1. The Names of the Twelve Imams of Ahlulbayt (A.S.) were mentioned by the Prophet Muhammed (P.B.U.H. and His Holy Progeny) in many authentic Hadeeths narrated in Shia Books and Sunni Books as well. Despite all the efforts of the enemies of Ahlulbayt (A.S.) to delete and hide and destroy any written Hadeeth in favor of Ameerul Mo'mineen (AS.) and Ahlulbayt (A.S.). You find till today many of Sunni Books still contain many Hadeeths in favor of Ahlulbayt (A.S.).
2. The Twelve Successors:
All Muslims believe that the Prophet (SAWA) has said that: My Successors will be twelve. This Hadeeth of Twelve Successors is mentioned in:
⁃ Saheeh Bukhari ( Hadeeth number 6682)
⁃ Saheeh Muslim ( 3393 and 3394 and 3395 and 3396 and 3397 and 3398)
⁃ Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal ( 3593, 3665, 19875, 19887, 19892, 19901, 19914, 19920, 19922, 19925, 19944 and many other Hadeeths in this meaning.
⁃ Sunan Al-Tirmithi 2149.
⁃ Sunan Abi Dawoud 3731 and 3732
⁃ Al Mustadrak Ala Sahihain by al-Haakim al-Nisabouri ;6586, 6589 and 8529.
⁃ Al-Albani in Takhreej al-Hadeeth; 376, 1075 and 3598.
⁃ and in many other Sunni Books. The Hadees states that all the twelve will be from “Quraish”.
4. There is more clear Hadeeth from the Prophet (SAWA) which was been hidden by most of the narrators who where under the pressure of the tyrant rulers of the enemies of Ahlulbayt (A.S.). This Hadees states that all the Twelve Successors of the Prophet (SAWA) will be from “Bani Hashim” as it is narrated by the well known Sunni Scholar Al Qunduzi Al Hanafi in Yanabee’ Al Mawaddah Vol: 2 Page: 315.
5. The names of the Twelve Imams one after another are mentioned in many Hadeeths in the book of well known Sunni Scholar Al Khawarizmi Al Hanafi in his book Maqtal Al-Hussain narrating from Abi Salma from the Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H. and His Holy Progeny). (Vol: 1 Page: 146.)
6. The Hadees mentioning the names of 12 Imams also narrated in the book of the well-known Sunni Scholar Al Qunduzi Al Hanafi (The name of the book is Yanadiyeh Al Mawaddah) Vol: 3 Page: 380.
7. There are Hadeeths mentioning the names of Twelve Imams (A.S.) narrated by al Hamaweeni As Shafi’ee.
8. Also you can find the mention of the Twelve Imams in the well known Sunni Book Tazkirat Al Khawas تذكرة الخواص by Sibt Ibne Al-Jawzi (a well known Hanafi scholar in Vol: 2 Page: 373.
9. One of our well known Ulama (Al-Khazzaz Al Qummi) who was one of the students of Sheikh Al Sadooq has compiled a full book ( Kifayat al-Athar Fi al-Nass Akal Etha Ashar)in which he mentioned of Hadeeths stating the names of the Twelve Imams narrating from 30 Companions by their names who mentioned what they heard from the Prophet (PBUH) the names of the Twelve Imams (A.S.)
10. A Sunni scholar by the name of Shaikh Hikmat al-Rahma has compiled a book known as The Imams of Ahlul Bayt in Sunni books. Wassalam.
We have many narrations that Sahm Imam which is half of the Khums must be given the Marje' of Taqleed being a deputy of the Imam during the occultation of imam Al-Mahdi (AS). You can read many of theses narrations in Wasa'il al-Shia by Al-Hurr Al-A'amily in the chapter of Khums.
Thank you for your question. Different authors had different purposes and differing criteria when compiling their books. Sometimes, it is not the author's criteria, but the version of the book that has reached us that may be problematic, as Shii hadith history is a history of textual transmission.
Bihar al-anwar is a book that was written in the 17th Century which tried to preserve as much of the Shii tradition as possible. The author was therefore not concerned with sifting reports and left that to later hadith scholars, as hadith scholars also use different criteria when analyzing the reports in various books.
Usul al-Kafi on the other hand was an attempt to produce a book of reliable reports, but at the same time, not everybody agrees with what the author of al-Kafi (al-Kulayni) considered reliable. In short, hadith scholarship is a complex field where there are many aspects to weigh up and that is why it takes expertise. The natural outcome of that is that not everyone will agree with a specific scholar's assessment if they are trying to produce a reliable work.
May you always be successful
There are many different hadith that are considered hadith qudsi (that is, telling us directly what God says, but not as part of the Qur'anic revelation).
Some of these hadith are shared between Sunnis and Shi'is, and some are specifically Sunni, and some are specifically Shi'i.
As mentioned in the previous answer, each one can be evaluated individually with respect to its authenticity.
Hadeeth Qudsi is narrated in Sunni and Shia books. Our Ulama study the content and the chain of narrators before giving their opinion about the authenticity of it.
We have books on Hadeeth Qudsi compiled by Shia Ulama as well as Sunni Ulama.
Sayid Husain Jafri, in his Origins and Development of Early Shi'a Islam, highlights some of the key narrations about Abu Bakr that are mentioned frequently in Sunni circles. Jafri points out that these particular narrations all go back to 'A'isha, who was obviously supporting her father. I can recommend that you get Jafri's book, as he does some good hadith analysis.
There are many narrations which were fabricated for political reasons. We care only for the authentic narrations which came through authentic chain of narrators from the Prophet (SAWA). You may refer to some Sunni books of 'Elm al-Hadeeth ( knowledge of Hadeeth) to see hundreds of narrations which were fabricated in praise of well known rulers.
We also have in our books so many narrations teaching the man to be just, kind and nice to his wife and children.
One Hadeeth says: Best of you is the best treating his wife خيركم خيركم لأهله.
Islam guides both men and women to be good to each other to build a life of mutual respect and harmony overwhelmed with love and sympathy.
Women are required to obey their husbands when the husband does not go against Allah (SWT). Man can not behave as a dictator just because he is a man but must keep the justice when dealing with any one and sympathy when dealing with his wife and children.
Bukhari has narrated in his book known as Saheeh al-Bukhari, Hadeeth number 6682, from Jaabir Ibn Samurah: I heard the Prophet (S) saying: There will be twelve leaders, all of them from Quraysh.
صحيح البخاري - الأحكام - الإستخلاف - رقم الحديث : ( 6682 )
- حدثني : محمد بن المثنى ، حدثنا : غندر ، حدثنا : شعبة ، عن عبد الملك سمعت جابر بن سمرة قال : سمعت النبي (ص) يقول : يكون إثنا عشر أميراً ، فقال : كلمة لم أسمعها ، فقال أبي : إنه قال : كلهم من قريش.
Bukhari has also narrated similar Hadeeth is his other. Book known as al-Taareekh al-Kabeer.
The Hadeeth of 12 Imams after the Prophet (S) has been narrated in main Sunni books of Hadeeth e.g. Saheeh Muslim (6 Hadeeths), Musnad Ibn Hanbal (26 Hadeths), Al-Tirmithi (One Hadeeth), Musnad Abi Dawood (2 Hadeeths), Al-Haakim AlNisaboori (3 Hadeethes), Al-Albani (4 Hadeethes), Al-Bayhaqi (5 Hadeethes), Al-Tabaraani (41 Hadeethes, Ibn Hajar Al-Asqalaani (3Hadeethes, Al-Dhahabi (2 Hadeethes) and many others.
About Imam al-Mahdi (A) Bukhari's has narrated in Hadeeth number 3193 stating that the Prophet Easa will come down from the sky and your Imam is from you
صحيح البخاري - نزول عيسى إبن مريم (ع) - أحاديث الأنبياء - رقم الحديث : ( 3193 )
- حدثنا : إبن بكير ، حدثنا : الليث ، عن يونس ، عن إبن شهاب ، عن نافع مولى أبي قتادة الأنصاري أن أبا هريرة قال : قال رسول الله (ص) : كيف أنتم إذا نزل إبن مريم فيكم وإمامكم منكم
. Thousands of Hadeeths on this subject of Imam Al-Mahdi are narrated in different Sunni books of Hadeeth. Many Sunni scholars have compiled books on this subject e.g. Al-Soyooti Jalaluddin (Al-Orf Al-Wardi Fi Akhbar Al-Mahdi)
Ibn Hajar AlMakki (Al-Mokhtasar Fi A'alamaat Al-Mahdi Al-Muntadhar , Al-Muttaqi Al-Hindi, Al-Shawkaani, and many others.
It may be due to the region in which those scholars live and therefore which types of thought have influenced the idea of spirituality in that region. The term 'irfan' began to be used under the Safavids, to distinguish it from 'Sufism', or 'tasawwuf', which came to be associated with many spurious groups adopting various practices that had little basis in Islam. If we use the term 'Islamic mysticism', it covers a wide range of spiritual trends which have been incorporated into the field. The type of 'irfan' that may be found in Khorasan would differ from that found in Baghdad. Generally, 'irfan' as understood today, includes the thought and practice of mystics, be they Sunni or Shi'i and be their mysticism influence by Platonism or Neo-Platonism. This view of 'irfan' takes an inclusive approach to spiritual tendencies among mystics.
With regard to 'philosophy' - this term in the Muslim world basically means Platonic-Aritotelian influenced philosophy. There are many other kinds of philosophy also - so the condemnation of philosophy does not mean philosophy per se, but this Greek-influenced trend.
Primarily, both these fields have been disapproved of in narrations attributed to the Imams (as), because both side-line or play down the central pillar of walayah. According to traditional Shi'i narrations, the Imam is the gateway to Allah (swt), the Greatest Sign and the Qutb. Ma'rifah of the Imam = Ma'rifah of God's theophany on earth. There is no greater sign than the Imam (Imam 'Ali (as) says this in Usul al-Kafi).
The are narrations from the Imams that indicate that certain people used to sit in their circles, learn their doctrines, and then go and attribute those doctrines to themselves. This could be one root of the beginnings of Sufism. Hakim Tirmidhi, in his book Sirat al-Awliya' (The Concept of Sainthood) pretty much repackages the Imami concept of walayah, but replaces the Imam with that of the Saint, or Waliyullah (Friend of God). At the same time, he was writing polemical treatises against the Shi'a. Therefore, those who, in time of the Imams, sat in dhikr circles, or passed on the teachings of the Imams, while effectively breaking their allegiance to the Imam and attributing their teachings to themselves, were condemned. Thus, those who say that 'what it matter where these teachings come from? It all leads back to Allah' overlook the fundamental pillar of walayah and loyalty to the Imam. In effect, if you steal someone's teachings, then those teachings are transmitted on a foundation of betrayal. So there is an ethical problem here.
Some argue that the narrations attributed to the Imams that condemn irfan and philosophy are not authentic. This would require more expert investigation to ascertain their status.
There are many Sunni scholars by this name. Ibn Al-Arabi Al-Maaliki (Abu Bakr) ( Died 543 Hijri) is a Sunni Shaikh who wrote Al-Awaasim Minal Qawassim العواصم من لقواصم. He was the person who claimed that Imam Husain (AS) by fighting against Yazeed, went against the teachings of his grandfather the Prophet (SAWA). He was clearly away from Ahlul Bayt (AS) and follower of Bani Umayyah who were ruling Andalusia where he was living.
Ibn Arabi (Mohyiddin) (Died 638 Hjri) , the Sufi Sunni scholar, is a different person who wrote Al Fotoohaat Al-Makkiyyah الفتوحات المكية . His books contain right and wrong things as he was not strictly following Ahlul Bayt (AS). He wrote some statements praising Ahlul Bayt (AS) but also wrote praising some enemies of Ahlul Bayt.
We have to be very careful when we read for such persons.