Muhammad (مُحمّد, c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE) was an Arab political, social and religious leader and the founder of Islam. According to Islamic doctrine, he was a prophet, sent to present and confirm the monotheistic teachings preached previously by Adam, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and other prophets.
as salam alaikum
apart from the general books of ahadith, some contemporary scholars have authored specific compilations like "Nahj al-Fasahah" by Abul-Qasim Payandeh and "Sunan al-Nabi" by Allamah Tabataba'i.
Amongst early collections, the "Musnad al-Imam al-Kazim" and the "Sahifah al-Imam al-Rida", reports most of their ahadith on the authority of the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him and his family.
With prayers for your success.
Thank you for your question. It depends what you mean by meditation. If it is akin to thinking (tafakkur) or watching over oneself (muraqaba) then these are practices which are condoned in Islam and indeed recommended for people seeking a spiritual life. But as for the Prophet's own states, much of that is unknown as they are states after the station of reaching. The Prophet's (saw) spiritual journey was different to most of ours as his beginning was further than where we will end up. Every station has its practice and the Prophet (saw) had states with Allah that we cannot quite imagine as we have not experienced the like of those states. Meditation in the sense that it is discussed as a spiritual or mental practice is much below these levels.
May you always be successful
There was No meditation at all in the life of the Prophet Muhammad (S) but he was worshipping Allah (SWT) as all the prophets used to worship Allah.
Meditation is a term used by non Muslims who do not recognise the prophetic worshipping. We, Muslim believe that spiritual uplift meant comes only through worshipping Allah (SWT) in the same way that all the prophets and Ahlul Bayt (A) performed.
A few years ago I wrote a short piece on this important topic, which would hopefully be useful for you to read:
With prayers for your success.
There is a false but famous narration in some books which claims that Ayesha was a child ( between six and nine years) when she got married with the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA). This narration is fabricated even according to many Sunni scholars because of :
1. The narrator is just one single person who is Hisham Ibn O'rwah Ibn al-Zubair who claimed narrating from Ayesha. Ayesha died on year 57 or year 58 after Hijra, while Hisham Ibn O'rwah was born in year 61 after Hijra. How can he claim narrating from her when she dies few years before his his birth?
2. Hisham Ibn O'rwah is not an authentic narrator according to many Sunni scholars including Al-Soyooti who included his name with the list of Mudalliseen ( those who mix and hide the reality in their narrations) ( Asmaa' al- Mudalliseen). Other leading Sunni scholars like Malik Ibn Anas , Al-Midyani and many others refuse the narrations of Hishan Ibn O'rwah.
3. There are certain historic facts in Sunni books prove that the age of Ayesha was between 20 to 30 or even more when her marriage with the Proohet (SAWA) took place:
3A. Asmaa' Bint Abi Bakr , the elder sister of Ayesha was elder then her at least few years. Some Sunni scholars said few years and said ten years. Asmaa' Bint Abi Bakr was born 27 years before the Bi'thah of the Prophet (SAWA) ( Majma' al-Zawa'id, V. 9, P. 260, Omdatul Qaari Fi Sharh Saheeh al-Bukhari, V. 2, P. 93, al-Majma' al-Kaberi by Al-Tabarani , V. 24, P. 77 and many others. This means that when the Prophet (SAWA) migrated from Makkah to Madinah after 13 years , the age of Asmaa' Bint Abi Bakr was 40 years. As the of Ayesha was few years ( or maximum ten years ) younger than her sister Asmaa', then the age of Ayesha when the Prophet ( SAWA) migrated to Madina was not less than thirty years.
As the marriage took place two years after Hijra, then the age of Ayesha was then more than thirty years.
4. It is also worth mentioning that the well known Sunni Historian Muhammad Ibn Sa'ad in His famous book Al-Tabaqaat al-Kubra (8: 9) narrated from Abdullah Ibn Maleekah that when the Prophet ( SAWA) proposed to Ayesha, Abu Baki ( her father) told him: I have given her for marriage to Jubair Ibn Mut'im, so, let me take her back from him, and he took her back from him by divorce, then gave her to the Prophet ( SAWA) for marriage.
It is also mentioned in history that Ayesha had a son from her first marriage called Abdullah, that is why she was called by the Prophet by the name of her son Abdullah as Umm Abdillah. ( Sunan Abi Dawood).
This is one of the misunderstandings among some Muslims caused by allegations on the Prophet (SAWA) created by his enemies. The Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) has achieved the maximum knowledge in the history of all human beings as he was taught by Allah, The Glorious who told him in Quran ( And Allah taught you everything which you did not know) (4 : 113).
The Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) was never illiterate but was from Umm Al-Qura which is one of the names of Makkah, that is why he was called as Ummi.
The Infallible Imams (AS) have clearly refuted this allegation in many occasions. Imam Muhammad Al-Baqir (AS) was asked: People claim that the Messenger of Allah ( SAWA) was not able to read or write. Imam (AS) said: They lied, curse of Allah be on them, how can it be possible when Allah The Glorious said: He who sent among the Ummeyeen ( People of Makkah) a Messenger from them, to recite on them His verses, He, and to purify them, and to teach them the Book and the Wisdom, while they were before that in obvious astray. How can he teach them the Book and Wisdom when he does not know reading or writing? He was asked: then why he was called as the Ummi prophet ? Imam (AS) said: because he was from Makkah, and Allah said in Quran : So that you warn Ummul Qura and what is surrounding it. Ummul Qura is Makkah, and that is why he was called Ummi. ( Elal al-Sharaaye').
There are Hadeeths that the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) was taught by Allah reading and writing in 73 languages.
Yes, there are many authentic Hadeeths from the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) and Ahlul Bayt (AS) stating that all of the infallible will be either killed or poisoned (ما منا إلا مقتول أو مسموم).
This Hadeeth was narrated by Imam Hasan (AS) from his grand father the Prophet (SAWA) after the martyrdom of Ameerul Mo'mineen ( AS). (Kifayatul Athar, by al-Khazzaz , page 160-162).
The Prophet (SAWA) himself was also poisoned. There are plenty of authentic narrations in Sunni and Shia books stating that the Prophet did not have natural death but was poisoned. ( Al- Mustadrak by Al-Haakim al-Nisaboori, V.3, P.60) and (al-Seerah al-Nabawiyyah by Ibn Katheer , V. 4, P. 449) and (al-Tabaqat al- Kubra by Ibn Sa'ad , V. 2, P. 249). These are few of Sunni books.
The age of the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) when he passed away was 63 years. According to some sources he was 19 days less than 63 years (62 years and 11 months and 11 days).
The main aim of celebrating the birth anniversaries of the Prophet (SAWA) and his Holy Progeny Ahlul Bayt (AS) is to make us reconfirm our allegiance to them and to make us more near to them and follow their teachings. The best way to celebrate can be by:
1. Checking to be sure that our life and daily practices are according to the teachings of the Prophet (SAWA) and Ahlul Bayt (AS). We need to check our behavior and life style and compare it with what the Prophet (SAWA) and Ahlul Bayt (AS) want us to do.
2. Being sure that our life does not have any behavior which goes against the teachings of the Prophet (SAWA) and Ahlul Bayt (AS).
3. Trying our best to convey the message of the Prophet (SAWA) and Ahlul Bayt (AS) to others especially those who do not know enough about it or those Muslims who do not cae to practice Islamic teachings.
4. Inviting non Muslims to read and know more about the teachings of the Prophet (SAWA) and Ahlul Bayt (AS) and providing them useful publications, links, materials , etc.
5. Sharing he happiness with our families, friends and especially the poor people. Making believers happy will make the Prophet (SAWA) and Ahlul Bayt (AS) happy.
These are just few examples.
Thank you for your question. A day of celebration is that in which you are able to worship and serve Allah. On the birthday of the Prophet (saw) send copious blessings on him (saw) and his family (as). Serve your Muslim brothers and sisters and thank Allah for the blessing of the Prophet (saw) by working towards the goals he was sent to guide towards.
May you always be successful
It is Not correct at all to claim that the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) was the least imperfect human.
There is not a single evidence about any imperfectness is the life of Prophet (SAWA).
The Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) is the Most Perfect Human and The best of All the Prophets.
It is authentic in both Sunni and Shia books that the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) celebrated the birth of his grand children, Hasan, Husain and Zainab.
Celebrating the birth anniversary of the twelve Imams is highly recommended as it reminds us with the great teachings of Islam for which the whole life of the twelve Imams was dedicated and sacrificed.