The soul, in many religious, philosophical, and mythological traditions, is the incorporeal essence of a living being. Soul or psyche are the mental abilities of a living being: reason, character, feeling, consciousness, memory, perception, thinking, etc.
Allah (SWT)'s mercy on His creatures has no limits as He always showers His bounties on all the creatures whether they obey Him or not. His mercy is on every one and every thing. Out of His mercy, Allah (SWT) does not put burden on any one more than the capacity and the ability of that person. All the obligation in Islam are withing the limits of the ability and when a person is unable because of any reason, the obligation will be lifted from him as far and as long as he is unable to do it. For example: Fasting during the month of Ramadhan is one of most important obligatory deeds upon every Muslim, but if a person is ill and can not fast, fasting becomes not obligatory on him.
This rule applies on every situation according to the abbility of the person.
Jaami' al-Sa'adaat by Shaikh al-Naraaqi.
May Allah bless you and your family.
Scholars of different disciplines use these terms in different ways. In a loose sense, they refer to the same reality – the source of life which is inanimate and eternal. The exact sense will depend on in which context it the term is used.
Muhaqqiq Narāqī in his famous book of ethics, Jamiʿ al-Saʿādāt states, “The soul (nafs) is that heavenly essence which employs the body and uses its various organs to attain its goals and purposes. The soul has also other names as spirit (ruh), intelligence (`aql), and heart (qalb) although these terms have other usages as well.”
Shahīd Muṭahharī indicates that these terms are used distinctly in ʿIrfān based on the qualities of the soul: “The 'urafa' have different words for the human soul; sometimes they call it nafs (self), sometimes qalb (heart), sometimes ruh (spirit) and sometimes sirr (mystery). When the human soul is dominated and ruled by desires and passions they call it nafs. When it reaches the stage of bearing Divine knowledge, it is called qalb. When the light of Divine love dawns within it, they call it ruh.”
In the Qurʾān the terms Qalb and Nafs are used much more often than the term Rūḥ; Rūḥ is also sometimes used to refer to the Holy Spirit or to ʿIsā (ʿa)
as salam alaikum
"They ask you about the Ruh. Say:- The Ruh is from the command of my Lord-. Little is the knowledge that you have been given" (17:85).
The term is often used in Arabic language to indicate what makes bodies alive and therefore we may talk about specific mineral's ruh, vegetal's ruh, animal ruh, human's ruh, etc..
From the Qur'an we understand it is a creation that Allah attributes directly to Himself. For example it is said: "I am to create a man from clay. And when I have fashioned him and I have blown in him My spirit, then fall in prostration" (38:71-72). Here, the creation of the physical man (bashar) has been linked to clay but it was only after the blowing of the Ruh from the Almighty that the angels fell into prostration: "So the angels prostrated one and all" (38:73).
Some exegetes have also linked the Ruh to angelic forces or angels themselves.
With prayers for your success.
A person is allowed to change their name even if there is nothing inherently wrong with their birth name.
Whether there is a relationship between one's birth name and one's soul is a more difficult question. I am not aware of anything in our religious sources that discusses this apart from that on the Day of Judgment it is said that people will be addressed by their names and their mothers' names (apart from Shi'i texts which say that the Prophet's descendants will be addressed by their names and fathers' names), but it is hard to say without being there whether that will be a recognizably verbal utterance of a name or just some means of identifying us that we will understand. Also, there are situations where the Imams (A) informed people of their birth names (as part of demonstrating their comprehensive knowledge) and perhaps there is a hint of some significance there. But in those cases it seems that the birth names were changed due to circumstances and not because the person actually wanted to be identified by a different name.
So, I think the best answer to the first question is that maybe there is a relationship, but if there is, it isn't something that is focused on in the Twelver Shi'i tradition.
Certainly the Prophet (S) did not see a problem in encouraging people to change their names where necessary.
As a side note, although I've never seen this discussed, I would imagine that some of the mothers of the Imams (A) were not born with the names they were born with because their names are usually given as Arabic/Persianate whereas some of them were said to come from far-off regions, so perhaps some of them acquired these names during their life journey.
There are many books on this subject, but not all of them are translated in English.
One of the well known books which are translated in English is Jami' Al-Sa'adaat by Al-Naraaqi (The Collector of Felicities).
You may also see Mir'aat Al-Rashaad مراة الرشاد by Shaikh Abdullah Al-Mamaqani.
There isn't full agreement on whether the soul has a gender, although a common view is that the soul does not have a gender. However one can deduce from Qur'an and hadith that we will appear in the afterlife similar to how we appear in this world including gender. It is said that the soul is affixed to a sort of body in the afterlife (less "heavy" than the physical body but still a sort of body) and so perhaps this is why it will appear gendered.
[Edit: Hereby is demonstration that there is no agreement on the matter! In tafsir of 4:1, Allamah Tabataba'i expresses the view that the Qur'anic reference to creating the "nafs" of a person and its mate is the compound of worldly body and soul, not the soul in and of itself or what persists after the worldly life.
However, it should be said that there have been multiple trends of thought in the Islamic world regarding the nature of the soul, and some scholars accept some views - like Molla Sadra's - whereas others do not. As for non-Islamic sources, while it is true that extra-Islamic philosophical ideas were introduced to the Islamic world early on and became part of Islamic thought, just because something is extra-Islamic does not automatically mean it is wrong. For instance, pre-Islamic sources also say that 2+2=4, and we do not disagree with that. What can be said is that non-Islamic sources cannot be taken as proof of matters known through revelation, although one could consider the logic presented in them.
In any case, this may not be what the question is actually intending to ask, because it seems that the question is aimed at asking whether we will appear gendered in the barzakh and heaven/hell. From the Qur'an and hadith, it seems as if we will appear recognizably gendered, regardless of whether or not that is an inherent nature of the soul. In any case, we will all find out.
In contrast, some people ask whether the soul is essentially gendered because they have an interest in questions such as the position of women and men spiritually in Islamic thought.
An interesting read on the spiritual aspects of gender in the Islamic, including Shi'i, tradition is _The Tao of Islam_.]
Non Islamic sources claim that souls have no gender but Quran and authentic Hadeeths are clear that human soul is linked with human body, and as every human being has a gender either male of female, so, the souls has the same gender of the human being . Allah (SWT) says in Quran : (O mankind, We have Created you from a male and a female and made you in people and tribes, that you may know each other. Verily, the most honorable of you with Allah is most pious (Sura 49, Verse 13).
Major signs of healthy heart include:
1. Loving Allah (SWT) more than anything or anyone else. In Quran (And the believers love Allah more )(2: 165). Loving Allah (SWT) makes the believer love what Allah wants and keep away from what Allah dislikes.
2. Feeling the taste of talking to Allah in Prayers and supplications as well as the taste of listening to Allah in reciting or listening to Quran. Nothing more tasteful than talking to the Most beloved and listening to His Words.
3. Enjoying performing the Prayers because it is a direct contact with Allah (SWT). Beside the obligatory Prayers, performing the recommended Prayers like Nawaafil and Night Prayers is a sign of healthy heart.
4. Loving Allah's most beloved ones who are the prophets and Infallible Imams, more than loving ourselves and our families.
5. Loving all the creatures of Allah and feeling sympathy to them except the enemies of Allah (SWT).
as salam alaikum
a better translation for "nafs" (which is often translated as "soul") is "self" which is in fact your true self, what control your body and the real addressee of Allah's Speech. Your self can command to evil: "Surely the self is prone to enjoy evil" (12:53). It can reproach himself: "No! I swear by the self-reproaching self!" (75:2). It can also be at peace and his Lord will call him by saying: "O you self at peace! Come back to your Lord well-pleasing and well-pleased..." (89:27-28).
With prayers for your success.
These are some useful acts for your deceased parents:
1. Fulfilling all their debts whether religious debts of worships which they missed (Prayers, Fast, Khums, Hajj etc) or financial or moral debts to people.
2. Paying Sadaqa or charity on their behalf. Charities with continuous benefits (Sadaqa Jaria) is much better like water will, Masjid, Husainia, orphanage, school, etc).
3. Arranging Majaalis on their behalf.
4. Reciting Quran or paying to people who can recite on their behalf.
5. Reciting Ziyarat Ashura and other Ziyarat on their behalf.
as salam alaikum
It has been reported from the Prophet, peace be upon him and his family, the following words:
"When a son of Adam dies, his deeds ends except for three: sadaqah jariyah, beneficial knowledge and a pious child who prays for him".
This hadith is found in "Sahih Muslim", "Bihar al-Anwar", "Muniyat al-Murid" and other sources.
Therefore one of the best acts a son can do for his deceased parents is to pray and ask forgiveness for them.
With prayers for your success.