Muhammad (Arabic: مُحَمَّد, pronounced [muħammad]; c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE) was an Arab religious, social, and political leader and the founder of Islam. According to Islamic doctrine, he was a prophet, sent to present and confirm the monotheistic teachings preached previously by Adam, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and other prophets.
as salam alaikum
poverty has been always present along history due to the exploitation exercised by some people and groups on others. The Prophet and the Imams, peace be upon them, presented and supported a system that in fact aims at the eradication of poverty but due to various circumstances was not fully implemented even by Muslims themselves. The believers are called to revive, preserve and spread that system based on cooperation, altruism and charity in order to eliminate, or at least lessen, poverty in the world.
With prayers for your success.
as salam alaikum
there is no clear reference to the fact that some people attempted to worship the Prophet as god during his lifetime. Rather the Qur'an tells us about another tendency among the disbelievers of his time: "Those who entertain no fear about being present before Us, nor do they expect it, say:- Why should not the angels be sent down on us or we see our Lord?-" (25:21). Their asking for angels and even for the Lord himself shows that they did not believe that the Prophet could be a god.
We can deduce this fact also by their saying: " Shall a mere human being guide us?" (64:6).
If someone would have tried to worship the Prophet as god certainly we would have known by multiple reports as such claim would have circulated and caused a particular sensation at that time.
With prayers for your success.
All the prophets and their divine successors are infallible and sinless as they are the best examples to be followed by human beings. Allah (SWT) ordered all human beings to obey the prophets and their successors. If God forbid, they do any sinful act, it means that Allah (SWT) is ordering us to commit sin following them, which is impossible.
Sura al-Nasr like many other Surah have been mistranslated. It does mean at all to seek forgiveness for the prophet himself but for the Muslims who enter in the Religion of Allah for their past sins.
Every verse in Quran and every Hadeeth on this matter means that the Prophet is seeking forgiveness for the Believers.
This claim came from a narration in some Sunni books from ‘Urwah Ibn al-Zubair from his aunt Aisha that the Holy Prophet (SAWA) passed away while he was putting his head on the chest of Aisha. This narration is a fabricated narration and it contradicts with authentic narrations in Sunni and Shia books . Ibn Abbas, the well known companion, denied and refuted this narration.
as it is in Tahtheeb al-Tabaqaat al-Kubra (page 402) : Abu Ghatfan asked Ibn-Abbas, “did you see the Prophet when he passed away putting his head on the chest of anyone?”
Ibn Abbas replied: “the Prophet passed away when his head was on the
chest of Ali ibn Abi Talib”. The narrator asked him, that: “‘Urwah told
me that Aisha said that the prophet passed away when his head was on
her chest.” Ibn Abbas said: “do you have sense? Can you believe it? By
Allah, the messenger of Allah, passed away and his head
was on the chest of Ali Ibn Abi Talib.”
In the well known Sunni book Al Tabaqat al Kubra (vol 2 pg 260) Ibn Sa’ad said: The prophet passed away while his head was on the chest of Ali-ibn-abi-Talib.
Ibn Asaakir, the well known Sunni scholar, narrated in his book
Tareekh Dimashq (vol 3 pg 15 narration number 1028) that the mother of
Jumai’ ibn ‘Omair and his aunt both went to Aisha and asked her about
Ali. Aisha said: “you are asking me about whom? About a man who put
his hand, when the prophet was dying, and the soul of the prophet came
out on his hand and he wiped his face with it.”
This narration has also been mentioned in Majma’ al Zawa’id by al Haythami (vol 9 pg 112)
and also mentioned by al Zamakhshari in Rabi’ al Abraar.
The false narration claiming hat he Prophet put his head on the chest of Aisha was narrated by a well known enemy of Imam Ali (AS), ‘Orwah ibn al Zubair, who fabricated this false allegation because of his enmity against Ali Ibn Abi Talib (AS) . 'Orwah Ibn al Zubair fought against Imam Ali (AS) in the Bttle of Jamal in Basra and tried with his brother Abdullah to kill mam Ali (AS).
How can Muslims believe an enemy of Ali and leave what Ali (AS) himself stated? Ibn Abi Al-Hadeed narrated that Ali (AS) himself said(ولقد قبض رسول الله وان رأسه على صدري ) “verily the Messenger of Allah (SAWA) passed away when his head was on my chest.”
Nahjul Balagah, (sermon 197).
In Musnad Ahmad bin Hambal (vol 6, pg 300) Umm Salama,
one of the wives of the Holy Prophet (SAWA), she said: “I swear by
whom I swear, that Ali was the nearest to the Holy Prophet (SAWA) and
the last person who was with the Holy Prophet (SAWA) when the Holy
Prophet (SAWA) passed away, he was alone with Ali giving him secrets
and talking to him alone.”
This is also mentioned in al Musannaf (vol 7 pg 494) also in Kanz al
Ummal (vol 13 pg 146 Hadeeth number 36459) and also in Tareekh Madinat
Dimashq and also in al Bidaya Wannihaya by ibn Katheer (vol 7 pg 397)
Sunni texts also say that the Holy Prophet (s) died with his head in the lap of Imam 'Ali (as): The following is quoted in Khasa'is of Nasa'i from Umm Salamah: "By Allah, the closest person [to the Prophet] at the time of the Prophet's death was 'Ali. Early on the morning of the day when he was going to die, the Prophet called 'Ali who had been sent out on some errand. He asked for 'Ali three times before his return. However, 'Ali came before sunrise. So, thinking that the Prophet needed some privacy with 'Ali, we came out. I was the last to be out; therefore, I sat closer to the door than the other women. I saw that 'Ali lowered his head towards the Prophet and the Prophet kept whispering into his ears (for sometime). Therefore, 'Ali is the only person who was near the Prophet till the last."
Al-Hakim al-Nasyaburi, moreover, remarks in his Mustadrak that: "the Prophet kept confiding in 'Ali till the time of his death. Then he breathed his last."
The idea that the Prophet (S) passed away in the lap of A'ishah is found in some Sunni texts and is generally not shared by Shi'is. Other texts say that he called Imam 'Ali (A) to him before he passed away, and this view is generally the one adopted by Shi'is. Here is a Shi'i view on his last moments: https://www.al-islam.org/life-muhammad-prophet-sayyid-saeed-akhtar-rizvi/death-and-burial
In any case, it wouldn't have been fair for the Prophet (S) to favour A'ishah above his other wives at that time.
That being said, I don't think there is a lot of benefit in speculating over how much he did or did not love her, at the end of the day they were married and the Prophet (S) had a noble and generous personality and extended love to many people, this was part of what made him special and beloved in turn.
This is a belief which is held and originates from our brothers of the self proclaimed Sunni sect. Unfortunately this type of thought also found its way among some Shias. It has been answered already on different some Shia websites so I’ll transfer the narrations of our 9th Imam (as) for your benefit to this Q & A:
Al-Saffar (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: Narrated Ali bin Asba`t or [and] others who had said: "I said to Abu` Jafar (al-Jawad): 'People claim that the Prophet (peace be upon him and his pure family) could neither read nor write!' So, he, peace be upon him, denied that and said: 'They have lied, May the wrath of Allah be upon them! How would that be? When Allah, the Exalted, has said: '(It is) He who raised among the Ummīyīna (i.e. maternals) a Messenger from amongst them, reciting upon them His signs and purifying them and teaching them the Book and the wisdom; even though beforehand they were in a clear straying' How did he teach them the Book and the Wisdom while he could neither read nor write?’
Then Ali bin Asba`t asked the Imam: "Why was he called al-Nabi al-Ummi? To which the Imam (peace be upon him) replied: "Because he was ascribed to Mecca. That is according to the words of Allah, the Most Exalted: 'That you may warn Umm al-Qura` (i.e. the mother of villages) and those around it.' Umm al-Qura` means Mecca. So, he was called Ummi.” (Basair al-darajat, By al-Saffar, vol. 5, p. 246).
Furthermore, al-Saduq (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: Narrated Ja’far ibn Muhammad al-Sufi: “I asked Abu Ja’far Muhammad son of Ali al-Rida (peace be upon them both) saying: ‘O son of Allah’s Apostle, why was the Prophet called Ummi?’ He answered: ‘What do the people say?’ I said: ‘They claim that he was called Ummi because he was illiterate.
“He replied: ‘They lie! May the curse of Allah be upon them, Allah has clearly said in His Book: ‘(It is) He who raised among the Ummīyīna (i.e. maternals) a Messenger from amongst them, reciting upon them His signs and purifying them and teaching them the Book and the wisdom’ How would he teach what he himself could not do?
“By Allah, Allah’s Apostle (peace be upon him and his pure family) used to read and write in 72, or he said 73, languages. He was called Ummi because he was from Mecca. Mecca is one of the mother towns, and this is why Allah the Most Exalted has said: ‘So that you (Muhammad) may warn the mother of villages (i.e. Mecca) and whoever is around it’.” (Ma’ani al-Akhbar, By al-Saduq, p. 53).
May Allah grant you success
The marriages of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) were always based on the
benefit of Islam. He never got married with any young
women for the purpose of enjoyment but all his marriages were based on
serving Islam. If you take his marriages one by one and analyse the
reasons and the effect you will find that all the marriages were based
on serving Islam. He got married with ladies from certain tribes to
make the tribes supporting or at least not opposing Islam. He got
married to a lady who is Zainab bint Jhash to establish the rule of
Islam in marriage between the man and the wife of his fostered son as
the people Jaahiliyyah thought that such marriage is Haraam but the Prophet (SAWA) wanted to break the Jahilyyah concept of such marriage. In fact Allah (SWT) ordered the Prophet to get married with Zainab bint Jahsh as it is mentioned in the Holy Qur’an ( Sura al-Ahzaab, Verse 37) after Zainab Bint Jahsh was divorced from Zaid who was a fostered son and not real son of the Holy Prophet (SAWA) and the reason of the marriage is
also mentioned in the Holy Qur’an.
The Holy Prophet (SAWA) got married
with ladies who came from leading families in their communities like
Lady Safiyah whose father was the leader of the Jewish community but
she became a very sincere Muslim. He also got married with Lady Mariah
who was from Egypt from a Christian family and she was a very sincere
lady. So all his marriages were just for serving Islam and supporting
Islam and making Islam more acceptable to people. In fact his marriage
with Juwairiyah was a cause of a big number of people from her tribe
becoming Muslims just because of his marriage with a lady from their
Yes, it is right to pray two Rak'ats of Salaah for the sake of Allah (SWT) supplicating to Allah (SWT) to fulfill your difficulty and grant your need.
It is just like Fajr Salaah but it is not obligatory.
Holy Prophet (SAWA) had three sons, two of whom Al Qasim and Abdullah
were from Lady Khadijah (AS) and the third, Ibrahim, was from Lady
Maria Al- Qibtiyyah. All of them passed away during childhood. Al
Qasim and Abdullah passed away in Makkah and Ibrahim passed away in
Madinah. The Holy Prophet (SAWA) was survived by his only one biological daughter from Lady Khadijah (AS) who is the greatest woman of all times, Lady Fatimah (SA). He also had three fostered daughters, Ruqayyah, born 20 years before
Hijrah and passed away in the 2nd year after Hijrah ; Zaynab, who was
born 23 years before Hijrah and dies 8 years after Hijrah and Umm
Kulthum who was born 19 years before Hijrah and passed away in the 9th
year after Hijrah. These three fostered daughters are mentioned in the
books of history as daughters of A’atiqa bint Khowailid, the
sister of Lady Khadijah (AS). Lady Khadijah (AS) and the Holy Prophet
(SAWA) looked after them and brought them up as fostered daughters and
that is why they were known as daughters of the Holy Prophet (SAWA)
according to the Arab culture who called the fostered children as sons
and daughters like calling Zaid who was a fostered son of the Prophet (SAWA) yet he was called as Zaid Ibn Muhammad (SAWA).(son of Mohammad).
A list of a few good texts about The Prophet (S), his life and teachings:
Sunan An-Nabi https://www.al-islam.org/sunan-nabi-allamah-sayyid-muhammad-husayn-tabat...
The Message https://www.al-islam.org/message-jafar-subhani
Life of the Prophet Mohammad before Starting the Mission https://www.al-islam.org/message-thaqalayn/vol10-n1-2009/life-prophet-mo...
History of Islam up to the Demise of the Prophet (S) https://www.al-islam.org/history-islam-demise-prophet-s-mahdi-pishvai
Hayat Al-Qulub Vol. 2, A Detailed Biography of Prophet Muhammad (S) https://www.al-islam.org/hayat-al-qulub-vol-2-allamah-muhammad-baqir-maj...
You may refer to the narration provided by Shaykh al-Mufid in Kitb al-Irshad.
See page 123The Circumstances of the Last Illness and Death of the Prophet