A husband is a male in a marital relationship. The rights and obligations of a husband regarding his spouse and others, and his status in the community and in law, vary between cultures and have varied over time.
Although the parents have divorced, and the children might not be living with the father, or maybe not even in contact with the father, but as long as the father is sane and alive, he is still the daughter's guardian and wali amr. Of course, if drug addiction impedes him from rational conduct, or he refuses to give consent on baseless grounds, then the case would be different.
And Allah knows best.
It is stated in the Hadeeths that husband and wife who enter Paradise will be completely transformed in Paradise and will be be the best for one another. All negative points will be removed away and every thing they wish in the other will be granted. The wife will be more beautiful in her husband's eyes than the Hoor, and the husband will be the best man in his wife's eyes.
It is good to pray to Allah (SWT) to grant you the best with out suggesting on Him. Allah knows the best and He grants the best to His sincere servants.
Rules of Gheebat are same but if the matter is related to your children or any one who is under your responsibility, you can discuss the matter to avoid them harm or risk.
Working in interest in not permissible in Islam, but banking jobs include trade, investments, import and export etc which are permissible. If your husband works only in interest and nothing else, then his work is fully unlawful and his income is unlawful, but if he works in interest and other lawful jobs, then his income include lawful money from which you can utilize.
Marriage bond between man and woman is established by 'Aqd of Nikah which is the Islamic contract of marriage. The time when both start living together as husband and wife is called in Urdu Rukhsati and in Arabic of today Zafaaf. Parents of the wife are not allowed to stop or delay letting her go to her husband.
A woman needs her husband's consent for going out of the house but she can acquire and ensure these rights that are mentioned in the question as a stipulation or a condition during the contract, so she can ask for the right of studies and working.
Even if she has not and the stubborn husband is not going to let her go out, she can still continue her studies online and even work online because it doesn't need going out.
Mahr is the right of the wife due on the husband for her whether they are living together or divorced. No doubt, Muslim man is responsible to give the full Mahr to his wife when ever she asks. This matter has nothing to do with divorce as it is a separate duty on the husband who believes in Allah (SWT). Not giving the Mahr to the wife is a major sin which leads to hellfire.
Every Makrouh is harmful but not Haraam. Allah knows the details of the harm which might be unknown to us.
We have Hadeeths from the Prophet (SAWA) stating that it is Makrouh. It is not only when trying to conceive a child but it is Makrouh in any sexual intercourse.
The man who has more than one wife must maintain practical justice between his wives. He must organize his time between them to be sure that each of them gets equal rights.
It is his responsibility to achieve that practical justice, not yours as a wife.
If the man is unable to maintain practical justice between more than one wife, he will be then not allowed to have more than one wife (But if you fear that you shall not deal justly with wives, then just one wife. ( Sura Al-Nisaa', verse 3)
Yes, she remains his wife which means that she can wash his body in Ghusl of Mayyit and if she dies, her husband is allowed to wash her body.
The general understanding of this verse is that things are generally created in pairs (for instance, positive and negative, matter and antimatter, light and dark, or male and female), and that one of the signs of Allah is that human beings marry and form a pair in order to become more whole than they would be individually.
However, it is not usually taken to mean that all human beings are specifically created with a soulmate or "pair" whom they marry in this world. Indeed, some people have more than one happy marriage in their lifetimes; others are miserable in their marriages!
Marriage can be destined and can be a matter of free choice; matters of destiny are not usually clear. Some people misuse the idea of destiny and marriage to cover up socially unjust practices (for instance, not allowing their children to marry someone of a certain race, culture, family, or profession) and then saying these restrictions are "destiny". At the same time, it does seem that sometimes some people are destined to be together or destined not to be together.
However if you are happy with your husband, I hope you will be able to be together in the Hereafter!
In principle, it is allowed for husband to hold his wife's hand in public if there is no bad effect from such act on others who see him and his wife, or on the respect of the man or his wife in the eyes of society.