Al-Ḥusayn ibn ʿAlī ibn Abi Talib (ٱلْحُسَيْن ابْن عَلِي ابْن أَبِي طَالِب; 10 October 625 – 10 October 680; also transliterated as Husayn ibn Ali, Husain, Hussain and Hussein) was a grandson of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a son of Ali ibn Abi Talib (the first Shia Imam and the fourth Rashid caliph of Sunni Islam) and Muhammad's daughter Fatimah. He is an important figure in Islam as he was a member of the Bayt (Household) of Muhammad and the Ahl al-Kisā' (People of the Cloak), as well as the third Shia Imam.
A good book to read on this is The Succession to Muhammad [s] by Wilferd Madelung, who explains very clearly the subtleties of the political situation of 'Uthman. 'Uthman had incited fury among Egyptians, Kufans and others because of his nepotism and awarding his family property that belonged to the umma. He had also cut 'Aisha's stipend, angering her. The Egyptians came as a delegation to 'Uthman with their grievances, but he refused to listen to them. Instead, he appealed to Imam Ali (as) to tell them to go away. Imam 'Ali (as) warned 'Uthman more than once that in order to calm the situation, he must listen to their grievances and correct his actions. 'Uthman refused to listen, and so Imam 'Ali (as) distanced himself. 'A'isha sent out letters inciting those who were angry with 'Uthman to kill him. 'Uthman's palace was stormed. Interestingly, 'Uthman was abandoned by his cousin Marwan and his sons in his time of need. Imam 'Ali (as) sent just Imam Hasan (as) (not Imam Husayn) and some others to try to calm the crowds, but they went ahead and killed 'Uthman. Because Imam 'Ali (as) had not directly intervened, Aisha later took advantage of this and accused him of being responsible for 'Uthman's murder. She used this allegation to try to overthrow Imam Ali (as). Imam 'Ali (as) says in sermon 30 in Nahj al-Balagha that both parties were in the wrong: 'Uthman was wrong for misappropriating property and governing badly; and the Egyptians and others were wrong for murdering 'Uthman, basically meaning that the grievances should have been addressed through a legal process: "If I had ordered his assassination I would have been his killer, but if I had prevented others from killing him I would have been his helper... I am putting before you his case. He appropriated wealth and did it badly. You protested against it and committed excesses therein. With Allah lies the real verdict between the appropriator and the protestor.' Thus, in sending Imam Hasan (as) to try to calm the crowds, Imam 'Ali (as) was not actually siding with 'Uthman, nor supporting him, but was rather trying to prevent excessive and unlawful behaviour on behalf of the aggrieved parties.
In Arabic, every one has a name like Husain and a Kunyah like Abu or Aba or Abi. The name of the Prophet (SAWA) is Muhammad and his Kunyah is Abu Qasim. Ameerul Mo'minen (AS) name is Ali and his Kunyah is Abul Hasan. Imam Hasan's Kunyah is Abu Mohammad. mam Husain's Kunyah is Abu Abdillah or Aba Abdillah.
Abu Abdullah means father of Abdullah. Imam Husain had a son named Abdullah.
Many people traveled from Madina with Imam Husain (AS) but their numbers are not exactly known to us because we find in different books of history different numbers.
You can find some details on the website of mam Husain Shrine www.imamhussain.org
as salam alaikum
different sources depict Shimr Ibn Dhil-Jawshan and Sinan Ibn Anas as the killers of Husayn, peace be upon him. It is evident that both played a role in the killing although there may be some variations in the details of various reports. Both were fighting along the army of 'Umar Ibn Sa'd, sent by 'Ubaydullah Ibn Zayd, appointed by Yazid Ibn Mu'awiyah.
With prayers for your success.
We believe that every act of the Infallible is based on the complete wisdom which may not be available to us as our thinking is limited.
The wisdom behind the way of fighting the enemies in Karbala can be to avoid immediate collapse of the camp of Imam Husain (AS) looking at huge numbers of the enemies facing small number of believers.
It can be also to give more chances to the army of the enemies to reconsider their stand.
After all, the whole wisdom of that arrangements is with Imam Husain (AS) which aims definitely to serve the noble aims of Islam.
The tragedy of Ashura' and the martyrdom of the companions and family members of Ahlul Bayt (a.s.) did not extend for a long time, and within this short duration of the battle, the sad event enfolded quickly. Historians do mention the first who was martyred, and the last.
There were also common combating practices, like duel fights, but what made the tragedy more severe was that none of these fighting rituals were observed. In general, it was Imam Husain (a.s.) who granted permission for the companions and members of Ahlul Bayt (a.s) to fight.
And Allah knows best.
The martyrdom of Imam Husain (AS) gave the Muslim Ummah the biggest shock which saved the Ummah from collapse when the rulers (Yazeed and his gangsters) were totally away from the teachings of Islam. Muslim masses could not accept the crime of the killing of the grand son of the Prophet along with his family members including children and imprisonment of the family of the Prophet (SAWA). This greatest shock brought back the sense to the Ummah and was the reason behind hundreds of revolts against tyrant rulers during centuries of the history of Muslims. Imam Husain's martyrdom declared the tyrant rulers as deviants and made the Muslim masses careful when dealing with them.
The martyrdom of Imam Husain (AS) became the guide to his noble value which calls Muslims to be real Muslims and join good and avoid evil. Thousands of scholars, writers, poets were inspired by Imam Husain's martyrdom.
Millions of Muslims all over the world and all over the generations, observe the martyrdom of Imam Husain every year and get spiritually charged to be better Muslims.
Imam Husain's martyrdom has inspired many non Muslims and made them realize the great teachings of justice for which Imam Husain (AS) has sacrificed.
The list of the benefits from Imam Husain' martyrdom will be very long and books can be written on it, but to cut it very short, we need to remember the Prophetic Hadeeth which stated: Husian is from me, and I am from Husain. How the grand father is from his grand son? In fact, he religion of Islam which was sent through the Prophe Muhammad (SAWA), was revived and made everlasting because of Imam Husain (AS).
Reviving Islam is the great benefit not only for all Muslims but for all mankind.
Real love to the Prophet (SAWA) which is supposed to be in the heart of every believer, makes the believers feel sad when remembering sad memories which took place to the Prophet (SAWA and his Holy Progeny Ahlul Bayt (AS). The Prophetic Hadeeth says: No one from you (Muslims) will be a believer, until he feels for me and my progeny more than what feels fo r himself and his family.
Remembering the tragedies of Karbala on Imam Husain (AS) makes the heart of the believer feel deeply sad and grieved. Such deep sadness which is a result of noble feelings, makes the believers shed tears. Such noble feelings do not decrease with time passing but remain alive and warm as far as the love to the Prophet (SAWA) and his Ahlul Bayt (AS) is in the heart.
This is the way of Prophets and their sincere followers as we read in Qur'an. Allah (SWT) ordered the Prophet in Quran to recite on people the details of a tragedy of the pious son of Adam who was killed by his criminal brother. (And recite on them the happenings which took place between the two sons of Adam (Abel and Cain) in truth, when each of them offered a sacrifice, but it was accepted from one of them and not from the other, who said to his brother, I will definitely kill you. His brother replied: Allah accepts only from the pious people, If you extend your hand towards me to kill me, I will never extend my hand towards you to kill you, I fears Allah, The Lord of The Worlds, (Sura 5, verses 27 onwards).
The tragedy of the son of Adam took place thousands of year before the time of the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA), yet, Allah (SWT) ordered the Prophet to recite the story on people, which means that the time passing does not decrease the importance and benefits of remembering it.
Mourning the tragedies of Imam Husain (AS) makes us more near to justice and noble values ordered by Allah (SWT) and more far from Satan and satanic thoughts and acts.
We always need to be more purified to become more near to Imam Husain (AS) and his aims which are the aims of Islam.
Thank you for your question. I think this kind of question arises from a misunderstanding of the historical circumstances of the people of Kufa and the success of Ibn Ziyad's policies in Kufa before the arrival of Imam Husayn (as). Not everyone in Kufa was a Shia and equating Kufans to Shias is not true or accurate. There were nobles in Kufa who stood to loose from the establishment of Imam Husayn (as) as the leader of Kufa and they helped Ibn Ziyad enforce tyrannical policies which induced an extreme amount of fear within the Kufan population such that all but the staunchest supporters of the Imam (as) chose silence and compliance over uprise.
For example, if any member of a tribe was seen to support the Imam, the whole tribe would be punished through the cutting off of stipends (which was the income for most people), not just the individual. This meant that before a person took action they had to think about all of their family members and their wider tribe including the women and children. They also had to bear in mind that many were willing to divulge any plans of disruption to Ibn Ziyad in order to protect their own skin and to seek favour with the government. It is in this way that many thousands of Kufans were forced on the battlefield but a much smaller percentage actually took part in the battle. People who wrote letters to the Imam (as) were not able to break out of these policies. It was also not certain for the people participating in the battle that the intention was to actually kill the Imam (as) until much later in the ordeal. I am certainly not justifying their lack of support of the Imam (as) at such a critical time, but am explaining the reason as to why these phenomena occurred and that is by coercion. Coercion does not prove anything other than the responsibility of the person who coerced, who was Ibn Ziyad.
The Tawwabun movement was also comprised of Shia that had been imprisoned and some historians have opined that it was the taking of the women as captives and their journey to Damascus that were significant causes for that movement. As for the blame for the death of the Imam (as), there is no doubt that it is on the immediate killers of the Imam (as) as well as all of those that were happy that he had been killed. There is no true Shia that would claim to be happy with the martyrdom of the Imam (as), whereas the tribe of Bani Umayyah celebrated the killing of the Imam (as) in the most flagrant manner.
May Allah's Mercy be distant from the killers of Imam Husayn (as) and may you always be successful.
This baseless claim is made by those who try to deny the facts of history admitted by their main scholars, just to run away from the curse on their leaders who caused the killing of Imam Husain (AS).
Let us go briefly through the crime and who committed it to know whether Shia or their opponents killed Imam Husain (AS):
1. Imam Husain (AS) was killed by Yazeed son of Mo’awiyah, who sent a big army to Karbala for this crime. The army was led by Omar Ibn Sa’d.
Mo’awiyah is praised by many Sunni persons claiming that he was a companion. They overlook his crimes which are clear for every student or researcher.
Shia curse Mo’awiyah because he fought against Ameerul Mo’mineen Ali ( AS), while many Sunnis praise him.
2. Yazeed is cursed by Shia while you find some Sunni books praise him.
3. Omar Ibn Sa’d is cursed by Shia because of his role in killing Imam Husain (AS) while you find big Sunni scholars like Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani praising him and claiming that he was an authentic narrator of Hadeeth ( Taqreeb al-Tahtheeb, 1:717).تقريب التهذيب لابن حجر
Another Sunni book by the name of Ma’rifat al-Thiqaat by Al-Ijli معرفة الثقات للعجلي admitted his role is killing Imam Husain, yet praised him 2:166.
Al-Dhahabi is another very prominent Sunni scholar, praise Omar Ibn Sa’d in his book Meezan al-I’tidaal 3:198. ميزان الاعتدال للذهبي
So, when you see these facts and many similar facts, How can any person with minimum sense accept the false allegation that Shia were behind the killing of Imam Husain ( AS) ?
First, I would question why someone is bringing this up. Are they asking because they have a genuine historical inquiry? Or is it just an attempt to prove "Sunnis are right, Shi'is are wrong" [or vice versa]? If it is the latter, people should be called on this at the outset.
Assuming it is a genuine question... First, the primary blame for a crime goes on the perpetrators. In this case, that is those who ordered the killing of Imam Husain (A) and those who struck blows. Yes, the people of Kufa had a secondary responsibility for not supporting the Imam, but it is rather revisionist to blame a bystander for a crime. (How often does that happen today!)
Second, the line between "Shi'i" and "Sunni" was not as firm then as it is today. While, early on, the concept of "Shi'a of 'Ali" was known, the concept of "Sunni" took time to develop. Many Muslims - in Kufa and otherwise - were favorable to Imam 'Ali (A) and his descendants because they had had a good experience with him as caliph, or because the Prophet (S) had respected Imam Husain (A), or because of a sort of tribal loyalty to the Prophet (S). However, they can't all be said to have been Shi'is, in the sense of having an unwavering, lifelong dedication to the Imam as the imam, or advocating Shi'i fiqh or theology. They were simply inclined towards him.
Basically, there was a big middle ground between what we would today consider "Shi'i" and "non-Shi'i" or "Sunni". There were some dedicated Shi'is, such as al-Mukhtar al-Thaqafi, who were genuinely unable to be present in Karbala for reasons such as imprisonment. Conversely, what happened in Karbala upset many Muslims, not just Shi'is. While the people of Kufa at that time, overall, had human failings (and exceptions apply), I don't think there is any text in which the Imams say that "our followers killed us".
Yes. This is mentioned in some books of history.