A daughter is a female offspring- a girl or woman in relation to her parents. Daughterhood is the state of being someone's daughter. The male counterpart is a son.
Regarding whether he had a daughter named Fatima in Madina, there is some discussion here: https://www.al-islam.org/ask/what-information-is-available-on-the-life-o...
Historians do not agree on how many children Imam Husain had. However, this is a good summary of what various authors have said: https://en.wikishia.net/view/Imam_al-Husayn_b._%27Ali_(a)#Wives_and_Children
Hope that helps - history is a challenging subject!
Unmarried daughter should look after her old parents who need her with them. This is a religious and moral responsibility on every son and daughter towards their parents. If the parents are in need for their livelihood expenses, it becomes obligatory on the sons and daughters to financially support their parents and fulfill all their needs.
If the parents feel sad or hurt because of their daughter leaves living with them, it becomes her responsibility to live with them and avoid hurting their feelings.
Although the parents have divorced, and the children might not be living with the father, or maybe not even in contact with the father, but as long as the father is sane and alive, he is still the daughter's guardian and wali amr. Of course, if drug addiction impedes him from rational conduct, or he refuses to give consent on baseless grounds, then the case would be different.
And Allah knows best.
Yes telling them to observe the correct Islamic hijab is obligatory upon you and it it is part of enjoining the good and forbidding the evil.
Telling them this should be done in the correct manner and not in a way which is threatening or controlling.
Regarding telling them what to wear, if you mean by telling them not to wear the clothing which is not islamically approved then then is fine.
O you who believe! save yourselves and your families from a fire whose fuel is men and stones; over it are angels stern and strong, they do not disobey Allah in what He commands them, and do as they are commanded. - Quran 66:6
May Allah grant you success
We find in many narrations that Imam Hussain (a.s) had many daughters named Fatimah,
1. One is the eldest Fatima of the daughters of Imam Hussain (a.s). She was the daughter who was given an important document by her father Imam Hussain (a.s) was he was going for martyrdom on the day of Ashura. She gave what was given to her to Imam Ali ibn Hussain Zainul Abideen (a.s). This is mentioned in al-Kafi (volume 1, page 303).
2. Another daughter is Fatima bint al-Hussain, who was the wife of al-Hasan al-Muthanna, who is son of Imam Hasan (a.s) and her mother is Umm Isaaq. She was a very pious and very learned lady, who has also narrated many narrations in our books.
She was in Karbala, and was arrested by the enemies and the narration of her suffering is mentioned in Amaali al-Sadooq (page 227).
She gave a sermon which is mentioned in many books. It was narrated by al-Tabrisi in his book al-Ehtijaj (volume 2, page 27).
This Fatima bint Hussain narrated from Asmaa' bint Umais the narration of 'Radd ash Shams' - the return of the sun for Amir al-Mumineen (a.s), as it is mentioned in the book of Sheikh al-Sadooq, Man la Yahdaruhul Faqih (volume 4, page 439).
She was the Daughter of Imam Hussain (a.s) who had the incident in Shaam (Syria) when one of the people of Shaam asked Yazeed to give him
It is mentioned in Kitab al-Irshad by Sheikh al-Mufid (volume 2, page 121). In Basar al-Darajat by al-Saffar (page 205), it is mentioned that this lady (i.e, Fatima) had some important items from the Prophet Muhammad (saw), and also it is in the book al-Iqbal by ibn Tawoos (volume 3, page 86) that her father Imam Hussain (a.s) informed her about what will happen to some of her children.
3. Another daughter of Imam Hussain (a.s) is Fatima al-Aleela who was left in Madina al Munawara because she was not well.
Allama al-Majlisi in Bihar ul Anwar, al-Khawarizmi (Sunni scholar), ibn Asaaqir (Sunni scholar) and ibn al-Adeem (Sunni scholar) all narrated a narration to al-Mufaddal bin Omer al-Juffi from Imam al-Sadiq (a.s) who received it from his father Imam al-Baqir (a.s), who received it from his father Imam Ali ibn Hussain Zainul Abideen (a.s) that when Imam Hussain (a.s) was killed in Karbala, Ghurab (the black bird) came from Karbala to Madina with some of the blood of Imam Hussain (a.s) and went on the wall of the house where Fatima bint Hussain was. When she saw the bird with the blood, she started crying on her father.
This is mentioned in Bihar al Anwar (volume 45, page 172), in Tarikh Madina Dimishq by ibn Asaakir (volume 70, page 24), in al-Talab fi Tarikh Hallab by ibn al-Adeem (volume 6, page 2647) and in al-Hussain by al-Khawarizmi (chapter 12).
This is some of what we have now about Fatima al-Aleela (a.s).
It is not strongly established historically that Imam Husayn (A) had a daughter named Fatimah who stayed in Medina when he was travelling due to illness. For instance, al-Shaykh al-Mufid only mentions one Fatimah who was born to Imam Husayn (A) who was reported to have been in Karbala.
Of course, it is certainly possible that this happened especially because historians do not usually not mention everything about young children, and I don't personally feel there is any harm in discussing it in majalis despite the absence of sources from the angle that it could have happened, or it is said to have happened.
However, Bihar al-Anwar does include a report saying that Imam Husayn (A) had a daughter named Fatimah (and she was al-Sughra, the younger) who stayed in Medina. It does not say why she stayed. However it says that a crow came to her with the blood of Imam Husayn (A) (vol 45 / p 171).
Anyway, history is a complicated and murky subject. We should not be surprised that there is little information about some things; rather, we should be surprised that after so many years we have so much!
God knows best.
Yes it is allowed. She is like his cousin, so marriage is permissible between them.
As she is not a Mahram for him, marriage with her is permissible if all other conditions are fulfilled.
Yes, there are many narrations in books of Hadeeth mentioning the reward for parents who have daughters and bring them up properly, that they will be in the Paradise.
Narrated from Imam Jafar Al-Sadiq (AS) : Daughters are reward while sons are a bounty, and reward will be for those who have daughters, while bounties will be asked about. (Al-Kaafi 6:6).
The believer is happy with what ever Allah (SWT) grants him, because Allah (SWT) knows the best for us, now and every time. Allah (SWT) grants to a couple only daughters or only sons or both, and does not give some couples any children, all because of His Wisdom and Mercy on us. (Sura 42, Verses 49 and 50).
Accepting and being satisfied with the will of Allah (SWT) is very important for he believers.
It is recommended to name the newly born girl as Fatima for the first week of her life, then either to keep this name or choose another name from the names of the ladies of daughters of Ahlul Bayt (AS).
The name should be from Islamic source and should have good meaning.
1. If the deceased left only one son and one daughter, and no wife, the daughter will inherit one third and the son wll inherit two thirds.
2. If the deceased left two sons and three daughters, and no wife, the wealth left must be divided in to seven equal parts, one part ( 1/7) for every daughter and two parts (2/7) for every son.
Historical sources list 4 daughters for the Prophet (S). It is not clear whether all of them were his biological daughters, or only one (namely, Fatimah al-Zahra).
If he only had one biological daughter, the other 3 girls who are mentioned in some sources as his daughters would have been girls that he was raising (as adopted daughters), and it would be reasonable to refer to them all generally in this context as "daughters".
Using a plural also does not preclude daughters in the future, whether they be biological daughters (which didn't happen) or step-daughters (which would have been an open possibility given that he remarried after Hazrat Khadijah). However, if the verse had only said "daughter", and he only had one daughter, it would have been a specific instruction for a specific person and not a general instruction.
Also, the Qur'an occasionally uses a plural form to indicate generality, not multiplicity. For instance, the verse of mubahilah instructs the Prophet to take "our selves" and "our women" (in the plural) to the meeting for mubahilah, but he only brought one person as his "self" (Imam 'Ali) and one person as "his women" (Fatimah al-Zahra').
Lastly, a prophet can be considered a father of his people (as in "I and 'Ali are the fathers of this ummah"), and so referring, in general, to the girls of the community as his "daughters" would not be unreasonable, particularly since the verse also addresses the "believing women", although admittedly this is not the interpretation that first comes to mind.
Historical matters can be complicated. It can be difficult to know the exact details of what happened over a thousand years ago. One has to have faith that Allah has preserved what is necessary for us to know, and in this case the emphasis is on the spirit of the ayah rather than the specifics of lineage.