There is no evidence that the Prophet was bipolar or ever acted in a way that could be considered as suffering from a mental disability. He shouldered tremendous responsibilities - personally, religiously, and as leader of state - and it is truly amazing how he managed to balance all of those responsibilities while at the same time maintaining an intense personal schedule of worship.
However, given that receiving revelation is said to have been a heavy thing, I can understand why one might be tempted to draw a sort of mental parallel. In many cultures, there has been a thin line between spiritual vision and insanity - not the least because, to a very mundane person with no interest or belief in the spiritual realm, someone speaking on behalf of the divine is often considered insane!
It seems reasonable to treat these terms as mostly literal. Majnun, rather than meaning "mad", likely refers to the ancient practice in the Mediterranean and other regions whereby oracles, soothsayers, and so on, used to claim to transmit information from jinn or spirits. Thus, they are accusing the Prophet of being possessed and receiving the Qur'anic text from something other than God. However, God corrects them and says that this is not the case and that the revelation is actually from God. Some of the Sunni hadith texts refer to this view held by some disbelievers. Some may also have meant it in the sense of "that's crazy", but not necessarily as an expression that he was suffering from a psychiatric condition.
Similarly, some people who did not accept Islam accused the Prophet of bewitching people to follow him, and advised people not to listen to the Prophet speak so that they would not become bewitched. One of the companions even plugged his ears so he wouldn't hear the Prophet before eventually listening and becoming a Muslim!
According to the Qur'an, Allah sent divinely appointed guides to all peoples before the time of Islam.
It is related that there were 124,000 prophets, although I am not personally sure whether this is meant to be taken literally or simply to mean "many".
The Qur'an mentions about 25 prophets, including Adam, Noah, Abraham, Joseph, Shu'ayb, Lot, Solomon, Moses, Jesus, and so on. Chronology for some can be deduced when lineage is listed (e.g. Issac and Ismael are the sons of Abraham) but challenging if not much is known about a specific prophet.
The names of some other prophets are mentioned in hadith. However, the names of most of the prophets have not been mentioned in the Qur'an or hadith. Perhaps, it wouldn't have been meaningful to the people at the time of the revelation to mention prophets in faraway regions.
There is an interesting and rather lengthy book called _God's Emissaries: From Adam to Jesus_ by Shaykh Rizwan Arastu which discusses the stories of the prophets before Islam based on the Qur'an and hadith. Perhaps it might be helpful!
The meanings of Quranic verses must be taken from the Prophet himself as Allah (SWT) said in Quran وأنزلنا إليك الذكر لتبين للناس ما نزل إليهم
( We revealed on you the Thikr ( full knowledge of Quran) So that you explain to the people what was revealed for them). Al-Nahl, 44)
Verses which seem to suggest that any Prophet was fallible, are been misunderstood. Verses regarding Prophet Adam (AS) are been explained by the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) and his Holy Progeny confirming that Adam did not commit any sin whatsoever.
Ahlul Bayt (AS) had many debates in this subject including a very well known debate between Imam Al-Redha (AS) and Al-Ma’moon al-Abbasi, the ruler of that time, in which al-Ma’moon put to the Imam ( AS) the Quranic verses which were according his understanding, showing fallibility of some prophets, and Imam Al-Redha (AS) explained the real meaning which confirms infallibility of all the Prophets.
You may see Tanzeeh al- Anbiyaa’ by al-Shaikh al- Mofeed. تنزيه الأنبياء للشيخ النفيد.
The claim of fallibility of any Prophet goes against Quran where Allah orders people to absolutely obey the prophets. Allah will never order people to obey a sinner.
As a result of political reasons which made many Muslims who blindly follow governments of Saqeefa, away from the teachings of Ahlul Bayt ( AS) which are the real real teachings of the Prophet Muhammad ( SAWA), Muslim sects who went away from Ahlul Bayt, deprived themselves from the most authentic Islamic knowledge and took instead from outsiders. Thousands of Israelites have come into Muslims books, such as the claim that the prophets are fallible. Jewish literature attacks many prophets and even accuses them of committing major sins like adultery and drinking wine. These false ideas have penetrated into Muslims who were away from Ahlul Bayt (AS) and made many of them take such Israelites as part of their religious knowledge.
Many Sunni Shaikhs say that the Prophets are infallible in Tableegh only but fallible in their usual acts. This claim goes against what Allah (SWT) has said in Quran when He ordered all human beings to absolutely obey the Prophets.( We did not send any messenger but to be obeyed by order of Allah)(Al-Nisaa’, Verse 64). How such absolute obedience can be possible if any Prophet is fallible? Does Allah order us to obey a sinner even for a moment? That is impossible.
Some Quranic verses have been misunderstood or deviated from the real meaning which was explained by the Prophet (SAWA) and taken in accordance with non Muslim text supporting the false claim against the prophets.
Ahlul Bayt (AS) narrated the prophetic earnings of Quran which states that all the prophets are infallible.
Yes, it is allowed to call any of the prophets as Sayyeduna, as all the prophets are infallible and they were been sent to guide people to Allah (SWT).
Thank you for your question. This is not a jurisprudential issue such that it would be permitted or not, but such feelings may occur in an individual based on what they have understood of different prophets (as). The truth is that all of the prophets (as) are a reflection of the Prophet (saw) who was the most complete of them and so loving any of the prophets (as) is in truth loving the Prophet (saw) himself. The dichotomy arises in our minds due to the incomplete picture that history gives us. But if one is able to understand that there is no separation between the prophets (as) and that the Prophet Muhammad (saw) comprised all of what the other prophets had, while they did not comprise all of what he had, then they will come to the understanding that the Prophet (saw) is the most loved creature in all of existence.
May you always be successful.
The Barzakh of the prophets and Infallible Imams and their sincere followers is part of Paradise, while the Barzakh of their enemies is part of hellfire. The Hadeeth states: The grave of the believer is a garden from the gardens of the Paradise, and the grave of the non believer is a dig from the digs of Hellfire.
Prophets were selected by Allah The Glorious, according to His Absolute Knowledge about every thing including the future of every creature. He knows who will be among all humans the most humble and who will not commit sins and who will be suitable to guide people. All Prophets were ordinary persons but Allah selected them because of the top piousness from all people to guide people. (Aal Imran: 33).
When we say Prophet, if we mean that high level of humanity it was and it is possible even for women to be Prophet, to receive message from Allah at least for herself.
But Prophet as a person who receives message from Allah and send it to people :
1. It is not easy to prove that all Messengers were men, as we do not know all of them.
2. (if we accept that all of them were men) It was a hard job that according to situations of that time it was not proper for women.
3. According to understanding of some scholars from Quran, saint Mary was a Prophet! So even women could be Messengers.
The burden of prophet hood is very heavy and Allah (SWT) who can carry it . Only 124000 prophets were among billions of human beings which means that most of people can not carry such heavy burden.
Women can never carry the responsibility of prophet hood not only because that it is very heavy, and because of the physiology of menstruation and pregnancy, but also because of the fact that prophets are sent to men and women, yet men opposed and denied , and woman can not deal with men especially when there is a challenge against those who deny the message and try to eliminate the prophet or his message. We read in Quran about prophets who were killed ( Is it that whenever a messenger came to you with what yourselves do not desire, you grew arrogant, some of them you denied and some you killed ) (Al-Baqarah ; 87).
Most pious ladies in human history (Lady Fatimah, Khadija, Zainab, Maryam and Asiya ) who suffered a lot in the way of Allah, were never prophets simply because arrogant men will not accept a message from Allah through them.
Bay’ah is promising to follow and obey. It did happen during the time of pervious prophets like when Easa Jesus (AS) asked people from Bani Israel : Who are my supporters? His disciples replied: We are the supporters of Allah (3:52). That was just an example of Bay’ah.
Levels of Jannah (Paradise) are too many according to the good deeds and the sincerity in achieving them. Every good deed has a degree n Paradise according to the level of sincerity of the person in doing it.
We have Hadeeth (The levels of Jannah are like the number of the verses of Quran, that is why, the Momin who recited Quran wil be told in the Paradise, Go up in the degrees of Jannah as much as you recited from Quranic verses.