In Shia Islam, marjaʿ (Arabic: مرجع; plural: marājiʿ), also known as a marjaʿ taqlīd or marjaʿ dīnī (Arabic: مرجع تقليد / مرجع ديني), literally meaning "source to imitate/follow" or "religious reference", is a title given to the highest level Shia authority, a Grand Ayatollah with the authority to make legal decisions within the confines of Islamic law for followers and less-credentialed clerics. After the Qur'an and the prophets and imams, marājiʿ are the highest authority on religious laws in Usuli Shia Islam.
Every Muslim needs to have authentic evidence that he is acting upon the orders of Islam in every religious act and deed. Such evidence can not be available to non professional person unless he relies on the verdict of professional scholar (Mujtahid). That is why Taqleed is compulsory on every non professional Muslim otherwise his religious deeds will be with out supporting evidence, which means that it can be not correct.
When you follow the most learned scholar, you will not be responsible if he makes an error as your responsibility is just to act upon the verdict and evidence derived by the most learned scholar.
No, it is not sufficient to ask one trustworthy person about which Marja to follow. He must be a high caliber 'Aalim (scholar), yet his witness alone is not sufficient because witness should come from two high caliber 'Aalims.
Majority of the Shia Muslims today follow in Taqleed, Ayatullah al-Udhma Sayyed Ali al-Husaini al- Sistani. This is because of the fact that majority of Shia scholars in the Hawza of Najaf Ashraf, Qum, Mashhad and other places, believe that Ayatullah Sistani is the most knowledgeable among Shia high caliber scholars (Mujtahids). No doubt, there are other Maraaji' in Iran and Iraq who have lot of followers in Taqleed, but Ayatullah Sistani is the most followed Marja' in this time. May Allah protect him and prolong his life, and all the Maraaji'.
Best of wishes on this next stage of your spiritual journey, and, yes, it is enough to have the intention to follow a marja' and to do your best to do so; you do not need to notify the marja'.
The answer of this question depends on the question on crypto currency itself whether it is real or not. Many of Muslim scholars are still not sure hence carrying on research on this matter. When the picture is clear for majority of the scholars, they will give their verdict on crypto currency.
You need to wait till this main question is answered, then the question of brokerage comes after that.
You need to seek advice of high caliber Islamic scholars in the Hawza who should witness who is the most learned scholar among all the authentic Mujtahids. Two (at least) pious high caliber scholars in the Hawza should such witness.
It comes down to different methods of sighting. Sayyid Sistani says that the moon has to be sighted with the naked eye; Sayyid Khamenei rules that using a telescope is permissible. Astronomists also say that technically the new moon starts before it can be seen by either of these, but generally the ruling is that it has to be sighted.
Another issue is the 'sharing of the same night'. This method used to be used. I.e. if a region shares a night, then the declaring of the moon from one part of that region would apply to all. This is now no longer being used as a criterion. Instead, Sayyid Sistani and Sayyid Khamenei say that you must follow your local horizon, so usually the moon can be seen in Southern Europe before it can in Northern Europe; hence, Spain will have Eid one day earlier than England.
as salam alaikum
the are different opinions on how a person should see the new moon. The major ones can be summarized as follows:
SIGHTING THE NEW MOON LOCALLY (VALID FOR ALL PLACES THAT SHARE THE SAME HORIZON) WITH NAKED EYE
This is the fatwa of Ayatollah Khomeyni, Ayatollah Sistani, Ayatollah Mararem Shirazi, Ayatollah Shobeyri Zanjani, Ayatollah Subhani, Ayatollah Qorban Ali Kabuli and Ayatollah Muhammad Sadiq Sadr.
SIGHTING THE NEW MOON IN A CITY WITH NAKED EYE AND VALIDATING THE SIGHTING FOR ALL THE OTHER PLACES THAT SHARE WITH IT THE SAME NIGHT
This is the fatwa of Ayatollah Khu'i, Ayatollah Muhammad Baqir Sadr, Ayatollah Muhammad Araki, Ayatollah Ruhani, Ayatollah Ishaq Fayyad, Ayatollah Wahid Khorasani and Ayatollah Bashir Najafi.
SIGHTING THE NEW MOON LOCALLY (VALID FOR ALL PLACES THAT SHARE THE SAME HORIZON) WITH THE HELP OF A TELESCOPE
This is the fatwa of Ayatollah Khamene'i, Ayatollah Muhammad Taqi Bahjat, Ayatollah Fazel Lankarani and Ayatollah Muhammad Taqi Mudarrisi.
SIGHTING THE NEW MOON WITH NAKED EYE AND VALIDATING THE SIGHTING FOR ALL THE OTHER PLACES THAT SHARE WITH IT THE SAME NIGHT BUT MAKING A DISTINCTION BETWEEN THE OLD CONTINENT (EUROPE, AFRICA, ASIA AND AUSTRALIA) AND THE NEW CONTINENT (NORTH AND SOUTH AMERICA).
This is the fatwa of Ayatollah Muhammad Sa'id Hakim.
With prayers for your success.
The linguistic meaning of it is (Peace be upon him) which is in fact used for every Muslim when you say to him : Salamun Alaykum.(Peace be upon you).
But as a term and common understanding , we have to be careful in using it to avoid mixing between the Infallible and others.
If the verdicts of different Marja' s are different on certain matter, you must follow the most knowledgeable Marja'.
It is never a matter of personal convenience but the Islamic duty to follow the most learned.
as salam alaikum
this opinion of some Maraji' is based on ahadith like the followings:
It has been reported that the Prophet, peace be upon him and his family, said: "There is no Riba between us and the people who fight us".
It has been reported that Imam Sadiq, peace be upon him, said: "There is no Riba between a Muslim and a Dhimmi".
On the other hand, we find hadith like:
It has been reportes that it was asked to Imam al-Baqir, peace be upon him, "Is there any Riba between me and the polytheists"? The Imam answered: "Yes".
All the above-mentioned ahadith can be found in the book "Wasa'il al-Shi'ah" by Shaykh Hurr al-'Amili.
Another evidence is given by the fact that taking the money from a non-Muslim with mutual consent is allowed by consensus; therefore the interest taken from a non-Muslims should fall in the same category.
However Riba is one of the major sins and it is categorically condemned in the Qur'an and sahih ahadith with no exceptions. That is why you may find ulama that have opted for a more precautionary stance not allowing Riba in its absolute sense.
With prayers for your success.
Kaffara has many types e.g. Kaffara of not fasting during the month of Ramadhan, which is feeding sixty poor believers for every missed day of fast, and Kaffara of traveling in a covered vehicle during the state of Ehraam for men in Hajj or Umra which is slaughtering a sheep and distributing it among the poor believers, and Kaffara of not fulfilling an oath, which is feeding ten poor believers or clothing them. These types of Kaffara can be given as material not cash to the poor believers directly.