History (from Greek ἱστορία, historia, meaning 'inquiry; knowledge acquired by investigation') is the study of the past as it is described in written documents. Events occurring before written record are considered prehistory. It is an umbrella term that relates to past events as well as the memory, discovery, collection, organization, presentation, and interpretation of information about these events.
This claim is baseless. Those who claim this false story say that Safawi ruler forced Sunni to follow Shia faith. Millions of Iranians are still Sunnis and no one forced any one to accept Shia faith. Safawis ruled over many countries including Iran, Afghanistan and parts of Indian subcontinent but history never recorded any force on any one in the matter of faith. Till today Sunnis of those areas are still Sunnis. This fact itself is a living evidence against that false claim.
Writing Hadeeth was officially banned during the governments of Abu Bakr and Umar and Uthman and Bani Omayyah till the time of Umar ibn Abdul Zeez which was on years 99 till 102 after Hijra when he allowed writing Hadeeths and ordered one of Shaikhs working for the Umayyad government ( Ibn Shihab al-Zohri) to write Hadeeths which are accepted by the government that time.
Mussannaf Abdul Razzaq, Mawatta' Malik, al-Imamah wal-Siyasah are among the early books.
Allah (SWT) Created the Ka'ba in Macca and made it the first Home of worship for all mankind. (Verily, the first home made for mankind is that which is in Makkah, full of blessings anf guidance to all the worlds) Sura 3, verse 96.
Ka'bah is the central point on this earth confirmed by many modern scientists. Quran says that the whole world is surrounding Macca (Sura Al-An'aam, verse 92 and Sura Sura 42, verse 7).
Greatest prophets were sent in the Middle East because it was the most populated area at their times. Most Islamic events were in Middle East because of the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) and his Holy Progeny lived in that part of the world near the Ka'bah.
Nevertheless, prophets were sent to all human beings where ever they lived as we read in Quran: Verily, We have sent you with the truth, bearing glad tidings and a Warner, and there never was a nation but a Warner has been sent to them. (Sura 36, verse 24).
One hundred and twenty four thousand prophets were sent all over the world to guide human beings living in every part of the world. That is from the Justice and Mercy of Allah on all mankind.
In our Shi'i belief, there is only one female who has 'ismah (infallibility), and that is Seyyidah Fatimah al-Zahraa (a.s.).
There are different dimensions to your question and answer, and I have covered it in a presentation which in shaa Allah could assist in answering your question:
The Qur'an teaches us to look at the civilizations that came before us, consider their rise and fall, and take lessons from that so we make the best decisions in our own lives and societies. We should also look at previous civilizations to be humble: we should not assume that just because our society is at an apex, it must last forever. If our society is prosperous, we should thank Allah for that and not assume it is all under our control, since those people who started to attribute blessings to themselves instead of Allah soon fell.
The Qur'an and hadith give a sense that there are some metaphysical laws underpinning civilizations. Positive spiritual and ethical practices of societies lead them to flourish, whereas negative spiritual and ethical practices lead them to decay or destruction. This is part and parcel of natural law and is often connected to natural causes but is also part of divine justice.
Some Muslims see the process of history as a gradual unfolding and en route to an ultimate victory of tawhid - that is, a meaningful process of history - although others may not agree with that.
The main criticisms in the Qur'an of pre-Islamic societies are of idolatry, superstition, tribalism, and depotism. In some cases, flagrant violations led Allah to rain down destruction on some places, as in the Old Testament. In other cases, they just led to the decline of the civilization.
Pre-Islamic Abrahamic monotheists are also sometimes criticized for deviation, self-glorification, and so forth.
Individual people in ancient societies are presented in accordance with their acts. For instance, the husband of Zulaykha in Egypt is presented as neutral, whereas Firawn is presented as evil. The Queen of Sheba is overall presented as a good ruler but as starting out with an incorrect theology due to worshipping the sun. There are also some specific criticisms of specific places/times such as the people of Lut.
Mesopotamia was a large region with many peoples and dynasties, so one cannot give a single view for the whole civilizational phenomenon. Similarly, ancient Egypt had a long reign of dominance and so one cannot make sweeping views about everything. This is apart from the obvious fact that both Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt contributed to the the development of later civilizations and so we retain some of their legacies, such as some ideas or technologies.
Babylon gets a bit of a bad rap in the Qur'an due to the Harut and Marut situation, and also the story of Ibrahim (A). Ancient Egypt is also associated with magic. But neither place is discussed extensively. This is different from the Biblical tradition, in which Babylon is personified and condemned.
On the other hand, Shi'i hadith speak of the sanctity of Karbala from ancient times, and Karbala is in Mesopotamia. There are also Shi'i hadith speaking of Adam being created from the clay of the Euphrates. So there is a sense of a portrayal of this region as part of the cradle of civilization.
Muslims have had various views about the ancient heritages. Some Muslims found benefit in reading ancient philosophical texts like those from Greece or in wisdom from things such as the Code of Hammurabi or traditional Chinese medicine. Other Muslims opposed ancient things because they belong to pre-Islamic times and civilizations.
Insofar as the hadith says to seek knowledge even from China, and China obviously was not a Muslim-majority or Abrahamic civilization, one can assume that Islam does not have an objection to seeking beneficial knowledge from ancient civilizations.
Today, some Muslims are very focused making a full break from the ancient past and fear anything from the ancient times as bid'ah or shirk. So they reject anything ancient, on the grounds that it is pre-Islamic, although ancient things - like modern things - can sometimes have wisdom and sometimes have error. Other Muslims have an interest in studying the past, such as literature or archeology, or preserve some ancient holidays and customs.
Conversely, some modern secular nation-states in the Middle East where the government felt threatened by Islam or Islamic movements have tried to build a national identity based on the pre-Islamic heritage or promote a sense of national arrogance based on a pre-Islamic heritage. It is nice to respect and appreciate and know about the good things from the past. However, it is wrong to deploy pre-Islamic identity as a tool to whip up nationalism, strengthen dictators, suppress Islam, and inflame wars with other nation-states. So this is an example of wrong usage of pre-Islamic heritages in the modern era. They do not relate to the ancient civilizations but rather wrong things that occur in our own time.
So there isn't a unilateral view on these civilizations or the ancient world in general, but these are some aspects of how history has been understood in an Islamic context.
There are many authentic sources about Karbala tragedy which can be found in the authentic narrations from Ahlul Bayt (AS) in our books of Hadeeth like Al-Kaafi, Al-Tahtheeb, Al-Estibsaar, al-Faqeeh, Jaami' al-Ziyaraat,etc.
Compiling or writing books was not common during that period. No books were compiled during the time of previous prophets as well simply because people at that time did not have the practice of writing books. Nevertheless, the most important facts are documented and mentioned in Quran and in the authentic Hadeeths from the Prophet (SAWA) and Ahlul Bayt (AS). Aftermath the passing away of the Prophet, there were few books like Kitab Sulaym ibn Qays, which has many historic facts about that period.
The Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) divorced Hafsah Bint Omar as it is narrated in Sunni books like Sunan Abu Dawood 2283 and Ibn Maajah 2016, and An Nasaa'ee 3560, and Al-Mustadrak by Al-Nisaboori , volume 2, page 197 and Al-Albaani in al-Silsilah al-Saheeha, V. 5,npage 15.
'They narrated that the Prophet (SAWA) took her back after divorcing her.
It is also narrated that the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) divorced Daughter of Al-Jawn who told him: I seek refuge of Allah from you. He also divorced daughter of al-Dhahhaak and Omaymah Bint Sharhabeel. All these three were divorced before the consummating of the marriage.
It is also narrated that Prophet Lut divorced his wife who insisted on disobeying Allah, and Prophet Esmael also divorced his wife who was complaining poverty when his father Prophet Ebraheem asked her. The narrations say that Prophet Ebraheem sent a message to his son Esmael to divorce his complaining wife and look for a wife who can tolerate his difficult life.
There are many similarities between Prophet Haroon (AS) and Ali ibn Abi Talib (AS).
1. Prophet Haroon (AS) was the brother of Prophet Musa (AS) while Ali (AS) was the cousin brother and spiritual brother of Prophet Muhammad ( (SAWA) who said to Ali : O Ali, You are my brother in this life (Dunham) and hereafter (Aakhirah). (Al-Mustadrak 'Ala al-Saheehain by al-Haakim al-Nisabori, Hadeeth number 4345).
2. Prophet Haroon (AS) was the partner of Prophet Musa (AS) وأشركه في أمري)( Make him my partner in my responsibilities) in conveying the message of Allah to people and facing the hardships from the enemies, while Ali (AS) was the partner of the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) in his responsibilities in conveying the message and protecting it.
3. Prophet Haroon (AS) was the main helper of Prophet Musa ( AS) وزيرا, while Ali (AS) was the main helper of the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA).
4. Prophet Haroon was the leader of the followers of Musa when used to leave them, اخلفني في قومي ( Be my deputy in my followers) while Ali (AS) was the deputy of the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) who declared : من كنت مولاه فعلي مولاه For whom so ever I am the leader, Ali is his leader (al-Tareekh al-Kabeer by al-Bukhari, V. 1, P. 375 and V. 4, P. 193) also ( Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, Musnad al-Asharah al-Mubashshareen, Hadeeth numbers 606 and 633 and 906 and 915 and 918 and 1242.
5. Prophet Haroon (AS) suffered from deviation of many of the community of Prophet Musa (AS) when he left them, while Imam Ali (AS) suffered the same and more from those Muslims who deviated from the teachings of the Prophet (SAWA) immediately after him.
6. Prophet Haroon had three sons; Shubbar, Shabbir and Mushabbar while Ali ( AS) had from Lady Fatimah (AS) three sons; Hasan, Husain and Mohsin. These names is similar in Arabic to the names of the sons of Prophet Haroon.
7. Prophet Haroon was tortured by some of the community of Prophet Musa (AS) وكادوا يقتلونني while Imam Ali (AS) was tortured and was near to be killed by the Saqeefa gang to force him to give allegiance to them. He was ultimately killed by Ibn Muljam.
In the name of Allah
During the 9 years of The Holy Prophet's life after Hijrah - depending on the definition of battle - between 80 to 100 counts of Battle between Muslims and non-muslims are recorded in history.
The Holy Prophet -Peace be upon him and his Ahlul Bayt- was personally present and leading the Army in 27 of these Battles that are called Ghazwah (غزوة). The rest were lead by his appointed generals.
It's worth mentioning that most of these battles were resolved without any/major conflict like the Conquest of Mecca.
Here you can read more details about some of these battles:
Possibly, some of the hadith saying that many important things in ancient sacred history happened on this day were fabricated in the time of the Umayyads to take attention away from the martyrdom of Imam Husain (A).
Of course, God knows best, and if miraculous or amazing things happened in the past on this day, it is something that He would know the reasons for.
1. Imam Ali (AS) did not marry any woman when his wife Lady Fatima Al-Zahra (AS) was alive.
2. After the martyrdom of Fatima Al-Zahra (AS), and according her will, Imam Ali (AS) got married with Umamah Bint Abi Al-Aas, who was daughter of Zainab, one of the three fostered daughters of the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA).
Umamah remained with Imam Ali (AS) till his martyrdom.
3. Asmaa’ Bint Omais who was widow of Jafar Ibn Abi Talib, then was married under duress to Abu Bakr ibn Abi Quhafah of the Saqeefa. She had from Abu Bakr a son called Muhammad Ibn Abi Bakr, who was brought up by Imam Ali (AS) and became one of the best of his followers.
4. Ummul Banin Bint Hizaam al-Kalbiyyah, mother of the great Saheed Abul Fadhl Al-Abbas and his three brothers who were martyred in Karbala.
5. Layla Bint Masood.
6. Um Sa’eed Bint Orwa al-Thaqafi.
7. Khawlah Bint Jafar ibn Qays.
8. Al-Sahbaa’ Bint Rabee’ah.
9. Mihyaat Bint Emri’ Al-Qays.