews, Christians, and some others) are allowed to follow their own religious law, abstain from military service in exchange for paying the jizyah, and enjoy protection of their houses of worship. [Of course this model is somewhat theoretical as what happens in practice tends to be more complicated, but this is how things were seen theoretically]
However, neither the polytheists of Arabia nor the polytheists of the time of Ibrahim are seen as having their own communal identity based on religion or what we would call a "religion"; they are simply seen as (a) deviating from the truth, and (b) following common custom.
Conversely, neither the Prophet Muhammad (S) nor the Prophet Ibrahim (A) is presented as a prophet bringing a new or alternative religion to his people (in the same way that, for example, Christianity was seen as a distinct faith community coming from outside the Arabian Peninsula). Both prophets are seen as supporting the ancient message, not bringing a new idea.
This is why the bulk of the arguments in the Quran are not about accepting Islam as a specific religion. Rather, it focuses on why the idol-worshippers (who believed in God as well as demigods) should stop appealing to their demigods and worship only God instead. That is, the idol-worshippers tended to worship their demigods to placate them, with the belief that if they did not, a disaster might strike them. Or they would worship their demigods to appeal to them for wealth or sustenance. Or, they would worship their demigods with the belief that their demigods would appeal to God on their behalf. The Qur'an, basically, says that all of this is unnecessary and/or false since all power belongs to God and their demigods do not control matters of good and evil or sustenance, and that their demigods are not really intermediaries.
They should also give up backwards customs and taboos which are socially harmful and which were passed on along with their customs regarding idols.
For instance, Ibrahim (A) is not telling his people to follow a new religion; rather, he is telling his people to stop supporting falsehood.
Basically, there is a sense that these people should have known better than to be building and appealing to idols and had simply deviated from the truth. One way this is apparent is that the Qur'an does not explain everything anew; rather, there is an assumption in the text that the people hearing about the stories of the prophets are famliar with them and it is all part of a common cultural and religious context, even if some people were appealing to idols.
The Ka'bah, in particular, is seen as originally being a site of worshipping God, built (or re-built) by Ibrahim (A), but the practice in it became corrupted (for instance, through people performing the hajj in the nude, or placing false idols in it). So the job of these prophets is to remind the people of how they have gone wrong, and then to provide some new religious legislation and teachings (such as the shari'ah and Qur'an) to steer the boat in the correct direction in the future.
This is rather different from, say, someone who grows up as a secular agnostic, has no real contact with organized religion, and then converts to Islam as a new faith.
So this is how the matter is understood in Islamic sources.
In any case, that was then and these were prophets; today, there is no need to go around breaking people's idols. Also, most modern idols are invisible things, such as money, celebrity status, number of likes on Facebook, and so forth which cannot be broken even if one tried.
In any case, it is a good question and good to think about.
This narration is mentioned in the Musnad of Ahmad bin Hanbal in which Abdullah ibn Mas'ood said that I don't mind or in fact I am ready to take oath and repeat it nine times that the prophet was killed rather than taking oath one time that he was not killed.
Musnad Ahmad bin Hanbal volume 1 page 408
Our prominent Ulamah have mentioned many authentic hadith that the Prophet was poisoned. Among them is:
· Sheikh Al Mufid in his book Al-Muqni'ah page 456
· Sheikh Al Toosi in his book Al Tahdhib vol 2 page 6
· Al Fattal Al Nisaburi in his book Al Rawdat page 71
· Al Allamah Al Hilli in his book Al Tahrir vol 2 page 118
· Al Shahid Al Awal in his book Al-Durus vol 2 page 6
· Allamah Al Majlisi in his book Mir'at Al Uqol vol 5 page 174
Ibne-Abil Hadeed Al Moathazalee a well known non-Shia scholar mentioned in his book Sharh Nahj Al-Balagha that the Prophet was poisoned and that he passed away as a Shahid (martyr) vol 10 page 221.
There is a narration from Imam Jaffer as Sadiq (as) that Imam Hassan (as) told his family members "I will die by poison as the Prophet Mohammad (saw) was poisoned."
Al-Khara'ij wal-Jara'ih vol 1 page 241
Among the Sunni scholars Al Hakim Al Nishapuri is very well known who compiled the famous book Al-Mustadrak alaa al-Sahihain he narrated from Al Sha'bi "by Allah the Prophet was poisoned."
It is not the death but it is the martyrdom of the Prophet Mohammad (peace be upon him and his Holy Progeny).